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World history of education around 1200-1490 with a focus on its relationship with religion

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Bae, Jeong Hwan Term Paper, AP World History Class, November 2010

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1 Definition of Education and Religion as Used in this Paper
II.2 Definition of other Terms Used in this Paper
II.3 The General Purposes of Education : Enculturation and Socialization
II.4 The Relationship between Education and Religion in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization
III. Method of Study
III.1 Place and Time Setting
III.2 General Outline of Approach : Benefit and Limitation
III.3 The Object of Study and its Limit
IV. Education in Islam : Western Asia and Northern Africa
IV.1 Brief Overview of the Religion: Islam around 1200-1490
IV.2 Historical background of Islamic Education : Widespread Mosque Education and the Evolution of the Islamic University
IV.3 Educational Institutions in Islamic Society.
IV.3.1 The Maktub
IV.3.2 The Madrasah and its Golden Age from the 11th to the 14th Century
IV.4 The relationship between Islam and Education.
IV.5 Analysis of the Impact of Islam on Education in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization
V. Education in Christianity : Eastern and Western Europe
V.1 Brief Overview of the Religion : Christianity around 1200-1490
V.2 General Approach Taken in Eastern and Western Europe
V.3 Education in Western Europe : Roman Catholic Church
V.3.1 Background : Education in European society before 1200 : Education and Life in Cathedral Schools and Monastic Schools
V.3.2 Education in European Society in 1200-1300 : High Middle Ages
V.3.2.1 Establishment of the Medieval University and its Evolution
V.3.2.2 Appearance of Scholasticism and its Educational Methods
V.3.3 Education in European Society in 1300-1490: Late Middle Ages.
V.3.3.1 Emerging Renaissance with Gradual Social, Political, Cultural Change.
V.3.3.2 Evolution of Renaissance in Italy and its Impact on Education in Regional Sense
V.3.4 Analysis of the Impact of Christianity on Education in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization
V.4 Education in Eastern Europe : Eastern Greek Orthodox church
V.4.1 Background : The relationship between the Greek Orthodox Church and the Emperor
V.4.2 Establishment of Constantinople University in the Byzantine Empire
V.4.3 Private Education in the Byzantine Empire
VI. Education in East Asia
VI.1 Brief Overview of Confucianism and Buddhism around 1200-1490.
VI.1.1 The Education of Song Dynasty Based on Confucianism (1200-1279)
VI.1.1.1 Evolution of Neo-Confucianism and its Education
VI.1.1.2 Popularization of the Chinese Traditional Academy: ShuYuan
VI.1.1.3 Chinese State examination
VI.1.2 The Education of Yuan dynasty and its Openness to Sanjio (1279-1368)
VI.1.3 The Education of Ming Dynasty Based on Confucianism (1368-1490)
VI.2 Education in Korea
VI.2.1 Background its Political System and Education in Parallel with the Dynasty of China
VI.2.2 The Education of Goryeo (1200-1392)
VI.2.3 The Education of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1490)
VI.3 Education in Japan : Confucianism and Buddhism with Japanese own Culture as an Important Educational System in Japan in Medieval Era.
VI.4 Analysis of the Impact of Confucianism and Buddhism on the Education of Eastern Asia in Terms of Socialization and Enculturation
VII. Analysis : Impact of Religion on the Education of the Selected Regions.
VIII. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            Throughout the history of mankind, education has been acknowledged to be indispensible in both the maintenance of society and personal development of individual, thus repeatedly practiced from one generation to next generation. Education, commonly known as the process of passing down a set of accumulated knowledge, tradition, norms, and social values to a next generation, plays a formative role in constructing the self-identity of an individual in a way that conforms to ongoing social order. In these formative processes, selected versions of predominant norms and social values were often emphasized and reflected in education by society. One can thereof anticipate that observing and analyzing the education can provide a comprehensive understanding on predominant norms, social values of particular society. In individualistic level, such an analysis provides a better understanding on the way how each individual conforms to predominant social norms and values through education. This paper relates education to religion. Ultimately, therefore, this paper aims to seek how the education around 1200 to 1490 in each region is done in relationship with its own religion.

II. Definition

II.1 Definition of Education and Religion as Used in this Paper
            In this paper, definition of education will be provided as any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. (1) In this paper, the definition of religion does not only refer to belief of worship of god or gods, but also includes faith or belief system with organized behavior including congregation of prayers, priestly hierarchies, holy places, and scriptures. (2) Thus, by this definition, Confucianism and Buddhism will be subjected to the analysis of this paper. Merging these definitions, the education in relationship with religion will not merely refer to religious education but covers any formative act or experience socially provided which is related to religion in somehow.

II.2 Definition of other Terms Used in this Paper
            In this paper, the other two terminologies will be significantly considered: enculturation and socialization. Though the two concepts are mixed and used without differentiation, this paper tries to distinguish those concepts in the first place. Enculturation refers to the process by which a person learns the requirements of the society by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that society. (3) While socialization refers to the process of acquiring behaviors or values appropriate to adjust a set of cultures within a society, the term enculturation refers to the process of acquiring particular cultures in a society. In this sense, socialization is generally a larger concept and includes enculturation. Though, there can be many incorporate cultures within a single society, this paper focuses and analyzes 'religious enculturation'. Religious enculturation will refer to acquiring any set of knowledge or codes of behavior related to one particular culture: religion. Thus, in turn, religion will be considered as one of the major cultures which gives arise to one particular enculturation in a society.

II.3 The General Purpose of Education : Enculturation and Socialization
            Education inevitably encompasses a process of socialization. Education helps individual learn required social norms, values, and a code of behavior to adjust in a society. By this reason, socialization isn't just enculturation.
            In a multicultural society like the current global world, the lucid distinction between enculturation and socialization is rather easily observed. Since various cultures are intertwined in creating necessary norms, values, and a code of behavior, acquiring only a particular culture can be insufficient in achieving socialization of an individual. Even if an individual acquires a particular culture, it does not signify that person acquires all the necessary norms and values to adjust the society. If one culture is dominant and prevailed, and thereby powerful enough to accomplish the cultures value, norms to be the general standard of society, the socialization may have high correspondence with the enculturation.

(Figure 1: Multicultural society. only acquiring the culture of A can be minor in forming the complete socialization in multicultural society)

(Figure 2: society with dominant culture A)

II.4 The Relationship between Education and Religion in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization
            Depending on whether education is consciously achieved or not, this paper analyzes education into two levels: formal and informal education. Formal education includes conscious acquisition of a set of knowledge while informal education refers to the sub-conscious acquisition of a code of behavior, norms, and values of society in daily life. For instance, a learning and teaching of Bible or Koran will be considered as formal education while monastic life practicing religious creed in Christianity or Islamic codes of behavior following Koran in daily life will be considered as informal educations. By the level of enculturation through informal and formal education related to religion, this paper judges whether the religion of certain region has ruled as a dominant culture, thereby mainly contributes achieving socialization of an individual. In turn, if socialization and enculturation of certain region has high correspondence with each other, the place can be judged as the region which is highly affected by religion, following figure 2.

III. Method of Study

III.1 Place and Time Setting
            Basically, this paper contains current Western Europe, Eastern Europe, West Asia, North Africa, and East Asia. As for achieving the purpose of this paper, the place will not be sub-divided solely by its geographical location. Instead, having concern on geographical location, religion will also be importantly regarded in categorizing areas into those five. Firstly, Western Europe will be region under Roman Catholic Church while the Eastern Europe will be region under Eastern Greek Orthodoxy. For the purpose of paper, Northern Africa and Western Asia will be merged into one area under the influence of Islam. Eastern Asia will include current China, Korea, and Japan which shares the religion of Buddhism and Confucianism. In this paper, the division of era differs by each region for the convenience of analysis, but all five regions is same in that they ultimately cover 1200-1490
            In this categorization, there can be a few exceptions such as the Ilkhanate, around 1300 AD, which wasnt under the influence of Islamic religion although it was in the area of Western Asia. However, it wont be covered in this analysis since the paper's focus is set on the education related to four major religions proliferated in four regions suggested above. Thus, in this case, this paper only takes account of Islamic empires in this area, including Abbasids, Seljuk Empire, and Ottoman sultanate in Islamic region. This principal applies to other region as well.

III.2 General Outline of Approach : Benefit and Limitation
            Under the place and time setting, general outline of approach will be mainly focused on analyzing educational institution in each region. This approach is certainly needed considering relatively concentrated amounts of sources regarding educational institution when explaining educational system. The formal and informal education within educational institution will be all together subjected to analysis of this paper. Thus, the limit of this paper will be the absence of analysis outside of educational institution for the benefit of making a focus. Moreover, due to the lack of sources depending on religion, some area under certain religion wont inevitably have sub-division of time-line around 1200-1490. Rather, they will be explained through their major educational institution and major features of education around that time. Those include education in Eastern Europe and Islam.

III.3 The Object of Study and its Limit.
            The object of this study will be consequently followed as two; one is to analyze the way individual in each region conforms to social norms and values related to religion in education. Second is to analyze the intensity of dominance of religion in each region by taking account of enculturation through religion and its impact on socialization. In ultimate, in the end, the paper compare and contrast the features of each regions education related to religion. However, direct comparison between regions wont be possible in this paper due to the limited sources bases, but this paper aims at comparing different aspects of education in each region. The approach will be differed by region due to the sources bases. However, the major withstanding standard is set in this paper which is analyzing focusing on educational institutions of each region. By doing so, this paper mainly tries to analyze the formal and informal education within educational institution.

IV. Education in Western Asia and Northern Africa

IV.1 Brief Overview of the Religion : Islam around 1200-1490
            Islam is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad, the last Prophet of Islam. (4) Islam's most sacred book is Koran and several religious customs and norms are instructed by this book from prayers to pilgrimage.
            Around this era, Islamic culture wasn't just of religion itself, but the combination of diverse cultures, including restoration of ancient Greek, Rome and Persian philosophies and classics. Not only presenting its openness in academic area, but Islam was also comparatively tolerant to other religion's beliefs. When Constantinople surrendered to the Ottoman Empire, in principle, the Ottoman Empire takes the general position toward religious faith toward Christians and Jews according to the Sharia law.

IV.2 Historical Background of Islamic Education : Widespread Mosque Education and the Evolution of the Islamic University
            The mosque has hugely contributed in the spread of education in Islam. The association of the mosque with education remains one of its main characteristics throughout history. From the start, the mosque was the centre of the Islamic community, a place for prayer, meditation, religious instruction, political discussion, and a school. And anywhere Islam took hold, mosques were established, and basic instruction began. Once established, such mosques could develop into well known places of learning, often with hundreds, sometimes with thousands of students, and frequently contained important libraries.
            The first school connected with a mosque, was set up at Medina in 653, whilst the first one in Damascus dates from 744, and by 900 nearly every mosque had an elementary school for the education of both boys and girls. Children usually started school at five, one of the first lessons in writing was to learn how to write the ninety-nine most beautiful names of God and simple verses from the Quran. After the rudiments of reading and writing were mastered, the Quran was then studied thoroughly and arithmetic was added. For those who wanted to study further, the larger mosques, where education was more advanced, offered instruction in Arabic grammar and poetry, logic, algebra, biology, history, law, and theology. Although advanced teaching often took place in madrassas, hospitals, observatories, and the homes of scholars, in Spain, teaching took place mostly in the mosques, starting with the Cordoba mosque in the 8th century.
            The original Islamic educational institution, which takes the form of higher education, dates back to 6th and 7th centuries AD, the Academy of Gundishapur, originally the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire, which offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. Originally, the Academy of Gundishapur held the different religion which was Zoroastrian. As the Sassanid dynasty fell to Muslim Arab armies in 638 AD, the center of education was transferred from Gundisphapur to House of Wisdom, which was established in 832 AD. Although the academy of Gundishapur held the different religion and was in decline around that time, the methods of Gundishapur were emulated in the House of Wisdom. The place was staffed with graduates of the older Academy of Gondeshapur and the teachings of Gondeshapur, which include the subject of medicine, were practiced in the place. However, by that time the intellectual center of the Abbasid Caliphate had definitively shifted to Baghdad, as henceforth there are few references in contemporary literature to universities or hospitals at Gondeshapur.
            The cities of Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, and Cordoba became renowned centers of Islamic culture and education. Baghdad, in particular, was a prominent educational center, where Arab, Greek, Persian, and Jewish scholars exchanged ideas and develop the field of philosophy. After under the command of Muslim, the House of Wisdom in Bagdad during 9th century to 13th century offers abundant and diversified intellectual stimulus covering agriculture, astrology, philosophy and Medical education. This academic development in Islamic society was largely influenced by texts of ancient civilizations including Greek, Indian and Persian text. Islamic scholars translated the texts of leading ancient Greek authors such as Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes and Hippocrates into Arabic. The translated works became important in Islamic education and, through contacts between Arabs and Europeans were reintroduced into Western culture.
            However, emphasis on the most revered book Koran wasn't reduced by this fact. Instead, those all academic purposes was based on the teaching of Koran which emphasizes the importance of learning and gives the great stimulus of learners in Islamic society. (5)

IV.3 Educational Institutions in Islamic Society

IV.3.1 The Maktab
            Maktab is an Arabic world which refers to the elementary school of Islam. Education in Maktab primarily consisted of reading, writing, grammar and Islamic subjects (such as Qur'an recitations), other practical and theoretical subjects. As a rule, the Maktab was attached to the local mosque and was often located in the teacher's house where he and his wife looked after boys and girls separately. The basic methods of teaching and education in the Maktab are methodically and thoroughly described in one of the works of Abu Ali Ibu Sina (Avicenna, C 980~1037), in a chapter entitled 'The role of the Teacher in the training and upbringing of children,' and the 'The Alchemy of happiness.'
            The step of learning in Maktub is generally divided into two levels: Primary education from the age 6 to 14 and secondary education for the child above 14. In primary education, the general aim was to set in acquainting pupils with the religious codes of Islam and rituals of Islam. The rewarding system to pupil for making pray helped child learn the religious ceremony from the very young age. Secondary education of Islam was to learn a certain fields of study which a student is interested in, and thus can contribute to the Muslim society by developing his own ability. (6)

IV.3.2 The Madrasah and its Golden Age from the 11th to the 14th Century
            The term "madrasah" was originally used to refer more specifically to a medieval Islamic college, mainly teaching Islamic law and theology, usually affiliated with a mosque. The formation of madrasah can be traced to the early Islamic custom of meeting in mosques to discuss religious issues. At this early stage, people seeking religious knowledge tended to gather around certain more knowledgeable Muslims. Between the 11th and 14th centuries, much call is era to be "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy. At the beginning of the Caliphate or Islamic Empire, the reliance on courts initially confined sponsorship and scholarly activities to major centers. Within several centuries, the development of Muslim educational institutions such as the madrasah and masjid eventually introduced such activities to provincial towns and dispersed them across the Islamic legal schools and Sufi orders.
            During the golden age of the Islamic empire, when Western Europe was intellectually backward and stagnant, Islamic scholarship flourished with an impressive openness to the rational sciences, art, and even literature. It was during this period that the Islamic world made most of its contributions to the scientific and artistic world. Ironically, Islamic scholars preserved much of the knowledge of the Greeks that had been prohibited by the Christian world. Other outstanding contributions were made in areas of chemistry, botany, physics, mineralogy, mathematics, and astronomy, as many Muslim thinkers regarded scientific truths as tools for accessing religious truth (7)

IV.4 The Relationship of Islam with Education.
            Islam has placed a high emphasis on education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. Primarily, Knowledge occupies significant position within Islamic society, as evidenced by more than 800 references and most importantly by the most revered book in Islam: Koran. Koran has frequent injunctions, such as "God will exalt those of you who believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees" (58:11), "O my Lord ! Increase me in knowledge" (20:114), and "As God has taught him, so let him write" (2:282). Such verses provide a forceful stimulus for the Islamic community to strive for education and learning.
            Islamic education is uniquely different from other types of educational theory and practice largely because of the all-encompassing influence of the Koran. The Koran serves as a comprehensive blueprint for both the individual and society and as the primary source of knowledge. The advent of the Koran in the seventh century was quite revolutionary for the predominantly illiterate Arabian society. Arab society had enjoyed a rich oral tradition, but the Koran was considered the word of God and needed to be organically interacted with by means of reading and reciting its words. Hence, reading and writing for the purpose of accessing the full blessings of the Koran was an aspiration for most Muslims. Thus, education in Islam unequivocally derived its origins from a symbiotic relationship with religious instruction. (8)
            Meanwhile, the rounded castle keeps that features in the film seems to be anachronistic. The round keeps are developed at the end of the 12th century, while the historical background of the film is the late 11th century. Instead, square keeps were majorly used during the period. (33)

IV.5 Analysis of the Impact of Islam on Education in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization
            The most distinctive feature in Northern Africa and Western Asia is that education related to religion does not hinder the advancement of study, but rather partly contribute to stimulate the active engagement in various academic areas, increases literacy, the development of natural sciences. Islamic education presents the polycentric feature mostly consisting of the mosque education and Islamic university in its center.
            The education in Islam was practiced, placing Koran at the center of its educational purpose. The religious codes of behaviors, values, and norms were often transmitted to the pupils at the very young age through Maktub. Through higher educational institution called Madrasah, the education in Islam also features the high quality of academic success in the fields of practical sciences such as medical science, physics, botany and chemistry. Though t he learning and teaching of practical sciences establish its own academic area, the purpose of developing practical sciences ascribes to the teaching of Koran: love of wisdom. Koran also affected the class which was subjected to the teaching. The educational philosophers in Islam argued that the proper curriculum for man and woman should be differed. Their basis of argument lay on the words of Islam.
            The enculturation of Islam in education from very young age was certainly notable. In both formal and informal ways, children naturally accepted the religious view of Islam and codes of behavior in daily life. Their first academic learning started from memorizing the guidance of Koran which once greatly contributed to reduce the illiteracy around the region. Islam was placed at the center of all educational purpose. Thus, it reflects that it takes the place of predominant culture in society. In turn, the members under Islam had to go through this enculturation to complete socialization. Thus, in this region, religious enculturation and socialization can be interpreted to feature a high correspondence with each other. Following the logic, enculturation of Islam was significant and inevitable in nurturing children
            Although Islam prevailed throughout the region, the development of natural sciences or accepting ancient philosophies of Greek and Persian wasn't hindered. The educational purpose of nurturing faithful member of Islamic society was done through formal and informal enculturation focusing on Koran, but practical knowledge also went parallel with this development.

V. Education in Christianity : Eastern and Western Europe

V.1 Brief Overview of the Religion : Christianity around 1200-1490
            Around 1200-1490, generally corresponds with High middle age and Late middle age, Christianity was steadily strong in the continent of Europe, but at the same time, underwent a gradual change with many historical events. The cracks and fissures in Christian unity which led to the East-West Schism started to become evident as early as the fourth century. Cultural, political, and linguistic differences were often mixed with the theological, leading to schism. The East-West Schism, or Great Schism, separated the Church into Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) branches: Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. These major changes brought the different social, political, and educational reforms aftermath in each region. Other events, including Crusade, Black Death, also contributed to the major changes in the relationship between church and state. Many cultural reforms were also made possible with these events. The foundation of Medieval University and development of theology was constantly continued around this era. (9)

V.2 General Approach Taken in Western and Eastern Europe
            Around the medieval era, the predominant religion in western and eastern Europe was Christianity. As suggested in the introduction, this paper distinguishes Western and Eastern Europe by the division of church between Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Greek Orthodox church. The general approach in here is to examine each two region's educational characteristics in regard to religion, focusing on the curriculum of each educational institution and its transformation as time flowed if needed.

V.3 Education in Western Europe Roman Catholic Church

V.3.1 Background : Education in European society before 1200 : Education and life in Cathedral Schools and Monastic Schools
            Cathedral schools appeared in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities. It was intended to train them for careers in the church; girls were excluded from the schools. Medieval monastery life consisted of a regular round of worship, reading, and manual labor. The daily life of medieval monks in the middle Ages was based on the three main vows: the Vow of Poverty, the Vow of Chastity, and the Vow of Obedience. Medieval Monks chose to renounce all worldly life and goods and spend their lives working under the strict routine and discipline of life in a Medieval Monastery. Every day was divided into eight sacred offices, beginning and ending with services in the monastery church. In addition to their attendance at church, the monks spent several hours in reading from the Bible, private prayer, and meditation. Both cathedral school and monastic schools establish and spread Christian orthodoxy in early middle ages. (10)

V.3.2 Education in European society in 1200-1300: High Middle Ages

V.3.2.1 Education in the Medieval University and its Evolution
            The medieval university is an institution of higher learning which was established during High Middle Ages period. A medieval University's curriculum was generally broken down into the trivium of grammar, rhetoric, and logic, and the quadrivium of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. This breakdown of the liberal arts was focused mainly on the philosophical and theological implications of the subjects. Within the boundary of Christianity, those liberal arts develop their own academic area.
            The curriculum of Medieval University wasnt restricted by certain kingdom or dynasty but rather restricted by church orders. However, it significantly gains autonomy around this era. Under the guidance of Peter Abelard who was dissatisfied with tensions between burghers and students and the censorship of leading intellectuals by the Church, a group of people formed the Universitas, modeled on the mediaeval guild, self-regulating, permanent institution of higher education. The University of Paris became one of the first clearly established universities, when Pope Gregory IX issued the bull Parens scientiarum. After the issuing of the bull, they attained autonomy. "The papal bull of 1233, which stipulated that anyone admitted to be a teacher in Toulouse had the right to teach everywhere without further examinations), in time, transformed this privilege into the single most important defining characteristic of the university and made it the symbol of its institutional autonomy". (11)

V.3.2.2 Development of Scholasticism with Thomas Aquinas and its Educational Methods
            European scholasticism was both a method of learning taught by the academics of medieval universities circa 1100-1500, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context. Dominican Thomas Aquinas is the most influential of the many distinguished friars at the forefront of scholastic dominions around this time. He writes when Christian philosophy is profoundly challenged by the great edifice of Aristotelian thought and shaken by a set of failure in crusades. Aristotle appears to provide answers to important questions without the need for Christian sources. Much of scholasticism in its most creative period is concerned with reconciling the insights of Aristotle with the revealed truths of Christianity. There is also a perceived need to weed out impurities introduced to the Aristotelian canon in its passage through Muslim hands, particularly those of Averroes. Aquinas achieves a reconciliation between his Aristotelian and Christian sources which his contemporaries find so convincing that Aristotle acquires something of a stranglehold on late medieval thought. In two major works Aquinas sets out the framework of the new orthodoxy. His Summa contra gentiles is intended to explain the Christian faith to Muslims. The Summa theologica is a textbook for Christian students in the universities. In the Summa theologica Aquinas uses a teaching method known as sic et non ('yes and no') which is central to scholasticism. The lecturer (scholasticus) begins a session with a lectio in which he explains the question for discussion. The rest of the lesson is the disputatio in which arguments on either side, for and against, are expressed - leading if possible to a conclusion, as in the logical form of the syllogism. (12)

V.3.3 Education in European Society in 1300-1490 : Late Middle Ages

V.3.3.1 Emerging Renaissance with Gradual Social, Political Cultural Change.
            The emerging of Renaissance was proceeded not with a single fact, but with a combination of various social, political events. Upon considering the characteristic of Renaissance, the active movement in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts. The fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, accompanied by the closure of its schools of higher learning by the Ottoman Turks, brought many other Greek scholars to Italy and promotes the classical study of Italy. The largely executed artistic patronage of humanism was one of the social trends around the Italy which contributed to the emergence of Renaissance. The arising renaissance was also partly influenced by Black death in Florence which hit Europe between 1348 and 1350, resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th century Italy. (13)
            Francesco Petrarca, who was an famous scholar in humanism, observed the terrifying plague which overwhelmed the Europe and wrote a letter to his friend about this.
            "Scarely a year and a half has passed since I returned to Italy and left you weeping on the banks of the sorgues, so I am not asking you to cast you mind back a long way, but to count up those few days and consider what we were, and what we are. Where are our dear friends no? where are the beloved faces? Where are the affectionate words, the relaxed and enjoyable conversations ? What lightning bolt devoured them? what earthquake toppled them ? What tempest drowned them? What abyss swallowed them? There was a crowd of us, now we are almost alone. We should make new friends- but how, when the human race is almost wiped out; and why, when it looks to me as if the end of the world is at hand ? why pretend ? We are alone indeed.. Great intellectuals already noted of the great doubt on gods care, and that god maybe doesnt care human more" (14)
            Although only this part of letter cannot tell the exact relationship between Renaissances and Black Death, it is speculated that the a great shock to people in a traditional view of world must have existed

V.3.3.2 Evolution of Renaissance in Italy and its Impact on Education in a Regional Sense
            The Renaissance, happened as a cultural movement around 14th century to 17th century, encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. The social lives of people were greatly influenced by advancements in education during the Renaissance. The study of Renaissance was basically different from Scholasticism in that it builds up the trends of humanism which centers on the "human," in studying. The pupils of Petrarch, Coluccio Salutati and Leonardo Bruni, used the word, "studia humanitas" which centered the human at studying, different from the prior notion of studia divinitas, which centered the god at all studying. (15)
            In some ways Humanism was not a philosophy, but rather a method of learning. In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence. Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', that being the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.
            Renaissance Humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders who are today known as humanists. It developed during the fourteenth and turn-of-the fifteenth centuries, and was a response to the challenge of medieval scholastic education, which emphasized practical, pre-professional and scientific studies. Scholasticism focused on preparing men to be doctors, lawyers or professional theologians, and was taught from approved textbooks in logic, natural philosophy, medicine, law and theology.
            In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-fifteenth century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations. Some of the highest officials of the Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries.
            The impact of Renaissance should not be disregarded by the fact that university gains relative autonomy, compared to the past, which makes them voice their opinions on the religion. Martin Luther's reform movement was by no means the first. During the second half of the fifteenth century, the new classical learning that was part of Italian Renaissance humanism spread to northern Europe and Spawned a movement called Christian or northern Renaissance humanism whose major goal was the reform of Christianity.

V.4 Education in Eastern Europe : Eastern Greek Orthodox church

V.4.1 Background : The Relationship between Greek Orthodox Church Orders and the Rule of the Emperor.
            In theocratic system, the church was bound up with the state, supporting and reinforcing the state's power. The head of the church, the patriarch of Constantinople, seldom had occasion to exercise direct political power because the East always had a strong emperor. Rome and West lacked a strong political system, and the result was political chaos. The head of the church in the West, the bishop of Rome, finally managed to rise to power, to make order of the political disorder. The patriarch of Constantinople seldom had that opportunity; as head of the church, he had full spiritual power, but what political influence he had, he exercised in support of the emperor in the East. No independent religious authority in conflict with the emperor's political authority emerged in the East.
            Constantine ruled by divine right, that emperor considered himself appointed by god, and that his government was a theocracy. Neither Constantine nor the emperors after him ever claimed to be divine, but they did see themselves as God's representatives on earth, ranking just below Christ in the administration of earthly justice. The office of the emperor was, in a sense, the visible manifestation of god on earth.
            On this basis, Theodosius II founded the Pandidakterion, the first school of the Byzantine era, establishing a clear distinction between teachers who were private, and those who were public and paid from imperial funds. These official teachers enjoyed privilege and prestige. There were a total of 31 teachers: 10 each for Greek and Latin grammar; 2 for law; 1 for philosophy; and eight chairs for rhetoric, with five taught in Greek and three in Latin. This system lasted with various degrees of official support until the 7th century. Byzantine rhetoric was the most important and difficult topic studied in the Byzantine education system, forming a basis for citizens to attain public office in the imperial service, or posts of authority within the Church.

V.4.2 Establishment of Constantinople University in the Byzantine Empire
            Byzantine education was a direct continuation of classical education. This is in fact simply one particular aspect of the fundamental fact that there was no gap, no difference, even, between the civilization of the late Roman Empire and the early byzantine Middle Ages. This appears most clearly in the history of the higher education of the time, which is more fully documented and has been more closely studied than the rest. (16) From 425 to 1453 the University of Constantinople was a most fruitful centre of study, the main pillar of the classical tradition. Naturally, in the course of a thousand years it had many ups and downs, periods of decline and even temporary disappearances that were then redeemed by splendid revivals. It underwent many transformations, but it always remained loyal to the spirit of its original foundation in the time of Theodosius II. The education it provided was always governed by classical standard with the liberal arts supplying the foundation, and rhetoric, philosophy and law the crown. It continued to serve the same function in society, that of training an elite from which the Empire could draw its state officials. It never meddled with religion: the closing of the Neo-Platonic school in Athens by Justinian in 529 was part of the struggle against the declining paganism, but did not mean that the Christian Empire had any desire to steer higher education into more religious channels (17).

V.4.3 Private Educxation in the Byzantine Empire
            The capture of Constantinople in 1204 by Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade ended all support for higher education. Although the restoration in 1261 attempts was made to restore the old system, but it was insufficient to recover fully and most teaching duties fell to private teachers and professions. Some of these private teachers include the diplomat and monk Maximos Planudes (1260-1310), the historian Nikephoros Gregoras (1291-1360), and the man of letters Manuel Chrysoloras, who taught in Florence and influence the early Italian humanists on Greek studies. In the 15th century many more teachers from Constantinople would follow in Chrysoloras' footsteps (18)

V.5 Analysis of the Impact of Christianity on Education in Terms of Enculturation and Socialization.
            In medieval history of European and Western Europe, Christianity was greatly prevailed throughout the continents and its impact on education is never ignorable. Generally, Eastern and Western Europe featured different aspects of Christianity due to its own origin and geological reason, thus having a different impact on forming the education in each region.
            In Western Europe, in the early stage, a traditional monastic schools and cathedral schools often played a role of spreading the orthodoxy of Christianity throughout the continent. The informal education related to religion was highly recognized in those schools, since their educational doctrine aims at nurturing priests of asceticism. This trend was not limited to only those schools, but it was generally emphasized early ages in the Medieval European continents. The formal education related to religion is noticeably observed in the educational curriculum of Medieval University. The replacement of prior schools to Medieval University was happened around High Middle ages. The educational courses of trivium and quadrivium were a stereotypical of current liberal arts and reconciliation of religious doctrine with these academic curriculum shows that those educational curriculum couldnt be liberated from Christianity. Although a major change was happened in the Late Middle age with the evolvement of Renaissance which centers humanism in its educational doctrine, humanism didnt fully overturn the educational flow related to religion yet and indeed, the humanism was practiced within the boundary of religion.
            In Eastern Europe, though the impact of monastic schools was also importantly considered, the major difference can be found in re-discovering ancient Greek and Rome's classics and its active engagement on its study. The command under emperor was also the main difference that is distinguishable.

VI. Education in Eastern Asia

VI.1 Brief Overview of the Religion : Confucianism and Buddhism around 1200-1490
            Around this era, Confucianism takes the form of Neo-Confucianism which merges Buddhism and Daoism into the traditional Confucianism. Religion in China during Song dynasty had a great effect on people's lives, beliefs and daily activities, and Chinese literature on spirituality was popular. The major deities of Daoism and Buddhism, ancestral spirits and the many deities of Chinese folk religion were worshiped with sacrificial offerings. The evolution of Neo-Confucianism was natural in this sociological atmosphere encouraging various religions prosper. Though it was relatively suppressed in Yuan dynasty, it was soon revived in Ming dynasty which encourages Song's Confucian culture to be recurred.
            In history, Buddhism provided those functions which Confucianism, as a religion, lacked. The tranquility of mind and escapism from reality was possible with the religious role of Buddhism. Around 1200-1490, Buddhism merges with Confucianism, contributing to the creation of Neo-Confucianism. The Buddhist temples often performed as a resting place in a state of anarchy and provide some comfort to people. Although suppressed largely due to the proliferation of Confucianism, Buddhism often spread throughout common people. In this era, the impact of Buddhism was particularly influential in the region of Japan.

VI.1.1 The Education of Song Dynasty Based on Confucianism (960-1279)

VI.1.1.1 Evolution of Neo-Confucianism and its Education
            In Confucianism, human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. A main idea of Confucianism is the cultivation of virtue and the development of moral perfection
            The Confucians never established a full-fledged priesthood. For them, such an accomplishment would have been, at best, a limited success. Whether by choice or by default, the separation of church and state was never made in Confucian culture. This style of politics developed by Confucians for their intellectual and spiritual self-definition turned out to be a mixed blessing. We witness, on the other hands, the impressive historical ability of the Confucians to moralize politics and to transform a legalist or military society into a moral community. Yet, we cannot fail to recognize also that Confucian moral values have often been politicized to serve an oppressive authoritarian regime. Although the Confucian moralization of politics has become a distinctive feature of Chinese political culture, the politicization of Confucian symbols in the form of an authoritarian ideology of control has been a dominant tradition in Chinese political history.
            This educational doctrine can be easily found even from the primary education. Children learned to read by using primers that taught a core vocabulary. One of the most popular, The Three-Character Classic, written circa 1200, consisted of rhyming lines of three Chinese characters each, which students had to learn by heart. The Three-Character-Classic does not affect children in formal way but provides informal educational doctrine which explicates the rightful way of life, especially emphasizing Zhong (, Loyalty), Xiao (, Filial piety)

VI.1.1.2 Popularization of Chinese traditional academy: ShuYuan
            The Sh?yuan ( ? sh?-yuan), usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China. Unlike national academy and district schools, shuyuan were usually private establishments built away from cities or towns, providing a quiet environment where scholars could engage in studies and contemplation without restrictions and worldly distractions. Popularization of Shuyuan had an impact on Song dynasty since it played a role of teaching the meaning of religious ritual toward their ancestors and set a guidance of moral codes of Confucianism to local people. (19)

VI.1.1.3 Chinese State Examination
            In late imperial China, the examination system and associated methods of recruitment to the central bureaucracy were major mechanisms by which the central government captured and held the loyalty of local-level elites. Their loyalty, in turn, ensured the integration of the Chinese state, and countered tendencies toward regional autonomy and the breakup of the centralized system. The examination system distributed its prizes according to provincial and prefectural quotas, which meant that imperial officials were recruited from the whole country, in numbers roughly proportional to each province's population. Elite individuals all over China, even in the disadvantaged peripheral regions, had a chance at succeeding in the examinations and achieving the rewards and emoluments office brought.
            The examination system also served to maintain cultural unity and consensus on basic values. The uniformity of the content of the examinations meant that the local elites and ambitious would-be members of those elites across the whole of China were taught with the same values. Even though only a small fraction (about 5 percent) of those who attempted the examinations passed and received titles, the studying and the hope of eventual success on a subsequent examination served to sustain the interest of those who took them. Those who failed to pass?most of the candidates at any single examination - did not lose wealth or local social standing; as dedicated believers in Confucian orthodoxy, they served, without the benefit of state appointments, as teachers, patrons of the arts, and managers of local projects, such as irrigation works, schools, or charitable foundations.

VI.1.2 The Education of Yuan Dynasty and its Openness to Sanjio (1279-1368)
            Because Mongolians did not impose their own religion on their subjects, a comparative freedom of religion was possible in China, majorly including Sanjio(three teachings): Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Both Daoism and Buddhism retained their distinctive identities and organizations; although they often rivaled each other, they were not mutually exclusive. The Neo-Confucianism of the Zhu Xi School enjoyed orthodox status after the 1310s, but adherents of the three teachings interacted philosophically and intellectually in a way that popularized the "amalgamation" of the three schools among the common people. Although Yuan dynasty restricted Confucianism by imposing some of the limitations, under emperor Buyantu, the interpretation and commentaries of the Neo-Confucian school were made obligatory for the first time. The classics were translated into the Mongol language, and the Mongol language was taught in schools. Private schools and the academies of the Song dynasty became more popular. As a result of a decrease in opportunities for government appointment, scholars withdrew into the provinces for study and tutoring. Relieved of the pressure of preparing for the examinations, they applied their talents to the less formal but more popular arts and literary forms, including the drama and the novel. Instead of the classical form, they used the vernacular, or the spoken, language. (20)

VI.1.3 The Education of Ming Dynasty based on Confucianism (1368-1490)
            The education of Ming Dynasty recovered once retreated Neo-Confucianism during Yuan Dynasty. The examination system remained basically the same. In the early period of the dynasty, the schools were systematized and regularized. The educational institution was subordinated by the government. For instance, Gukjagam was the main elite educational institution which provided education and its administrator and teachers are all faithful officials of the government.

Third degree governmental official: Jeju (): the president of Gukjagam
Sa-up (): an official who administers all academic study in Gukjagam
Okungbacksa (): an official who studied classics
Joku (): professor in Gukjagam (official)
Hakjung (): second degree lecturer (official)
Hacknok (): third degree lecturer (official)
Figure 3 : the government officials who was in charge of education in Gukjagam

            There were also community schools in local regions which educated Confucianism. A major purpose of community schools, as of education generally, was spreading morality, specifically Confucian morality. To 'transform the people and perfect customs," one had to nourish or educate ignorant children (yang meng) in orthodoxy(zheng). Popular practices rooted in Buddhism, such as charity, vegetarianism, the copying of sutras, and kindness to animals were not part of the community school curriculum: the morality taught focused on human relations. One county's schools educational purpose was written as
            "gather the sons and younger brothers of the country's people and teach them... establishing schools is to expand jiaohua, to make clear the proper relationships among people. The responsibility of the students is to correct their own behavior and approach goodness and honesty." (21)
            In part, Confucian morality was taught experimentally, through rituals whose proper performance simultaneously brought order to society as a whole and to the individual. Rituals from greeting peers and caring for parents to the sacraments of crapping, marriage, funerals, and sacrifice to the ancestors taught ordinary people about ethical relationships and social hierarchy. Educating people about authentic rituals also combated the influence of Buddhist and Daoist practices in funerals and weddings By the time of the Hongzhi emperor mandated the study of ritual in community schools in 1504. It was already a common part of community school education.

VI.2 Education in Korea

VI.2.1 Background : its Political System and Education in Parallel with the Dynasty of China
            Basically, educational system in Korea went change in parallel with the Chinese system due to Chinese huge impacts on social, political and educational areas. The Confucius thought was prevailed throughout Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty. The community schools, Shu Yuan, and were also prevailed throughout Josean dynasty.

VI.2.2 The Education of Goryeo (1200-1392)
            In order to promote government education, the 16th monarch of Goryeo Yejong established a foundation called the Yanghyon'go (Foundation for the Training of Talents) and stationed seven specialized lecturers at the Gukjagam who faithfully carried out this education. The higher education for the elite was solely focused on cultivating faithful officials of dynasty. The regional education in Goryeo dynasty was achieved through temples of Confucius which located in local place in dynasty. The aspects of primary education for normal can be understood through various books around this era: Goryeo Dynasty history (]), Sunhwabongsa Goryeo Dogeung (), Donggukisanggukgip (]). In these books, the encouragement of Confucianism was prevailed throughout the country, but Buddhism and folk belief in Korea also took the major part of people's ideology. Frequent raids by Japanese pirates and hunger at the end of the dynasty shook the Confucian based thoughts and people's reliance on religion leaned toward more on folk belief and superstition.

VI.2.3 The education of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1490)
            Education in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea was largely aimed at preparing students for government service. The ultimate goal of most students was successful passage of the state examinations, known as gwageo. Educational institutions were extremely widespread in the country, and can be divided into public and private. The highest public institution was the Seonggyungwan, located in Seoul. Below this were the Sahak, four schools providing technical training, and the hyanggyo, schools supported by each of the Eight Provinces. The hyanggyo soon fell into neglect, and for most of the Joseon period education was dominated by the private schools, Shu-Yuan and seodang. Shu-Yuan and Seodang practiced a role of providing primary education of ruling ideology of dynasty. Buddhism was largely restricted in this era and learning and teaching of Confucian thoughts were prevailed throughout this region. (22)

VI.3 Education in Japan
            The Thoughts of Confucianism began to flow into Japan by Korean scholar, Wani, who was invited to the Japanese court as a specialist in Chinese studies mainly Confucianism. The kojiki states that Wani presented ten volumes of the Analects of Confucius(Lun Yu in Chinese, and Rongo in Japanses) and the Thousand-Charater Poems(Chien tzu wen in chinese and Senji-mon in Japansese) to the court of Emperor Ojin who ruled the japan in Ad 270~310. From the time of the introduction of Chinese studies, the Thousand-character poems was used as the primer for reading and writing, as well as a guidebook for morality. The particular feature in Japanese Confucianism is that it acted on defining the moral codes of behavior rather than as the sole religion in worship of rituals. Actually, the definition and interpretation of Confucianism was mixed with thoughts of philosophers in Japanese own territory and because they did not serve as religion, they did not suppress much of Japanese own folk belief or Buddhism. The Confucianism wasnt withstanding regardless of time in Japan. With the Mongolian invasion, the Japanese people leaned more toward their own native cultures. Bushido, which expounded the own moral code of Samurai, was envisioned, emphasizing bravery and loyalty. Arise of Samurai group brought the fall of court noble and their financial support for schools declined. During this period, education outside the schools, in such forms as home education, scholars open houses of learning(juku) and in the temples, flourished. Entering the Muromachi period(1336-1573), Buddhism thrived. As education declined, Buddhism began to proliferate among the people. Social phenomena were interpreted in terms of Buddhism. In addition to Chinese classics, Buddhist educators taught manners and Japanese literature to all children. In these chaotic times, the concept of house(ie) became the share value of the nobility, military families and commoners Especially for military families, the preservation of the "house," or family name, became the reason for education. Kakun or family precepts appeared during this period and emphasized the necessity of education these precepts adopted those Confucian and Buddhist moral concepts that had been incorporated into Bushido. Family precepts were immutable house laws that were self-serving and that reflected the interest of an individual family and its particular circumstances. (23)

VI.4 Analysis of the Impact of Confucianism and Buddhism on the Education of Eastern Asia in Terms of Socialization and Enculturation
            Confucianism wasn't just a religion. Rather, it was a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia. The peculiar aspect of Confucian education is on the governmental promotion of Confucian philosophies. That is largely due to the moral disciplinary on which Confucianism put a great emphasis. Confucianism justified and legitimized the reign of the state. In the era around 1200-1490, the most observable thing happened with the evolution of Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism, which merges the idea of original Confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism, ruled over Song and Ming dynasty. This fact also reflects and supports a reasonable assumption that Confucianism didnt suppress largely other religions. The reason behind this generosity is presumed since Confucian was a religion related to the worship of god, but rather, it was one of effective reign systems to legitimize the authority within the state.
            The enculturation of Confucianism was significantly important when it comes to enter the government and being an official. As can be seen in Ming dynastys case, the curriculum of education and administration was under the rule of Confucianism. The faithful governmental official who was largely accommodated with the prevailed Confucian thoughts was first key to enter the bureaucratic system of dynasty. However, not only the elite education, but also the education in locality was highly encouraged through the establishment of Shu Yuan. The informal education through the religious ritual toward their ancestors and socially given norm to respect elders were systemized and educated to very young children, encouraging them to learn classics of Confucianism in old centuries. Thus, the normal standard of education of society was within the boundary of Confucianism and the education of Confucianism has much correspondence with what society normally requires. The moral and responsible citizen who is ready to care their families, community, and further the nation was the most highly regarded citizens in this era. Thus, it can be said that the socialization and enculturation has relatively high correspondence with each other.
            The features of Buddhism differ with Confucianism. Although it was the major cause of forming Neo-Confucianism, it wasn't prevailed throughout the China, Japan, and Korea as the predominant norms and values. Rather, it was the supplementary to Confucianism. Although it wasn't predominant but it acts on people's mind in the chaotic state of society and its educational purpose was centered on the escapism from reality. Thus, the enculturation of Buddhism can be said to have a relatively low correspondence with socialization.

VII. Analysis : The Impact of Religion on the Education of the Selected Regions.
            The analysis chart below presents both the common and different feature of impact of religion on education of each region. It is generally analyzed that around 1200-1490, the religion takes the place of dominant culture in all five regions, performing enculturation of individuals which often corresponds to socialization. There are especially cases which prove that religion was used for strengthening the rule of state, which was notably observed in the case of East Asia. Although the exact relationship between the state and religion cannot be revealed due to the difference of each region including geological location and educational impact from the past, it is speculated that the faith of educational institutions freedom was decided in accordance with the level of conformity between religion and state power. As can be seen in Eastern Europe and East Asias cases , by establishing and funding public educational center under the rule of state or taking the state examination, the content of which is based on loyalty to the state, states gain the access to the way of utilizing religion to strengthen the power of its own. The impact of revered text such as Koran has also huge impact on the gaining autonomy of university in the field of practical knowledge, being free from religion.

Western Europe Eastern Europe Western Asia
North Africa
East Asia
Dominant Religion Christianity: Roman Catholic Church Christianity: Greek Orthodox Church Islam Mainly Confucianism / Buddhism
Impact on Socialization as dominant culture Strong Strong Strong Confucianism: Strong
Buddhism: Weak
Conformity of religious enculturation to the state power Weak Strong Not revealed in the paper Confucianism: very Strong
Freedom of educational institution Strong Public: strong (funded by emperor)
Private: Weak
strong Confucianism: very weak
Range of educational subject by religion Comparatively limited (tendency gradually transformed to not limited after Renaissance) Comparatively not limited (the impact of ancient civilization and Islamic influence) Comparatively not limited Comparatively Limited

VIII. Conclusion
            Although direct contrast and comparison cannot be easily made, the general relationship between religion and education is observed in common around this era and difference between them brings an insight on the relationship between religion and education. The way that an individual conforms to religious norms, values and a code of behavior isnt achieved only with religious education which often accompanies rituals or interpreting revered scripture of religion. Though ways are different from one region to another, religion uses the social hierarchy system in cooperation with the state or justifies the religious code of norms, value, and behaviors through theology or other academic studies. In the area with the predominant religion, the education related to religion is often exercised from the very young age by applying religion in the language learning. Moreover, the religious code, values and norms are transmitted to the very young age children as the social standard of morality. The education of medieval age around 1200-1490 was indeed highly affected by religion. Following the comprehensive analysis, it is worth to think of the relationship between religion and education. In the era which religion highly engages in the social norms, values, and moral standards, it was inevitable that a complete freedom of study and education was hard to achieve, being restricted within the boundary of religion.

VII. Notes
(1)      Wikipedia : Education
(2)      Wikipedia : Religion
(3)      Wikipedia : Socialization
(4)      Wikipedia : Islam
(5)      Wikipedia : History of Education
(6)      Marrou 1982, p 34
(7)      Wikipedia : Madrasah
(8)      Islam - History of Islamic Education, Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education
(9)      Wikipedia : West-East schism
(10)      Medieval Monastery
(11)      Wikipedia Article : medieval university
(12)      History of Christianity
(13)      Wikipedia : Humanism in Renaissance
(14)      Letter from Parma: (a) preface: Petrarch, Epistolae de Rebus Familiaribus et variae, ed. Joseph Fracassetti,, pp 442-3(book VIII 7) quoted after Google book: Black death, p89
(15)      Wikipedia : Renaissance
(16)      Marrou 1982 p.340
(17)      Wikipedi : University_of_Constantinople
(18)      Wikipedia : Byzantine University
(19)      Wikipedia : Shu-Yuan
(20)      Britannica Article : China under the Mongol
(21)      Schneewind 2006 p.185
(22)      Wikipedia Article: Education in the Joseon Dynasty
(23)      Khan 1997 p.81

Bibliography Note : websites quoted below were visited in September to November 2010.
All Wikipedia articles cited below are from the English version, except noted.

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