The British Conquest and the Colonization of the Sudan 1896-1899

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Sept. 9th 2011
Sept. 5th 2011
Sept. 2nd 2011
Dec. 13th 2010
Dec. 13th 2010

Sept. 9th 2011 . go to LJH's Log

(1) stumbled over this primary source : Affaires d'Ethiopie. Commerce des armes au Cote-des-Somalis, 1907, Internet Archive
(2) I don't care about whatever reference style you choose, the duplication of note 56 (once as a weird combination of 5 and 6, once as 56) is unacceptable; in the final version online I will simplify such double numbers by erasing the second one
(3) your order of notes : 4041, 41, 43
(4) Alarmed by the Abyssinian success and the Dervish threat to Kassala,
I again auggest that you replace the term "Dervish" by something more appropriate, f.ex. the Ansar.
In your note 27 you describe the term as having been used in the 1890s with a pejorative meaning. So why do you use it ? Expect Muslims among the readers of your paper, use politically correct terminology (outside of direct quotastions).
(5) Encyclopaedia Britannica, with ae
(6) In your narrative, please standardize spelling of Sudan (not Soudan) and Bahr-el-Ghazal; I recommend to use the spelling applied in the English version of the Wikipedia as a standard
(7) The only major European power which was unwilling to accept an entirely English Nile Valley was France, and France was why Salisbury wanted to conquer the Sudan. not English, British; by the way even after the French withdrew the Sudan was Anglo-Egyptian, not entirely British. So you may want to rephrase.
(8) The Suez Canal was important to so many British interests both commercial and strategic that its safety was generally well accepted as a vital national concern. (61) one should not bring up new evidence (as indicated by endnote) in a conclusion
(9) London did not view the Mahdist regime to possess the ability to actualize such claims, and thus saw no need to deplete Egyptian and English resources to conquer a vast expanse of the desert. not English, British
(10) How about two conclusions, one focussing on the flow of events (as you have) and one on motivation behind policies ?
(11) (2) Encyclopedia Britannica Online, ¡°British Empire, (Historical State, United Kingdom),¡± (accessed August 26, 2011).
this text would be appropriate for an endnote if your paper would not have a bibliography section. As it does, your endnote section contains quite some unnecessary ballast. for all articles refering toi newspaper articles, name of newspaper & date would suffice. I gather you can save 47 lines in the reference section; in print that would be a page.
(12) some of your definition / background info information is superfluous.
Of an educated reader it can be expected that he knows Benjamin Disraeli and the Quai d'Orsay; such notes may be perceived as insulting.

Sept. 5th 2011 . go to LJH's Log

(1) I see that you implemented many of my comments.
(2) If you apply this method of including notes in your text, I regard your endnotes superfluous.
(3) Chapter "European Perspective" title confusing, sincle all your sources used in that article are NYT articles (which I missed in your reference list)
(4) Ethiopian ruler, to my knowledge, spelled Menelik, not Menilek. Double check.
(5) I still recommend that you include reference to the Lado enclave, not as a threat to British claims, but merely as reference to another intrusion - otherwise a reader with knowledge in the area may regard your analysis incomplete.
(6) The Sudan is a huge expanse of wasteland. The area is inhospitable for many, and the constant ethnic conflicts make the area unattractive for governance. population over 50 million. You may want to rephrase.
(7) The Sudan is a huge expanse of wasteland. The area is inhospitable for many, and the constant ethnic conflicts make the area unattractive for governance. A land with very little to offer other than slaves, the Sudan was not the ideal colony as imagined by the Europeans. By the time you get to mention slaves, you still write in present tense. You may want to rephrase.
(8) As Benjamin Disraeli (endnote needed) remarked, it was the belief of the British Government that ¡°Constantinople is the key of India, and not Egypt and the Suez Canal.¡± (p82, Gallagher) here the date of that observation may be of importance
(9) The Egyptian rule over the Sudan began with the initial invasion of 1820. In the following decades, the Egyptians imposed heavy taxation and abolished slavery. you may want to add the date. I thought, Gordon (in an earlier function as Egyptian governoir of the Sudan, (foprmally) abolished slavery there.
(10) Unhindered by British intervention, the Ansar continued its conquest after Khartoum towards the South, and by the end of 1885, only the areas surrounding Wadi Halfa on the Northern frontier and Suakin on the Eastern coast remained under Anglo-Egyptian command.
Incorrect; Equatoria (South Sudan) under Emin Pasha, an Egyptian-appointed governor, remained loyal to Egypt but without communication with Cairo.
(11) In response, the British government sent General Charles Gordon to Khartoum to lead the evacuation of Egyptians and Europeans from the city.
I doubt that Gordon ever served as general in the British army. He did not go to Khartoum as British general, but as Egyptian governor. And if you recall the movie, Gladstone recommended Gordon to go, but denied any knowledge of having done so.
The way you phrase it, you imply otherwise.
(12) In May, the press argued that it would be the¡°criminal negligence of Mr. Gladstone¡¯s government¡± responsible should things go wrong in Khartoum and that such an occasion would signal ¡°the overwhelming defeat of that government.¡± (England and the Soudan, May 1884).
"The press" too general - which paper(s) ? I doubt the London Gazetteer did.
(13) The feelings of the British people would not tolerate leaving a ¡°brave champion of the English cause¡± to be murdered by fanatical barbarians.
This reads like a direct quote belonging in quotation marks; if so, from where ?
(14) After much delay, a relief mission was organized, but Khartoum fell on Jan 26th, 1885, days before the British rescue mission arrived at the city.
To avoid confusion : fell to the forces to the Mahdi
(15) The British were not idle after the Madhi seized control over the Sudan spelling
(16) The conquest was seen as a potential first step in the re-conquest of the Sudan, something which was increasingly viewed as inevitable due to Italian advances and Dervish atrocities (TOL, 1891 Mar 17).
Term Dervish used in derogatory sense by the 19th century press; you may want to put it in quotation marks and explain
(17) In May 1889, Crispi signed the Treaty of Wuchale with Ethiopia?stripping Ethiopia of its diplomatic powers and proclaiming it an Italian protectorate to the powers of Europe.
This is how the Italians interpreted the treaty, but the Ethiopians definitely did not agree. Rephrase to make clear that this interpretation was not universally accepted.
(18) On 7 March 1890, Salisbury summoned the Italian ambassador in London and warned the Italians off the Nile. .. to stay away froim the Nile
(19) By February 1891, however, Crispi was out of office, and in March and April of that year his successor made agreements with the British which gave Salisbury the surrender of the Italian claims to the Nile Valley. .. which surrendered to Britain ..
(20) On 2 March 1896, the Ethiopians crushed the Italians in the Battle of Adowa, halting Italian expansion and bringing Crispi down from office. ... causing the fall of Crispi's cabinet (you may want to refer to the number of that Cabinet)
(21) Ideally, Egypt was to pay for the operation, but as its financial conditions rendered it practically impossible. .. rendered this practically impossible
(22) . First and foremost lay supplies and transport. Omdurman, the Dervish capital, you continue to use contemporary biased-derogatory terminology
(23) This problem was overcome by an engineer by the name Edouard Girouard, who led the construction of railroads to bypass the cataracts. during the invasion ?
(24) Missions sent by the French government penetrated into Bahr-El-Ghazel, the most fertile province in the Sudan
The most fertile part of the Sudan is the Gezira, the area between blue and white Nile. Much of Bahr-el-Ghazal is swamp. : population 1948 Bahr el Ghazal 714,000, two provinces had double that population, Khartoum ten times as much. Be more careful with taking over someone else's statements; avoid superlatives.
(25) Military tension was also to be found in the region, as the possibility of a French-Abyssinian-Russian union arose.
Term "union" too strong; if such a term appears in that article, put it in quotation marks.
(26) Despite the offer, the Khalifa did not want to rule under French influence.
Sentence contains logical jump. The Khalifa declined the offer; he did not want ..
(27) After decimating the Dervishes, Kitchener asked the Government for assistance as he moved deeper into the Sudan
Dervishes again; her asked which government - the British or Egyptian ?
(28) The Battle of Omdurman, which killed 10,000 Ansars and destroyed Mahdist Soudan, was fought and won on the same day. < which day ?
(29) L¡¯Echo de Paris, a French newspaper, was declaring that ¡°The Sirdar¡¯s forces dare not fire upon Major Marchand, for France is behind him. England must now consent to a European conference, unless she wants war.¡± date; list it and all other articles you refer to in your reference list.
(30) The mood for war was growing. In November, Britain was making preparations for war at an extraordinary scale ¡°never seen since Napoleon¡¯s time.¡± (France and England, NYT, Nov 1898) which day ?
(31) As it turns out, Russia had offered to join France in a war against Great Britain at the time, an offer that was declined by the French. (Wanted to Fight Britain, NYT, 1904) precise day
(32) Upon the making of the decision, Salisbury was determined to clear the Nile Valley of the French, and such determinations were well revealed during the mobilization of the military in the later months of 1898. Britain¡¯s naval superiority and France¡¯s acknowledgement of its prospects in a military clash with Britain led to the fruition of a diplomatic victory for Britain in March 1899. The Sudan was conquered, the Nile was safe, and Britain had triumphed over France.
In your conclusion you exclusively discuss the matter as a diplomatic chess game in which the British prevailed over the French. You miss out on the option of discussing the shift in parameters affecting the British view of the value of a potential acquisition of the Sudan.

Sept. 2nd 2011 . go to LJH's Log

(1) to conceive an abandonment of such lands, even with the liberals in power. Liberals
(2) At fist, Egypt was not the primary concern of the cabinet in London At first
(3) one statement to counter your argumentation : The EIC had developed a route through Egypt and the Red Sea for persons and mail as a shorter alternative to the trip around the Cape, well before the opening of the Suez Canal
(4) By 1883, Egypt had become a de-facto protectorate of Britain (p130, Gallagher) traditional date 1882
(5) This defeat signaled the loss of Egyptian control of the Soudan, and by 1884, the Mahdist forces were laying siege on Khartoum, the capital of Egyptian Sudan. you contradict your statement within the sentence you make it : As long as Gordon held Khartoum, not all of the Sudan was lost to Egypt - he held an office to which he was appointed by the Khedive
(6) The cabinet immediately ordered Wolsely, who not Wolseley ?
(7) Appointed as Governor of Suakin in 1886, Kitchener was promoted to Sirdar of the Egyptian Army.
Suakin is located in the Sudan, which even by 1886 was not yet lost to Egypt, contradiucting an earlier statement of yours
(8) At the end of 1895, the French had prevented the Somali port of Zeyla from falling into Italian hands. Furthermore, Zeila British since 1888 double check
(9) Furthermore, they were pushing for Menelek of Ethiopia to sign a treaty with them, opening up the supply line to Ethiopia.
correct : supply line = railroad line Djibouti-Addis Ababa; was built by the French this is how the Ethiopians got the rifles with which they defeated the Italians in the Battle of Adowa 1896
(10) Salisbury first resorted to diplomacy. On March 7th, 1890, Salibury summoned the Italian ambassador in London and warned the Italinas off the Nile. Italians
(11) The treaty handed the Germans the Caprivi Strip in Southern Africa as well as the islands of Heligoland in the North Sea. Heligoland is one island
(12) . The problem was the German protectorate over the Zanzibar territories just east of the Nile Basin. Term ,ay be confusing. Zanguebar (the mainland possessions of the Sultanate of Zanzibar) in 1885/1886 had been partitioned by Germany, Britain and Italy, Italy getting Bewnadir (southern Somalia, around Mogadishu), Britain what is now Kenya, Germany what is now mainland Tanzania.
However, Tanzania is south of the Nile Basin, as well as East; to the East were Kenya and Benadir.
(13) Missing aspect : Congo Free State expanding into Nile valley : Lado Enclave.
(14) Missing aspect : While Mahdiyya ruled central Sudan, province of Equatoria was held for many years by Emin Pasha, a German in the service of the Khedive - which German diplomacy might have used as a bargaining chip
(15) (1898) The possibility of a French-Russian alliance was brought up in the British and American papers around then. you should know from class, this alliance was a fact since 1891

Dec. 13th 2010 . go to LJH's Log

(1) newspaper articles : give specific dates (year, month, day) and sort chronological within the lists of yours
(2) 9. Sirdar and Khalifa or The Reconquest of the Soudan 1898 by Bennet Burleigh, Elibron Classics
check if not available on Google Books
(3) 10. Queen Victoria¡¯s Little Wars by Byron Farwell
no year of publication
(4) 7. Webpage: Types of British Colonial Rule in Africa
no organization or person responsible for the publication
(5) 2. Webpage: Soudan-Britain¡¯s Southern Policy from the Web Version of the Sudan: A Country Study by Helen Chaplin Metz
This was originally a book, then posted on the net; has year of publication, find it
(6) Other Related Keywords 1. 1897 - French Help for the Mahdi
you may have noticed that whoever wrote this article was confused; the Mahdi had died in 1885
(7) Guideline: A. Published Region/Country B. Year of Publication C. Stance D. Characteristics E. Source

Your category E : in case of specific newspapers you do not give the URLs from where the specific articles can be obtained, but rather sources where one can find an encyclopedic description of the source. I suggest to rename E in "encyclopedic description" and add F Source (Web Archive)

Dec. 13th 2010 . go to LJH's Log

(1) sometimes you repeatedly use the same chapter title : II.2 three times, VI.3 two times (oversight)
(2) your organization appears to be thorough, but the emphasis in title. as well as table of contents, seems to be on British Policy as regarding the Sudan.
Newspapers feature as a primary source supporting this narrative and analysis.
However, newspapers did not provide information, but were very much part of the political discourse of the time. You may want to rethink the title (in which newspapers do not feature; this can be addresses in a subtitle) and the table of contents under this aspect.
(3) spelling : Soudan - is it spelled in 19th century newspaper articles this way ? Modern spelling is The Sudan