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A World History of Communication, 1490-1800


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Hyun
Term Paper, AP World History Class, December 2010



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Communication
II.1 Definition
II.2 Subdivisions
III. Time and Place Researched
III.1 The Time Period
III.2 The Division of Areas
IV. Timeline of Major Events
V. World History of Communication by Areas
V.1 History of Communication in Western Europe, 1490-1800
V.1.1 Interpersonal Communication
V.1.1.1 Private postal services : Thurn und Taxis system
V.1.1.2 State-owned postal services
V.1.2 Mass Communication
V.1.2.1 Movable type printing of Johannes Gutenberg
V.1.2.2 Newspapers
V.1.2.3 Books
V.1.2.4 Censorship
V.1.3 Military Signals
V.1.3.1 Early military signals
V.1.3.2 Renaissance and early modern military communications
V.2 History of Communication in Eastern Europe, 1490-1800
V.2.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
V.2.2 International Communication : Russian Communications with the West
V.2.3 Mass Communication
V.2.3.1 Printing Technology
V.2.3.2 Newspapers
V.3 History of Communication in West Asia, 1490-1800
V.3.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
V.3.2 International Communication
V.3.3 Mass Communication : Printing
V.4 History of Communication in East Asia, 1490-1800
V.4.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
V.4.2 International Communication : Interchanges between Korea, Japan and China
V.4.3 Mass Communication
V.4.3.1 Printing Technology
V.4.3.2 Newspapers
V.5 History of Communication in Pre-colonial South America
V.5.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
V.5.2 International Communication
V.5.3 Mass Communication
VI. Conclusion & Reflections
VI.1 Events and Phenomena that Occurred Globally
VI.1.1 Interchanged Developments : the Printing Technologies
VI.1.2 Simultaneous Developments without Interaction : the Postal Systems
VI.2 Distinctions between Different Areas
VI.2.1 Interpersonal Communication
VI.2.2 International Communication
VI.2.3 Mass Communication
VI.3 The East and the West
VI.3.1 The Major Differences in the Developments of Popular prints (regarding the Korean Treatise "The reason for retardation in Eastern Asian developments of Newspapers")
VI.3.2 Johannes Gutenberg and China : the relations
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            Human life, turbulent and kaleidoscopic in every moment as it is, mysteriously appears as to be streaming in a constant flow when looked at retrospectively as a history in whole. Sometimes distant countries interact so as spread a single phenomenon to the whole wide world. Sometimes, in the ways that cannot be explained, similar developments appear simultaneously in the most distant, isolated areas. This paper intends to observe this historical flow in the field of communication, by providing overviews of communications history in various areas and studying the relations and distinctions between them. The broad concept of communication is divided into subcategories, as explained in the following definition.

II. Communication

II.1 Definition
            The word 'Communication' is defined in the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary as "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior." (1) In Wikipedia it is defined as "a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium." (2) Based on these definitions, this paper will consider 'communication' as a process of exchanging information through certain medium. Daily verbal communication will not be included since the methods of daily conversations do not display historically significant general changes or phenomena within a few centuries.

II.2 Subdivisions
1) Interpersonal Communication
            In this paper, interpersonal communication indicates the communication method between distant individuals through a medium except for direct verbal communication, mostly the postal service.
2) International Communication
            The study on international communications 1490-1800 looks at the communications over the borders before electricity and what we call 'globalization'. The communication methods, routes or situations that are significant to each region are explained.
3) Mass Communications
            Mass Communications is the communications method directed to the mass, by distributing information to a random population rather than delivering information to a specific receiver. In 1490-1800 the mass communications methods mainly include popular prints.
4) Miscellaneous
            When a communications method corresponds to more than one of or none of the above classifications, it is classified in a separate section. (Such as 'military communication')

III. Time and Place Researched

III.1 The Time Period
            This paper covers the world history of communications from 1490 to 1800. Thus throughout the most of this paper, the forms and changes of communications that appeared in each regions within that period are discussed. The events prior to 1490 that significantly affected the changes after 1490, such as Gutenberg's printing press, are also included.

III.2 The Division of Areas
            The global areas are divided into parts and then studied, based on the map of divisions from WHKMLA. (3) The debatable regions were classified considering the cultural influence, especially the features of communication.
1) Western Europe
            In the division used in this paper, there is no particular classification for Central Europe, so most of the areas often considered as Central Europe were included to 'Western Europe'. Thus the definition of Western Europe extends to the eastern border of Austrian Habsburg lands, from Ireland.
2) Eastern Europe
            Eastern Europe is considered to be the areas east to Austrian Habsburg lands and Holy Roman Empire, extending to Grand Duchy of Muscovy, including Poland-Lithuania and other small eastern states such as Moldavia and Wallachia. The Ottoman Empire, although large part of it included land geographically located in Eastern European, is not classified as Eastern Europe, considering its origins and cultural sphere.
3) West Asia
            West Asia refers to the area often called Southwest Asia, which is the westernmost portion of Asia. With regards to the time period of 1490 to 1800, this area is composed of mainly two rivaling states from 1500 onward, the Ottoman Empire and Iran, mainly that of the Safavid dynasty.
4) East Asia
            In this paper, East Asia refers to nations of significant size in the Eastern part of Asia, which is mainly China, Korea and Japan.
5) South America
            'South America' in this paper deals with pre-colonial South America, which is mainly the Inca Empire.

IV. Timeline of Major Events


       1050       Movable type printing invented in China
       1450       Johannes Gutenberg introduced printing press
       1489       Franz von Taxis became postmaster to the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I
       -1500       Incunabulas printed
       1605-09       First newspapers appear in Europe
       1650       First daily newspaper - Leipzig
       1714       Englishmen, Henry Mill receives the first patent for a typewriter
       1793       Claude Chappe invents the first long-distance semaphore (visual or optical) telegraph line.

V. World History of Communication by Areas

V.1 History of Communication in Western Europe, 1490-1800

V.1.1 Interpersonal Communication

V.1.1.1 Private postal services : Thurn und Taxis system
            The invention of the printing press in the 15th century increased the amount of mail and made letter carrying a profitable enterprise. Private postal services emerged to carry mail to all parts of Europe. (4) The most prominent was Thurn und Taxis system. Originally from Italy, the Taxis family's important postal activities began with Franz von Taxis, who served as postmaster to the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I from 1489 and to Philip I of Spain from 1504. Von Taxis secured the right to carry both government and private mail throughout the Holy Roman Empire and in Spain for a fee and thereby founded the first public-access mail service. The postal routes linked stations, placed at regular intervals, offering fresh horses to postal couriers who could continue on their journey without delay. Taxis hired many relatives to operate his vast network, and the family was granted a patent of nobility by Maximilian I in 1512. For the next 355 years, branches of the family operated local and national postal services in Spain, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, and the Low Countries (now the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg), working both with and against other couriers. (5) In 1615, Emperor Mathias rewarded the services of the family by granting the position of imperial postmaster general as a hereditary right in the male line of succession. (6)

V.1.1.2 State-owned postal services
            Although the remnants of the Thurn and Taxis postal system survived in Germany up to 1867, it was essentially out of keeping with the rise of nation-states in Europe with strong central governments. The first reflection of this trend in the postal sphere was the establishment of efficient national systems of relay posts under the control of the state. In France, Louis XI set up a Royal Postal Service in 1477 employing 230 mounted couriers. In England, a Master of the Posts was appointed by Henry VIII in 1516 to maintain a regular postal service along the main roads radiating from London. Neither of these systems was comprehensive, nor were they intended to serve the public. The security and regularity of the service along certain routes, however, inevitably resulted in an increasing amount of unofficial correspondence being carried. After initial attempts to prevent this practice in France, its fiscal advantages were realized, and the carrying of private mails was legalized about 1600. The basis of a real public service was not created until 1627, when fees and timetables were fixed and post offices established in the larger cities. In Britain, a separate public service was set up in 1635 by a royal proclamation "for the settling of the letter-office of England and Scotland." (7)

V.1.2 Mass Communication

V.1.2.1 Movable type printing of Johannes Gutenberg
            Printing technologies did exist in Europe before 1400s, as did primitive types of books and newspapers. Nonetheless, it was not until the introduction of movable type printing by Johannes Gutenberg that the mass communication methods in the West were actually shaped to fulfill the purpose of 'mass' communications. Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the global inventor of the printing press. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. The combination of these elements into a practical system allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. (8)

V.1.2.2 Newspapers
            With the invention of the movable type printing, popular prints started to develop rapidly to later exhibit the form of what we call newspapers. Before the invention of newspapers in the early 17th century, official government bulletins were circulated at times in some centralized empires. In Early modern Europe the increased cross-border interaction created a rising need for information which was met by concise handwritten newssheets. Broadsheets, also known as broadsides, were a common format in 1500s. In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte, which cost one gazetta. These were handwritten newsletters which conveyed political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently to Italian cities (1500-1700), sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers.
            Although scholars disagree on which is the first newspaper, it is often considered to be the German-language Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, printed from 1605 onwards by Johann Carolus in Strasbourg. During the early 17th century ewspapers started to appear in the other parts Western Europe. The first newspaper in France, La Gazette (originally published as Gazette de France) was published in 1631. (9) The first in English came in 1620. Although most of the traditional types of popular print lived on until the 19th century or beyond, they were by then part of a much wider print culture. (10)
            The spreading of newspaper together with increased literacy, led during the 17th and 18th centuries to the mass production of the news about public affairs and the establishment of a base of public opinions which governments ignored at their peril. In Europe, one nation after another saw the divine right of kings fall before public demand for reform. In addition to spreading the oppositions to the kings, the diffusion of a means of communication distributed the political power. The printing of news was awaited so eagerly, even by illiterate commoners who listened to reports read aloud, that those in power found themselves obliged to publish in order to assure support. (11)

V.1.2.3 Books
            Before Johannes Gutenberg, the number of manuscript books in Europe could be counted in thousands. By 1500, only 50 years after the introduction of new printing system, there were more than 9,000,000 books. The infantile books of this initial period are called 'incunabula'. For the first 100 years, until around 1550, however, the printing industry did not change much from its initial form. The printer dominated the book trade, often being his own typefounder, editor, publisher, and bookseller; only papermaking and, usually, bookbinding were outside his province.
            From the mid-16th through the 18th century, there were virtually no technical changes in the methods of book printing, but the organization of the trade moved gradually toward its modern form. The important matters in publishing, such as selecting the material to be printed and bearing the financial risk of its production, shifted from the printer to the bookseller and from the bookseller to the publisher in his own right; the author, too, at last came into his own. Literacy grew steadily and the book trade expanded, both within and beyond national boundaries. (12)

V.1.2.4 Censorship
            With the printing of books and popular prints in Europe came severe censorship as to what could be printed. The church at first welcomed printing, with bibles and other ecclesiastical literatures mass produced. However, such books had to compete with 1500 works of the humanist Erasmus or the heretic Martin Luther. As the works of the reformers swelled in volume and tone, the church censorship, which already existed from the middle ages, became increasingly harsh. The Inquisition was restored, and it was decreed in 1543 that no book might be printed or sold without permission from the church. List of banned books appeared. To avoid inquisition, some used fake imprint, putting a fictitious printer or place of publication on the title page, or omitting that information.
            From the 18th century censorship in most Western countries diminished. It was abolished in Sweden in 1766, in Denmark in 1770. The clearest statement came from the French National Assembly in 1789 : "The free communication of thought and opinion is one of the most precious rights of man; every citizen may therefore speak, write and print freely." (13)

V.1.3 Military Signals

V.1.3.1 Early military signals
            Another type of communication was signaling, with mediums such as flags, lights or music. Music served as an important ally on the battlefield. Battle signals were delivered using a curved animal horn, and the drum sound signaled marching pace. Flags were also an important part of military communication, especially for identifying purposes. Some examples of flag signals are banner, gonfanon, pennon, and standard, with each type its own particular use. The gonfanon, as well as the pennon, was carried at the head of a lance and served to identify the knight. The banner identified an individual, while the standard was used as the rallying point for troops in battle. Medieval ships, which sailed with their nations¡¯ flag to convey identity, also used flag and lantern communication. In the sixteenth century, codes based on the position and number of lights, flags, or cannon shots were developed. (14)

V.1.3.2 Renaissance and early modern military communications
            The advent of Renaissance brought revolution in military technology. Yet as the armies became both better trained and more professional, their size expanding by a factor of ten, coordination and signaling became much more difficult as well as important. Bastioned artillery fortresses made siege warfare both significant and complex, yet even the stationary communications methods failed to keep up, since the technology and methods of military communication changed very little through the course of nearly 400 years from the renaissance to 1800. The movement of messages and men by land transportation remained crude and slow. Naval forces developed efficient sailing ships other than oared fighting galleys, but maritime signaling methods also remained crude. Battlefield communication remained largely as it had for hundreds of years, heavily reliant on couriers. For example, large beacon signal fires helped communicating messages from the south coast to London at the time of the Spanish Armada (1588). The communication methods in the 17th century wars also resembled those of previous centuries, contributing to the confusion that plagued both sides in English Civil Wars (1642-1651).
            Still, some innovations were made, notably the development of many systems of mechanical semaphore. The invention of the telescope in 1608 prompted several early semaphore systems. In 1684, Robert Hook offered a semaphore system that utilized various shapes in daytime and torches at night. In 1790s, Claude Chappe developed a widely used optical semaphore system. (15) In 1760s, Irishman Richard Lovell Edgeworth proposed his 'tellograph', which is one of the first proposals for a complete signaling system. Some other methods were developed and used in this period, in addition to the development of postal services which were often used for military messages. (16)

V.2 History of Communication in Eastern Europe, 1490-1800

V.2.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
            In early Eastern Europe, Russia developed its own postal system. There are records of a system of messengers in the 10th century. By the 16th century, the postal system included 1,600 locations, and mail took 3 days to travel from Moscow to Novgorod. Peter the Great enacted reforms making the postal system more uniform in its operations, and in 1716 the first post offices opened in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. The earliest known Russian postmark dates from July 1765; a single line reading "ST.PETERSBOVRG" in Latin, but the first official recommendation to use postmarks did not come until 1781. (17)
            Poland had its own postal system as well. From 1300s, merchants organized a private system, replacing foot couriers with horse riders. In 1558, King Zygmunt August II of Poland officially appointed Prospero Provano, an Italian merchant living in Krakow, to organize a postal service in Poland. He merged all the private postal services into a single postal service, getting paid annually and carrying Royal mails for free. Then, as Thurn and Taxis system spread throughout Europe, the king transferred Polish postal system to the Taxis family by paying them as Provano in 1562, but due to Christopher Taxis¡¯ extravagance, the contract was terminated. The Polish kings continued national postal services by appointing the administrators and contracting with them. In the process, world's first uniform postal rate was introduced. (18)

V.2.2 International Communication : Russian Communication with the West
            In the case of Poland, a monthly postal service from Krakow to Rome was introduced in 1530 by the Fugger bankers of Augsburg. (19) Russia, however, was blocked from the contact with the West European countries, and remained fairly isolated. When Ivan the Terrible became the tsar in 1547, he realized the backwardness of Russia compared to the West, and he sent invitation to western specialists. Although many specialists such as doctors and tradesmen tried to enter Russia, they were blocked by the neighboring countries who wanted Russia to remain isolated. The first real break came in 1554, when the English navigator, Chancellor, found his way to Moscow through Archangelsk in his search for the North-west passage. Archangelsk would serve as Russia's only connection to the sea until Peter the Great. Peter the Great, the tsar from 1682, had great curiosity for the west. He visited the foreign suburb of Moscow, dining and mingling with the westerners and making friends with them. Peter spent great time in Archangel, supervising the construction of many ships as well as conversing with many Dutch and English captains. He conducted Azov Campaign, reforming the army and finally acquiring the Baltic Sea. In 1703, the port city of St. Petersburg was established on the acquired lands, and the opportunity for Russian communication with the West was wide open. (20)

V.2.3 Mass Communication

V.2.3.1 Printing Technology
            Unlike Russia, Poland had been in contact with the West for a long time. In Krakow, the capital of Poland, artists and merchants from Western Europe had already been present in 15th century. Cities of northern Polish province of Royal Prussia, like the Hanseatic League city of Danzig (Gdansk), had established printing houses early on. Only a few years after Gutenberg's introduction of printing press, printing shops were opened in Poland. (21) In Russia, there are the records of the books published are around 1550, but printing in Russia remained confined to the print office established by Fedorov in Moscow until Peter the Great. (22) The records are futile for the rest of the Eastern Europe.

V.2.3.2 Newspapers
            In Russia, Czar Alexis (1645-1676) published a type of newspaper under the name of "Current News", but it was intended only for the immediate entourage of the Emperor. The real founder of the Russian press was Peter the Great, who started the St. Petersburg Gazette around 1700. After this, a number of other periodicals followed. The Russian press, however, has always been under strict censorship. The Czar only allowed the publications that are perfectly agreeable. Therefore the periodicals were entirely literary, never venturing on the dangerous ground of politics, unless by the order of the government. (23) On the contrary to its advance in adapting printing press, Poland saw late appearance of newspaper. The first polish newspaper was The Monitor, published from 1765 to 1785. Although it appeared late, it was superior to the Russian newspaper in terms of liberality. Inspired by the English Spectator and the spirit of rationalism and religious tolerance, Monitor has contributed to a negative view of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth under the elected kings of the Wettin dynasty. (24)

V.3 History of Communication in West Asia, 1490-1800

V.3.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
            The Ottoman Empire failed to establish its own postal system although in 16th century it had certain systems that worked with couriers. In the 18th century, foreign countries maintained courier services through their official missions in the Empire, to permit transportation of mail between those countries and Constantinople. In the 19th century, Nine countries had negotiated "Capitulations" with the Ottomans, which granted various rights in exchange for trade opportunities. Such agreements permitted Russia, Austria, France, Great Britain and Greece, as well as Germany, Italy, Poland, and Romania, to maintain post offices in the Ottoman Empire. Some of these developed into public mail services, used to transmit mail to Europe. (25)
            Iran adhered to the form of courier system established during the Persian Empire. The Persian system worked on stations called Chapar-Khaneh, where the message carrier called Chapar would ride to the next post, whereupon he would swap his horse with a fresh one, for maximum performance and delivery speed. (26)

V.3.2 International Communication
            The foreign post offices worked in Ottoman Empire as the route for international communication as well as national post system. Those postal offices built in cities like Istanbul provided postal systems for merchants and made communication between the West and Ottoman Empire easy, but only in the Western perspective. Partly because of its strong religiousness, Ottoman Empire had little Western influence in its culture.

V.3.3 Mass Communication : Printing
            In Iran, the history of printing is intermittent, starting in the mid-17th century with Zaboor-e Davood in Jolfa. (27) Printing was forbidden in the Ottoman lands by a decree of Sultan Bayezid II issued in 1485. Nonetheless, the new technology of book production was introduced by Jewish refugees from Spain. By the early 16th century, presses were established in Istanbul and Salonika, and in a number of other Turkish cities in the following years. They were granted permission to print under the condition that they did not print in Turkish or Arabic character, probably out of the belief that it would be sacrilegious to used the Western press for Muslim texts or languages. The Jewish presses, therefore, confined their work on the printing of Hebrew books, as well as a few in European languages. Later Arabic printings were mainly for religious use. Printing in Arabic characters was only authorized in 1727, but only a small number of books were printed. (28)
            Overall, Ottoman Empire lagged behind in the domestic communications system compared to the size of its land, which ultimately worked as a cause for the decline of the Empire.

V.4 History of Communication in East Asia, 1490-1800

V.4.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
            China is considered to be the first country to develop a posthouse relay system. The system worked by constructing many stations where the deliverer could be provided with a healthy horse. According to Marco Polo's account in , China under Kubilai Kahn had 300,000 horses and 10,000 post houses which could deliver mail all over the country in a few days. The system started to handle private mails since the Yuan dynasty. (29)
            Korea also established its own relay postal system, imitating that of China. The deliverer either walked or rode a horse. This system in Korea, however, was strictly not for 'interpersonal communications' since it was used only for governmental purpose. The post stations were used for official message delivery, and also tribute delivery, aiding the effective rule of the central government. They provided lodging and other conveniences to the deliverers in addition to new horses. (30)

V.4.2 International Communication : Interchanges between Korea, Japan and China
            Although there was no established system for international communication, the countries in East Asia, which were only a small number of political entities located closely, engaged in active communication. One important feature of the communications between East Asian nations was that China stood as the powerful center among them.
            The East Asian countries communicated official matters by sending messengers. Most of the messengers¡¯ functions were beyond mere delivery. They played the role of ambassadors, often with great formality. Also when lesser nations received messengers from higher nations, they maintained much courtesy. Korea under the Joseon dynasty had the system of regular messengers to Ming China each with unique functions, from delivering tribute to reporting national affairs. Even for special occasions, there were different titles for messengers of different types of messages, showing the gravity of the messengers¡¯ role in international politics. Since East Asia did not have widely accepted lingua franca, Korea had a government institution for translation and language education which handled languages such as Chinese, Mongolian, and Japanese. The messengers were accompanied by translators from this department. (31)

V.4.3 Mass Communication

V.4.3.1 Printing technology
            East Asia was centuries advanced to Europe in terms of printing. The first known movable type printing was created in China by Bi Cheng out of porcelain. In 1200s, Korea has already invented a metal type movable printing. Although China was the origin of printing, Korea actively developed the technology and almost surpassed China in terms of technologies. There were hundreds of printing houses in China and Korea, many of them run by the government. Private printing existed as well, printing personal works and educational materials, contributing to public education. Although the printing was not as industrialize as in the West, book printings for private commercial purposes still existed. (32) In Japan, although the Jesuits operated a Western movable type printing-press in Nagasaki, Japan, printing equipment brought back by Toyotomi Hideyoshi's army from Korea, in 1593 after a war, had far greater influence on the development of the medium. Japan faced significant developments in its culture and politics after the introduction of new printing system. (33)

V.4.3.2 Newspapers
            In contrary to the rapid development of printing technology, strongly centralized East Asia did not develop influential newspaper targeting the mass, until modern newspapers were introduced by Europeans. Only forerunners of newspapers existed, with limited content and circulation.
            Tipao were palace report or imperial bulletin or gazettes published by central and local Chinese governments. Their first publications are debated. Tipao contained official announcements and news, and were intended to be seen only by bureaucrats (and a given tipao might only be intended for a certain subset of bureaucrats). Selected items from a gazette might then be conveyed to local citizenry by word of mouth or posted announcements. Before the invention of print they were hand-written or printed with wooden blocks. The introduction of European-style Chinese language newspapers, along with the growing intersection of Chinese and global affairs generally, resulted in its decline. (34)
            Korea and Japan had operations similar to China before modernization in the 19th century. Korea had official newspaper named 'Chobo'. In 1577, private newspaper imitating the Chobo appeared, but the king resented the possibility of national secrets being leaked to neighboring countries, so it was banned after a few months, related persons punished. (35)

V.5 History of Communication in Pre-colonial South America

V.5.1 Interpersonal Communication : the Postal System
            Inca had a postal system similar to that of the Aztecs. The Incan posts, however, established on the great roads of the Incan Empire, were much better planned. Along the routes, there were small buildings at the distance of less than five miles, in each of which a number of runners called chaquis were stationed. They carried the dispatches of government, which were either verbal or recorded in quipu, the unique Incan recording devices of knotted cords. The chaquis were all trained to the employment, and selected based on their speed and fidelity. Since the distance each chaqui had to run was small, they ran with great swiftness. They frequently brought various articles to the Court in addition to dispatches. (36)

V.5.2 International Communication
            Although the Incan empire was formed as one vast empire in which several small entities were merged, and the population was scarce in the rest of the South America, the Incans still did communicate with the outside world. By means of a regular barter trade with the Amazon forest Indians beyond the Incan frontier, the Incas obtained the tropical feathers with which they adorned themselves, as well as resins and medicinal plants. (37) the Inca built seagoing vessels called balsas for fishing, trade, construction, transport and military purposes, by weaving together totora reeds. This vessel secured them contact over huge distances along the Pacific coast, from the Peruvian coast to Acapulco. (38) This vessel would have made the communication with North American tribes possible.

V.5.3 Mass Communication
            The Incan civilization did not have significant communications system that could be named as mass communications. Not only did they not have writing system (although they had the quipu), but also had too many languages. Father Bernabe Cobo, a Jesuit scholar of the 17th century, writes in his book that "I think it is probable that there are more than two thousand of these languages." Each tribe in each valley had different dialects and it was impossible from the beginning to have mass communications system. According to Cobo, "They have had no books in which to conserve their language... these Indians did not have any commerce with one another either ... Each one of these nations was content to live with the things which were available within its own boundaries." (39) It seems that although the Incan tribes were under the control of one dynasty, but in domestic scale, common people were still living as separate tribes without communication method to closely combine them.

VI. Conclusion & Reflections

VI.1 Events and Phenomena that Occurred Globally

VI.1.1 Interchanged Development : the Printing Technologies
            The development of printing technology can be divided into two spheres: the West and the East. Although the connection between the Western and Eastern printing technologies remain vague, the interactions within each domain were rather significant. The keystone of the Western printing technology can be summarized into one proper noun: Gutenberg. The impact of Gutenberg's invention was as wide-ranged as the impact of Christianity, including the whole European continent and beyond. Within a few decades after the invention of the printing press, it was spread all over the Western Europe, millions of books were printed, and even the isolated Russia was soon under its influence. The coincidence of colonial discoveries widened the range of its impact, with Europeans building extra-European printing shops in the Americas and South Asia. Although many non-European entities such as the Ottoman Empire were reluctant to adopt the technology due to lack of interest and religious reasons, they eventually did. This all happened within the 16th century. The Eastern printing technology, although developed much earlier than in the West, was more limited in its range of impact, mostly within the East Asian countries. The printing technology significantly aided book printing, especially for educational and religious purposes. Still, however, the movable type printing was not widely used, one reason being that Chinese character (which was used all over the East Asia) was too complicated.

VI.1.2 Simultaneous Development without Interaction : the Postal Systems
            While the invention of the printing technology can be summarized into two main areas, the development of the post system occurred in a wider range, including relatively less complicated societies. The development of postal system displays remarkable similarity between remote regions. The relay system of postal houses seems to appear in any significant nation. Even though East Asia never had a contact with South America in the time of the Inca Empire, their postal systems are almost alike except the fact that East Asia utilized horse-riding. Thurn und Taxis system, the more systemized, wide-ranged postal industry, also operates under similar basis. The global history of postal system provides a good example of how humans seem to share the process of developing a civilization.

VI.2 Distinctions between Different Areas
            Even though various civilizations shared similar systems, either inter-influenced or remotely developed, different cultures adopted similar systems in different ways. The differences could be technical, political, or cultural.

VI.2.1 Interpersonal Communication
            The relay post system was operated either with or without horses. The civilizations which developed horseback riding, such as Europe or East Asia, utilized this for the postal system, whereas others such as the Incans operated with running couriers.
            Many postal systems of centralized civilizations did not handle private mails. In highly centralized East Asia, the official postal system was built only for the purpose of the effective administration of the court. For the nobility, private mails were usually carried by privately-owned servants but no significant system was established for private mailing. This was also true for the Inca Empire, especially since the Incans were still living in separate tribes and there was no great need for any private postal system. Thurn und Taxis system, on the other hand, was a commercialized system not established by the government. Later in Europe, state-owned system which handles private mailing also developed.

VI.2.2 International Communication
            The communication between the European nations was relatively easy, with Thurn und Taxis system being international and most of the nations connected within one continent. The communications between East Asian nations demanded great formality, with China in the center. The official message deliverers had greater significance than they had in Europe, often handling more than simply a message. The international communications in South America was far less political, mostly taking place in the form of barter trade.

VI.2.3 Mass Communication
            The system of mass communications significantly differed between different regions. Although printing technology developed both in the East and the West, it was not as much utilized in the East. The mass media most thrived in Western Europe, with newspapers and periodicals, under relatively moderate censorship. Although Eastern Europe also developed its own newspapers, they were either government-centered or strictly censored. In East Asia, the only officially permitted mass media was the government newspaper, which was not directed to the public. All these areas had printing technologies and book printing was widespread.
            In West Asia, strict religiousness hindered the development of mass communications. The most important requirement in Ottoman Empire was to be not sacrilegious. Some books were printed after the late adoption of printing press, but they were small in their number and were strictly regulated. South America did not develop mass communications system for other reasons. The sparse population using diverse languages in each tribal society neither could nor felt the need to have a mass communications system. Without writing system, Incan quipu recordings were used only for governmental purpose such as taxation.

VI.3 The East and the West

VI.3.1 The Major Difference in the Developments of Popular Prints (regarding the Korean Treatise "The Reason for Retardation in Eastern Asian Developments of Newspapers")"
            Gutenberg's invention of printing press is considered to have significantly contributed to the changes in the European society. The printing technology not only changed the forms of communication but further brought about changes in social hierarchy. If that is the case, East Asia, with its early development of printing technology, should have seen that change before the European world did. However, not to mention that the printing technology did not result in the fundamental change of the social formation in East Asia, it did not even bring about significant change in the state of communications. On the surface, the reason seems to be that the centralized East Asian government imposed too much control over the printed materials. This, however, was also true for Europe right after the invention of the printing press. A Korean treatise on East Asia's retardation of modern newspapers by Minhwan Kim tries to find explanation in religious, political, and economic aspect. East Asian monarchy was highly influenced by Confucianism. With Confucianism combined absolutism, strictly hierarchal bureaucracy developed, in which the governmental control was absolute. Agriculture much outvalued commerce and industry both legally and socially, hindering the growth of bourgeoisie. Since the importance of market was not huge, there was no great need for information exchange. The printing technology remained as the tool for already existed central rule and educational materials, but not for any change in them.

VI.3.2 Johannes Gutenberg and China : the Relations
            If movable type printing developed in China centuries before Gutenberg, what had he known about Chinese printing when he invented the Western printing press? The answer will probably never be known, but it is possible to speculate based on the hints in the history. The East and West had long been communicating through the Silk Road. Although there is no clear evidence that movable type printing had traveled to the West from the Orient before Gutenberg, but block printing might had. China produced countless books by block-printing, and they could have reached the West since some block printing has also been done in Europe. The early block printing was not only of writings, but also paintings. Many religious drawings were block-printed in China and in the West as well. The card decks with block-printed image might have traveled through the Silk Road. Missionaries and other travelers relayed information that the Chinese invented paper, played with printed cards, spent printed paper money, and treasured printed religious pictures. Block printing had been unknown to the Europe of the Dark Ages, where monks patiently copied manuscripts. Between China and Europe lay the Islamic world, which refused the printing technology. The first mention in European literature of the Chinese invention of printing comes in 1546, a century after Gutenberg's 42-line Bible was printed, from the Italian historian Jovius, who examined printed books brought from China by Portuguese travelers and concluded that European printing derived from China. It is possible that the missionaries knew that a great number of books were printed in China.
           

VII. Notes
           
(1)      Merriam-Webster online dictionary, entry 'communication'
(2)      Wikipedia article : 'Communication'
(3)      WHKMLA atlas for term papers
(4)      LookD.com, article 'Postal History'
(5)      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Thurn and Taxis Postal System'
(6)      Thurn und Taxis Post website
(7)      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Growth of the Post as a Government Monopoly'
(8)      Wikipedia article: 'Johannes Gutenberg'
(9)      Wikipedia article: 'newspaper'
(10)      Wikipedia article: 'Popular Prints'
(11)      Fang 1997 p.33
(12)      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Publishing'
(13)      Ibid.
(14)      Sterling 2007, Article: 'Medieval Military Signaling (500-1500 CE)' pp.286-287
(15)      Ibid., article 'Chappe, Claude (1763-1805)' pp.76-77
(16)      Ibid., article 'Renaissance and Early Modern Military Signals (1450-1800)' pp.376-377
(17)      Wikipedia article: 'Postage Stamps and Postal History of Russia'
(18)      Wikipedia article: 'Postage Stamps and Postal History of Poland'
(19)      ibid.
(20)      All Empires article 'Moscow and Peter the Great'
(21)      Wikipedia article: 'History of Printing in Poland'
(22)      Wikipedia article: 'Global Spread of the Printing Press'
(23)      The New York Times, 'Newspaper of Russia: History of the Press under the Czars - the Modern Censorship', November 6, 1898
(24)      Wikipedia article: 'Monitor (Polish Newspaper)'
(25)      Wikipedia article: 'Postage Stamps and Postal History of Turkey'
(26)      Wikipedia article: Mail : Persia
(27)      Iran Chamber Society, article 'Origins of Printing in Iran' http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/origins_printing_iran.php
(28)      Lewis 1996
(29)      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Postal System'
(30)      Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation
(31)      Naver Encyclopedia, article on Joseon translation institution
(32)      Naver Encyclopedia, article on private books in Joseon
(33)      Wikipedia article: 'History of Typography in East Asia'
(34)      Wikipedia article: 'Tipao'
(35)      Naver Encyclopedia, article on the Chobo
(36)      Prescott 1847 p.26
(37)      The Odyssey - Peru Excerpts
(38)      Silverman 2008 p.519
(39)      Cobo 1653 pp.39-42


Bibliography 1.      Merriam-Webster online dictionary, entry 'communication', http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/communication
2.      Wikipedia article: ¡°Communication¡± http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication
3.      Thurn und Taxis Post website http://www.thurnundtaxis.de/en/family/in-regensburg-for-250-years/post.html
4.      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Growth of the Post as a Government Monopoly' http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/472092/postal-system/15425/Growth-of-the-post-as-a-government-monopoly?anchor=ref367074
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16.      The New York Times, 'Newspaper of Russia: History of the Press under the Czars - the Modern Censorship', November 6, 1898, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10A13FB3B5416738DDDAF0894D9415B8885F0D3
17.      Wikipedia article: 'Monitor (Polish Newspaper)' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monitor_(Polish_newspaper)
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24.      The reason for retardation in Eastern Asian developments of Newspapers, Min-hwan Kim, 1999
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26.      The History of Communication Timeline, from about.com, http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_history_of_communication.htm
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30.      Wikipedia article: 'History of Typography in East Asia' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_typography_in_East_Asia
31.      Wikipedia article: 'Tipao' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipao
32.      Naver Encyclopedia, article on the Chobo (in Korean), http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=138451
33.      History of the Conquest of Peru, William H. Prescott, 1847
34.      The Odyssey - Peru Excerpts, http://www.worldtrek.org/odyssey/teachers/peruexcerpts/merchantexcerpt.html
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38.      Wikipedia article: 'Inca Society' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inca_society
39.      Wikipedia article : "History of Printing" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_printing
40.      Europe Political Map, 1600, http://mapsof.net/europe/static-maps/jpg/europe-political-map-1600, 1700, http://mapsof.net/europe/static-maps/jpg/europe-political-map-1700, from: Maps Of 41.      The Map of Islamic Middle East by Time Periods, from: Vam, http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1342_islamic_middle_east/map/
42.      LookD.com, article 'Postal History' http://www.lookd.com/postal/history.html
43.      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Thurn and Taxis Postal System' http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/594446/Thurn-and-Taxis-postal-ystem?anchor=ref76935
44.      Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article 'Postal System' http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/472092/postal-system/15422/History



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