Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenove Kalergi and the Paneuropa Movement

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

First Draft , March 4th 2011
Timeline , Dec. 14th 2010
Appendix , Dec. 13th 2010
Introduction , Dec. 13th 2010
References , Dec. 13th 2010
Working Table of Contents , Dec. 13th 2010

First Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction
II. Coudenhove Kalergi's Pan-European Movement
II.1. Beginnings of an Idea
II.2. The Movement Strikes Roots across Europe and the United States
II.3. Development of the Movement with Briand and Stresemann
II.4. The Movement in Ruins: Hitler and the Vienna, Paris and Prague Axis
II.5. The London-Paris Axis
II.6. The European Congress in Exile and Gaining American Support
II.7. Creating the Concrete Framework of the European Union
III. Spreading the Idea
III.1. Convincing the Politicians
III.2. Organizing Conferences
III.3. Influencing the Media
III.4. Winning over the Public
IV. Beginnings of an Idea
IV.1. Convincing the Politicians
IV.2. Winning Over the People
IV.3. Influencing the Media
IV.4. Analysis

XI. Conclusion
XII. Notes
XIII. References
Appendix: List of People Related to the Pan-European Movement

I. Introduction
            "As long as thousands believe in Pan-Europe, it remains a utopia; as soon as millions believe in it, it becomes a program; but once hundred millions believe in it, it is a reality." (1)
            And as Coudenhove firmly believed, the European Union has now become a firm, solid reality. True, the European Union still has many issues it has to solve such as the sovereign debt crisis in Greece and the acceptance of new members. However, the existence of the European Union and its strong presence in the international world can no longer be denied contrary to the general skepticism of Europeans before its ..
            Generally, Winston Churchill, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet and Paul-Henri Spaak (This is debatable, I am not sure about who should be mentioned as being most credited for the establishment of the European Union) are credited for successfully overcoming the skepticism of the Europeans and creating the European Union. Likewise, most history books only cover the history of the European Union from the end of WWII when it was actually being discussed and implemented in various fields.
            However, this rapid establishment of the European Union couldn't have been possible if the idea of United Europe hadn't already been widely spread across the continent over the course of a few decades. This was thanks to Coudenhove and his Pan-European movement which had actively spread and planted the idea of Pan-Europe to the European audience beginning from 1920. Therefore, Coudenhove played a significant and a very important role in the successful accomplishment of the Union a few decades later and should be credited just as much as the other politicians. Unfortunately this is the not the case.
            In this context, this paper aims to shed a new light on the often ignored Pan-European movement and Coudenhove Kalergi, especially on how Coudenhove Kalergi successfully won over politicians, the media and the public. The paper will first divide the years from 1920 to 1950 into sub-periods according to how the movement was developing. Then under each sub-period this paper will examine how Coudenhove Kalergi made use of the media, conferences and speeches to successfully convince many people toward his idea of a United Europe.
            Depending on the period, some methods of persuasion were more productive or bore fruit earlier than the others. Also, in each period Coudenhove had to apply different tactics of persuasion depending on the particular interests of the nation, politicians, people working in the media and the public. Therefore, after providing an overview of how Coudenhove convinced the people toward the Pan-European idea, this paper will analyze which method was most productive during a specific time period and discuss how Coudenhove successfully took in to account the various interests of people when winning them over to his idea.

II. Coudenhove Kalergi's Pan-European Movement

II.1 Beginnings of an Idea
            In 1919, WWI was finally over and peace seemed to have returned to the European continent. Soon however signs of disintegration and tension within the continent appeared. Dissatisfaction with the Paris Treaties emerged in many countries such as Germany, Turkey and Hungary. Also, victorious countries as well as the defeated went through severe economic decline. Especially in Germany, people refused to accept the Versailles Treaty and regarded their current government as traitors who had signed the armistice. In addition, severe economic difficulties created by the war reparations created an social environment full of despair and instability in which the seeds of Nazism and anti-Semitism were spread. Europe seemed to be heading rapidly towards another big confrontation.
            In this situation, Coudenhove believed that the only hope for securing long-lasting peace for the European Continent was the League of Nations. However, this hope was soon shattered as the American Senate refused to ratify the Covenant of the League. In the continent, each government's nationalist interests had taken over its original goals of peace and freedom created the possibility of another European civil conflict. This risk led America to pursue an isolationist policy in order not to get involved in European problems. Unfortunately, Coudenhove knew that without America the "League could never be more than a fragmentary institution, doomed to ultimate failure." (2)
            As Coudenhove tried to find a formula that would enable the United States to join the League of Nations without giving up its own Monroe Doctrine, he reached the conclusion that the solution would be the merging of 26 European democracies into one large union. "Then the United States would find it easy to join the League since she would no longer risk being entangled in European conflicts." (3) Also the Union of European nations would ensure a peaceful and quick rise in the European standard of living by a system of military alliances, a customs union, a common currency and an effective safeguard for minorities. In addition, Coudenhove anticipated that a Pan-Europe would be an effective solution against the mounting Russian threat.
            To successfully fulfill the European Union, Coudenhove believed that one group of powers should take the initiative. Since France was then dominated by Poincare's nationalist majority, Germany was distrusted across the European continent, Italy was rent asunder by internal dissent, and England had its Empire preventing it from becoming excessively involved in the Pan-European movement the only group of powers able to take the initiative was the Little Entente consisting of Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Therefore Coudenhove decided to start spreading his idea from Prague, Czechoslovakia.
            Although Coudenhove continuously sought a European politician of stature who would turn his idea into the leading theme of European foreign policy, he ultimately failed in gaining government support. Undiscouraged Coudenhove took the movement into his own hands. The publication of his book Pan-Europe in 1923 brought in thousands of members and a significant amount of donation. With the donation Coudenhove appointed two trustees: Geheimrat Fritsch of the Dresdner Bank for the German tranche and Vice-President Brosche of the Kreditanstalt for the Austrian tranche. In 1925, the Austrian Government allowed the movement to use the former imperial palace in Vienna as Pan-European headquarters. Consequently Austria became the center of the Pan-European movement in its formative years.

II.2. The Movement Strikes Roots across Europe and the United States
II.3. Development of the Movement with Briand and Stresemann
II.4. The Movement in Ruins: Hitler and the Vienna, Paris and Prague Axis
II.5. The London-Paris Axis
II.6. The European Congress in Exile and Gaining American Support
II.7. Creating the Concrete Framework of the European Union

(I've written most of this part but they all need to be revised and reorganized. So ... it's a little embarrassing to present to you at the moment ...)

III. Spreading the Idea
            From his first meeting with President Masaryk in 1921 to his death in 1972, Coudenhove actively propagated the idea of Pan-Europe in various manners. This paper will divide Coudenhove's efforts in convincing other people towards the idea of Pan-Europe into 4 categories: convincing the politicians, influencing the media, winning over the public and organizing conferences. In certain periods of the movement, Coudenhove attempted to achieve one category before he pursued the course of the other categories. Therefore, the categories will not always be discussed in the order mentioned above, but rather in the order that Coudenhove attempted first. This will be more effective in understanding how the movement developed with time and also in discerning the cause and result relationships between some of the categories ..

III.1 Convincing the Politicians
            Since the realization of Pan-Europe was virtually impossible without government initiative or help, Coudenhove put in a lot of effort in convincing politicians to participate in the Pan-European movement. In the beginning he tried to persuade the politicians by writing personal letters to them or by sending articles to them concerning the Pan-European idea. As the movement began to gain popularity he was able to attend congresses and give speeches to a wide audience of politicians. In addition, the few politicians he had met earlier on in the movement furthered Coudenhove's contacts by arranging personal meetings with other influential people.

III.2 Organizing Conferences
            Once Coudenhove succeeded in convincing a few politicians about the necessity and benefits of a Pan-European Union, he frequently organized conferences where many people could attend and share their views and opinions about Pan-Europe. These conferences first began as simple meetings where people cautiously discussed their views to full-fledged Pan-European congresses where they discussed the constitution and organization of the European Union.

III.3 Influencing the Media
            Influencing the media was vital in not only changing the public's opinion but also in grabbing the attention of the government and its politicians. Coudenhove influenced the attitude the media took towards the Pan-European idea by making personal friendships with editors and journalists of periodicals and also regularly contributing articles to these periodicals. In addition, speeches of certain politicians in favor of the Pan-European movement and Pan-European conferences attended by prestigious people played a favorable role in warming the mediaí»s attitude towards the movement.

III.4 Winning over the Public
            Coudenhove won over the public by publishing books and pamphlets targeted to the ordinary people and also giving tours while traveling all over the European continent and Northern America. Moreover, the politicians Coudenhove succeeded in convincing played an important role in winning over the support and trust of the general public. The public who had been supportive of a certain government official was likely to support the movement as well if that government official announced his favorable views toward the movement and the Pan-European idea. In addition, conferences attended by prestigious Europeans and Americans and the media reports on the workings on the movement played a substantial role in winning over the public's opinion.

IV. Beginnings of an Idea

IV.1 Convincing the Politicians
            Coudenhove decided that Prague was the most appropriate place to start the movement since it was the center of the Little Entente and also a close ally of France. (Moreover, most of the other European powers couldn't take on this initiative. For instance, France was under Poincare's nationalist government, Germany was distrusted by most Europeans and Britain had its allegiance to the Commonwealth.) Also, Czechoslovakia's President Thomas G. Masaryk was not only the "unrivaled moral and political leader of his nation" (4) but also a European statesman "widely respected for his wisdom and moral authority." (5) Coudenhove first sent Masaryk copies of various articles on political and moral issues written by himself. This proved to be a wise move as after Masaryk had read the manuscripts he agreed to meet Coudenhove in Prague in 1921. In the meeting Coudenhove explained to Masaryk about his plans of a Pan-Europe and asked him whether he would consider backing it. Masaryk agreed that "the day will come when the United States of Europe will be established" (6) but said that he didn't think the time for a Pan-Europe was ripe yet. Also as head of a state, Masaryk explained that he could not pledge any personal co-operation with the Pan-European movement without engaging or perhaps compromising his government. Although Coudenhove gained a sponsor and an advisor with his meeting with President Masaryk he was unable to obtain the active political support that he badly needed.
            In 1922 Mussolini assumed control of the Italian government. Coudenhove knew that for Mussolini to raise the prestige of his nation and his own Mussolini would have "to achieve diplomatic rather than military victories." (7) Therefore, Coudenhove had good reason to believe that Mussolini would be tempted to bring about European federation and make Rome the Washington of Europe. In February 22 1923, Coudenhove wrote a letter to Mussolini which he published in the Vienna Neue Freie Presse. In his letter Coudenhove explained how the European Union was the only solution against American competition and Russian expansionism and in the long run a guarantee of prosperity, peace, and independence of the Continent. (8) Unfortunately, no answer came from Mussolini. Consequently Coudenhove "decided to lose no further time with leading statesmen and to organize the movement alone, without any official backing." (9)

IV.2 Winning over the People
            Coudenhove's meeting with President Masaryk convinced him that no governmental action in favor of Pan-Europe could be expected for the time being. Coudenhove took action into his own hands and set out to establish contact with all organizations and people who shared his views on Pan-Europe. In 1922, Coudenhove published a draft of his program in the Berlin Vossische Zeitung and the Vienna Neue Freie Presse. These articles resulted in 51 applications to join the Pan-European Union.
            In 1923 Coudenhove published a book titled Pan-Europe from his own publishing house the Paneuropa Verlag. The book was dedicated to the youth of Europe urging them to take action in creating a united Europe. In the preface of the book Coudenhove writes that "the only force that can achieve Pan-Europe is the will of Europeans." (10) Each copy of the book included a card requesting membership of the Pan-European Union. "More than a thousand members enrolled in the first month alone, and henceforth every mail brought a mass of new applications." (11) Although the book was first published in German, within a few years the book was translated into almost all European languages and even in Japanese and Esperanto. In addition, one of the readers of the book, Max Warburg of Hamburg immediately offered a donation of sixty thousand gold marks which Coudenhove used to create the basic frameworks of the Pan-European Union.
            Beginning in April 1924, the journal Paneuropa was published ten times a year by its publishing house as the official organ of the Pan-European Union. This journal was published until March 1938 and Coundehove worked as its editor and principal author.

IV.3 Influencing the Media
            In 1923, Vienna became the center of the movement since the Austrian government had obligingly allowed the Pan-European Union to use the Imperial Palace in Vienna. The Vienna newspapers were favorable to the movement from the beginning. "This was due largely of the initiative of the Neue Freie Presse whose editor, Dr. Ernst Benedikt and his wife were good friends of" (12) the Coudenhoves. Not only did Neue Freie Presse publish Coudenhove's vision of a politically, economically and militarily united Europe in the article "Pan-Europa - a proposal" (13) but also his letter to Mussolini in 1923 and many more.

IV.4 Analysis
            When Coudenhove first formulated the idea of a politically, economically and militarily united Europe, he initially sought out a prestigious statesman who could make his idea into one of the leading policies of European foreign policies. With this intention in mind, he met in turn Masaryk, president of Czechoslovakia, and Mussolini, the newly appointed Prime Minister of Italy. It should be noted how Coudenhove carefully weighed his options when he chose Masaryk as the first person to ask to take the programí»s initiative. First of all, Masaryk was a well respected leader of his nation and had a favorable reputation across Europe making him an appropriate leader for such a program. In addition, at that time Czechoslovakia was the only possible European nation who could have carried out such a program and win the support of all European nations. Coudenhove's approach in convincing Masaryk was fairly simplistic. He sent Masaryk a few articles that he had written hoping that it would catch his attention, and when he received an invitation he tried his best to explain to Masaryk the benefits of a United Europe. Perhaps because Coudenhove failed to provide Masaryk a strong enough motivation: a concrete benefit for him and his nation if Masaryk was to initiate the Pan-European program, he failed in persuading Masaryk to launch the program.
            The next person that Coudenhove chose to convince was Mussolini, the newly elected Prime Minister of Italy. Since he was newly elected Coudenhove didn't yet know for sure what foreign policy Mussolini would take, on the other hand, Coudenhove knew for sure that Mussolini needed to raise the reputation and prestige of himself and his nation since he had newly arrived. With this in mind, Coudenhove published a letter addressed to Mussolini in which he attempted to incite Mussolini's interest in the idea by implying that Mussolini could become the main leader behind a United Europe and that Rome could become the Washington of the United States of Europe. Thus Coudenhove specifically used the fact that Mussolini was an ambitious newly elected prime minister in need of a rise in international reputation towards his own purpose. Unfortunately, Coudenhove didn't receive any reply letter from Mussolini. His failure in convincing Mussolini could perhaps have been predicted if Coudenhove had had a true understanding of Mussolini's political views. True, Mussolini did have a wish of expansionism but that was of a totally nationalistic kind and not fitting with the European view that Coudenhove had. Thus, if Coudenhove had known that he could have taken on a different approach in persuading Mussolini.
            Contrary to what Coudenhove had first envisioned when he formulated the idea, the most productive method of persuasion in this period turned out to be not persuading politicians, but reaching out to the public directly. Most politicians at that time were skeptical and also cautious about taking on an idea that didn't have any public support or at that recognition. However the public, thankfully, were more easy to win over. Through books, pamphlets and articles published in newspapers Coudenhove diligently worked to spread his idea. His idea of including a card requesting for membership of the movement proved especially effective as thousands of members enrolled in the first month alone. Slowly but surely the Pan-European movement was beginning to make itself know to the European public.


(1) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1943, p81
(2) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p81
(3) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p82
(4) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1943, p74
(5) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p86
(6) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p87
(7) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1943, p78
(8) For the original full version, pages 2 and 3
(9) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1943, p80
(10) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1943, p81
(11) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p98
(12) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1954, p100
(13) For the original, full version pages 2 and 3

This is just a part of my research paper, as I wrote earlier on the other parts need more revisions ...
Ií»ve currently wrote most of the summary part and the parts where I discuss how Coudenhove convinced people under the subdivision of four categories. I havení»t written any of the analyses yet.
To be honest, Ií»m a little (well actually very) nervous about what youí»ll think of my research paper.
I doní»t quite fully understand what a good research paper is, so I cannot self-evaluate my paper on whether it is a good, interesting research paper or not I would greatly appreciate your advice on how you believe I could improve this paper ?
One thing that I am worried about is that my source bases are a little too dependent on Coudenhove's autobiographies.
Also this is something minor, but I doní»t really have a titleíŽ I have an idea but I can't really think of a way to put it into a neat and concise title.

Timeline . . Go to Teacher's Comment

1918 8 January, Woodrow Wilson's "14 points"
1920 Meeting with Czechoslovakia President Thomas G.Masaryk
Early 1920s Coudenhove joins the Masonic Lodge at Vienna
1922 Founded the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Habsburg
1923 Publishment of a manifesto entitled Pan-Europa (October)
1924 Central Office in Imperial Palace of Vienna
1924 April ~ March 1938, Coudenhove-Kalergi works as an editor and principal author of the journal Paneuropa
1925 Herriot appeals for the United States of Europe
Positive discourse between Herriot and Stresemann
1925 -1928 three volumes of Kampf um Paneuropa (The fight for Paneuropa)
1926 the first Congress of the Pan-European Union met in Vienna (3rd - 6th October)
1926 Briand and Stresemann win the Nobel Prize
1927 Kellogg Briand Pact
1927 Central Council of the Union meeting in Paris
1929 5 September, Aristide Briand and his inspired speech in favor of a European Union in the League of Nations
1929 Death of Stresemann
1930 Second Congress of Pan-Europe
1930 "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" by Aristide Briand
1930 League of Nationsí» first official conference on Europe
1931 "United States of Europe" by Edward Herriot
1932 Death of Briand (AB)
1932 the Third Congress of Pan-Europe (1st ~ 4th October)
1933 10 May, Coudenhove-Kalergi once again approaches Mussolini in a futile attempt to form a union of Latin nations against the Third Reich
1933 "United States of Europe" by Arthur Salter - Is he a follower ? (pre 1945)
1933 International PanEuropean Union prohibited by Nazi Germany (IPU)
1935 Fourth Congress of Pan-Europe
1936 First Pan-European Farmer's Congress
1938 Annexation of Austria by the Third Reich - Coudenhove-Kalergi flees to Czechoslovakia, and thence to France
1938 Reappearance of Pan-Europe as European Letters (German,French,English) (1940)
1940 France falls to Germany - Coudenhove-Kalergi escapes to the United States by way of Switzerland and Portugal
1941 After the Atlantic Charter on 14 August 1941, Coudenhove composes a memorandum entitled "Austria's Independence in the light of the Atlantic
Charter" 1943 Fifth Congress of Pan-Europe (25th March)
1944 Publishment of "Crusade for Paneurope"
1946 19 September, Winston Churchill's celebrated speech to the Academic Youth in Zürich commending "the exertions of the Pan-European Union which owes so much to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi and which commanded the services of the famous French patriot and statesman Aristide Briand."
1947 European Parliamentary Union (EPU), a nominally private organization that held its preliminary conference on 4-5 July at Gstaad, Switzerland, and followed it with its first full conference from 8 to 12 September.
1947 Creation of the Committee for European Economic Co-operation
1948 March, Foundation of a Western European Union
1948 Hague Congress of the European Movement
1948 Second Congress of the European Parliamentary Union
1949 Creation of the Consultative Assembly, Committee of Ministers
1949 Council of the European Parliamentary Union meeting
1950 Third Congress of the European Parliamentary Union
1950 Two Franco-German Parliamentary Conferences
1950 Fourth Congress of the European Parliamentary Union
1955 Coudenhove proposes the Beethoven's Ode to Joy as the music for the European Anthem, a suggestion that the Council of Europe took up 16 years later.

Appendix . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Appendix : Supporters of the Movement
(This list is incomplete and unorganized, it will be reorganized according to the time periods established in the table of contents)

Thomas G. Masaryk (Czech President, Sponsor, Wise Friend)
Eduard Benes Foreign Minister of Czech
- He believed in the eventual establishment of a European Federation, but doubted whether it could be achieved in the short run.
- Honorary Chairmanship of the Czech committee, preface for the Czech edition of Pan-Europe
Dr. Milan Hodza
- Dollfuss, Barthou and Hodza became the three contemporary statesman who enabled the movement to find new strength after Hitler
- Dollfuss died
- Succeeded by Kurt von Schuschnigg (Federal Chancellor, honorary president of the Austrian Committee)

Christian Social Party - Dr.Ignaz Seipel (Chairman of the Austrian Committee)
Social Democratic Party - Dr. Karl Renner (vice chairman)
Pan-Germans - Vice Chancellor, Dr. Dinghofer (vice chairman)
Engelbert Dollfuss (chancellor of the Austrian Republic)
- Honorary Presidency of the Austrian Branch

Max Warburg of Hamburg (1924, 60,000 marks)
- Gehimrat Fritsch of the Dresdner Bank for the German tranche
- Vice president Brosche of the Kreditanstalt for the Austrian tranche
German Committee
Chairman: Paul Loebe (President of the Reichstag)
Vice Chairman: Erich Koch Weser (President of the Democratic Party)
Executive vice president: Major Joseph Koeth, Dr.Herman Münch
Finances: Dr.Arthur von Gwinner (Deutsche Bank), Hans Fürstenberg (Berliner Handelsgesellschaft)
Democrat: Dr.Hjalmar Schacht (President of the Reichsbank)
Centre Party: ex Chancellors Marx and Wirth, Dr.Adenauer, Mayor of Cologne, Monsignor Kaas
People's Party: von Raumer, von Kardorf
Bavarian People's Party: Count Lerchenfeld
National Party: Professor Hoetzsch
Dr.Gustav Stresemann (secretly active supporter)
German economic Committee (░­╣┘Ě╬)
Geheimrat Duisburg and Carl Bosch (chemicals)
Hermann Bucher (electric Power)
Dr.Paul Silverberg (coal)
Albert Vögler and Ernst Peonsgen (steel)
Richard Heilner (linoleum)
Hermann Lange and Richard Gütermann (silk)
Ludwig Roselius (sank-coffee)
E.G. von Stauss, Herbert Gutmann and Carl Melchior (bankers)

Prime Minister, Paul Painleve
Minister of Reconstruction, Louis Louchur
Editor of Henri de Jouvenel
Former Prime Minister Aristide Briand (fascinated with the idea since 1925, Locarno Treties)
- Became Honorary president of the Union in 1927
Edouard Herriot, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs
R.R.Lambert - principal secretary of Herriot
French Committee (1927)
President: Louis Loucheur - Ernest Mercier (1938)
Vice President: Leon Blum, Joseph Brathelemy
1934 Quasi dí»Orsay - Louis Barthou
Alexis Leger (Secretary General of the Foreign Ministry)
Formation of a French non-party committee for a united Europe
Rene Courtin (Professor of the Sorbonne, economic Editor of )
President Vincent Auriol
French Representative Committee for the European Unity
President: Edouard Herriot
French committee of business leaders
Theodore Laurent and Lambert Ribot (steel)
Gabriel Cordier and Louis Marlio (aluminium)
De Peyerimhoff (coal)
Robert Hecker (electric power)
Rene Fould (ship-building)
Duchemin (chemicals)
Gillet (silk)
Dubrulle (wool)
- 1938 Louis Marlie (French Economic Committee), Rene Mayer, Raoul Dautry

Francesco Nitti (former Prime Minister of Italy)
Anti-Fascist Intelligentsia
Benedetoo Croce
Guglielmo Ferrero
Gaetano Salvemini
Guido Manadorda
Statesman of the Opposition Parties
Cesaro di Colonna
Carlo Schanzer
Albertini and Amendola

League of Nations
Albert Thomas (President of the International Labour Office)

England (London)
Preparatory Committee
Wickham Steed
Noel baker (Labour Party)
Percy Molteno (Liberals)
L.S.Amery (Secretary of State for the Colonies)
Winston Churchill
Leo Amery
Lord Lothian
British Pan-European Committee (1939)
Chair: Amery
Active chairman: Duff Cooper
Secretariat: Victor Cazalet
Professor Gilbert Murray, Stephen King-Hall, Sir Walter Layton
Churchill, Chamberlain, Clement Atttlee

American Co-operative Committee of the Pan-European Union
Chairmanship: Dr.Stephan Duggan (Director of the Institute of International Education in New York)
Professor Felix Frankfurter (later supreme court judge)
Frederic Delano
General Henry Aleen
Frederich Coudert
Paul and Felix Warburg
John W.Davis (former Ambassador in London)
Julius Rosenwald
Gerard Swope (President of the General Electric Company)
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt (leader of the womení»s movement)
Nicholas Murray Butler (Head of Columbia University, Carnegie Peace Foundation)
William Bullitt (effective propagandists of Pan-Europe in the US)
John Foster Dulles (Chairman of the Council of Protestant Churches in America) 1940
American Committee for a Free and United Europe
Senator Fulbright
American Committee for a United Europe (1949)
General William Donovan
Cavendish Cannon (State Department)
Began to find support among supporters
Elbert Thomas of Utah (a former Mormon missionary in Japan)
Austin of Vermont
William J.Fulbright of Arkansas, Carl Hatch, George, Joseph Ball, Harold Burton, Burton K.Wheeler of Montana
Catholic Circles
Cardinal Spellman, Cardinal Mooney, Cardinal Stritch (254)
President Truman (first leading American stateman to identify publicly)
Arnold J.Zurcher (research seminar)

Nicholas Titulescu

Eleutherios Venizelos
Le Maccas (1947)

Chairman: Van de Vijvere (former premier)
Jules Destree (Socialists)
Van Cauwelaert (Catholics)
Paul Emile Janson (Liberals)
Treasurer: Damie Hienemann
Marshal Smuts

Netherlands (Dutch)
Chairman: de Visser (leader of the Conservative Party)
Prime Minister Colign, Dr,Loder

Chairman: A.Mayrisch (founder of the European Steel Cartel) - ░­ ┴Î└Ż

Francesco Cambo (former Finance Minister of the Spanish Government)
Francesco de los Rios (Minister of Justice)
Jose Ortega y Gasset


Marinkovic (V)

Switzerland (Zurich)
Dr. Conrad Staehelin
Robert H.Stehli
Edgar Grieder
Dr.Hans Sulzer

Poets and Authors
Maximilian Harden (writer)
Heinrich Mann (writer)
Paul Claudel
Paul Valery
Jules Romains
Heinrich and Thomas Mann
Gerhart Hauptmann
Stephan Zweig
Rainer Maria Rilke
Franz Werfel
Fritz von Unruh
Emil Ludwig
Arthur Schnitzler
Sigmund Freud
Selma Lagerlof
Karin Michaelis
Albert Einstein

Philosophers & Artists
Ortega y Gasset
Miguel de Unamuno
Bronislav Huberman

Introduction . . Go to Teacher's Comment

At the end of his autobiography An Idea Conquers the World, Coudenhove Kalergi comments that the development of the Pan-European Movement has been the "story of an idea, which captured the imagination first of hundreds, then of thousands, then of millions - until it became a reality; like a rivulet in the mountains swelling to a river, to merge with the broad stream of human history ." (1)
This paper aims to examine how Coudenhove Kalergi spread the idea of Pan-Europe from 1920 when he first began to visualize the idea of a united Europe till 1950 when the first session of Parliament of Europe was held.
Coudenhove mainly spread his idea in four methods. First was to influence the media by making personal friendships with editors and journalists of periodicals and regularly contributing articles to these periodicals to be published to a wide audience. Second was to influence the politicians. In the beginning he tried to persuade the politicians by writing personal letters to them. As the idea started to gain popularity he would them attend congresses and give speeches to these politicians and also have personal meetings with many of them. Third he would influence the people by publishing books and pamphlets targeted to the ordinary people and also give tours traveling all over the European continent and Northern America. Lastly, he succeeded in creating a concrete framework for the European Union by organizing many conferences especially after WWII.
The paper will first divide the years from 1920 to 1950 into sub-periods according to how the movement was developing. Then under each sub-period this paper will examine how Coudenhove Kalergi made use of the media, conferences and speeches to successfully convince many people on his idea of a United Europe.

(1) Coudenhove Kalergi, 1953

List of References . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Other works on Pan-Europe & Coudenhove Kalergi
1) Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's Pan-Europa as the Elusive "Object of Longing", Daniel C. Villanueva, University of Nevada - Las Vegas
2) The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra nationalism), Eva Boka
3) A Visionary proved Himself to be a Realist: Richard N. Coudenhove Kalergi, Austria and the "United States of Europe" (1923-2003), Michael Gehler
4) Saint-Gille, Anne-Marie. La <> un debat d'idees dans l'entre-deux-guerres. presses de l'Universite de Paris-Sorbonne. 2003

Works Written by Coudenhove Kalergi
1) European Navigator - The authoritative multimedia reference on the history of Europe (1) Go into "Historical Events" - "1945-1949 Pioneering Phase" - "The European Idea" - "The Christian Culture" and then roll down the screen there is a section "The Pan-European Idea"
In this section of the site I can find the original versions of
Information brochure published by Richard Coudenhove Kalergi on the PanEuropean Movement (German, but a translation machine translates it efficiently) Published in 1931
Draft of the PanEuropean Pact (25 February 1930) (French)
(2) Go into "Historical Events" - "1945-1949 Pioneering Phase" - "The European Idea" - "Winston Churchill's Zürich Speech"
In his memoirs, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder of the Paneuropean Union in Vienna in 1923, describes the impact of the address given by former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich in which he called for the establishment of a Council of Europe.
(3) Go into "Historical Events" - "1945-1949 Pioneering Phase" - "The European Idea" - "The Federalists Congresses" - "Gstaad"
On 12 February 1947, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, the then President of the Committee for the Congress of Europe, issues a memorandum in New York in which he calls on Members of European national parliaments to agree to the establishment of a European Parliament.
On 4 July 1947, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder and President of the Paneuropean Movement, gives an address at the opening of the constituent session of the European Parliamentary Union (UEP) in Gstaad.
In his memoirs, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder of the Paneuropean Union in Vienna in 1923, recalls the preparations for the establishment of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) in 1947.
On 8 September 1947, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi addresses the inaugural Congress of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) in Gstaad and calls on the Western nations to commit themselves fully to the path towards European federalism.
On 19 December 1947, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, Secretary-General of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU), informs the former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, of the choice of the flag that is to symbolise the United States of Europe.
... and much more
(4) Go into "Special Files" - "Austria and the European Integration Process" - "The Idea of European Integration in Austria"
On 15 May 1934, at the Vienna Paneuropean Congress, the Paneuropean Union ? of which the Austro-Czech Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi has been the President since 1923 - adopts a detailed programme concerning its objectives and concerns. (French)
In 1938, in the light of the rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe, the Austrian-Czech Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, who founded the Paneuropean Movement in 1923, considers the implications of the Paneuropean Union and outlines the way in which the countries of the 'Old Continent' could be reunited in a single organisation. (English)
2.) Count Coudenhove-Kalergi. An Idea Conquers the World. Roy Publishers. 1953
3.) Count Coudenhove-Kalergi. From War to Peace. Alden Press, 1959
4.) Crusade for Pan-Europe, An autobiography he wrote in 1943 about him and the movement (I plan to buy this book)
5.) L`Histoire du Mouvement Paneuropeen Written by Coudenhove Kalergi (a book which I am unsure as to whether I should buy it or not. The book being written in a foreign language will make it difficult for me to handle so I am unsure whether this book will be worth the effort)

Original Speeches or Documents in Relation to the PanEuropean Movement European Navigator - The authoritative multimedia reference on the history of Europe
(1) Go into "Historical Events" - "1945-1949 Pioneering Phase" - "The European Idea" - "Winston Churchill's Zürich Speech"
I can find the original version of the speech - Address given by Winston Churchill (Zürich, 19 September 1946)
Also there are newspaper responses to the speech - On 20 September 1946, the Italian daily newspaper Il nuovo Corriere della Sera sets out the main points of Winston Churchill's call for European unity, which was made in an address given the previous day at the University of Zürich. (English)
- On the occasion of the address given by Winston Churchill at the University of Zürich on 19 September 1946, the Belgian daily newspaper Le Soir comments on the former British Prime Minister's support for a United States of Europe based on Franco-German reconciliation. (English)
- On 21 September 1946, the French daily newspaper Le Monde comments on the address given two days earlier by Winston Churchill at the University of Zürich in support of Franco-German reconciliation and European unity. (English)
- On 24 September 1946, the German daily newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung welcomes the address given five days earlier by Winston Churchill at the University of Zürich in support of a United States of Europe based on Franco-German cooperation. (French)
- On 27 September 1946, commenting on the pro-European address given by Winston Churchill at the University of Zürich, the Brussels newspaper Le Phare Dimanche speculates on the concept of a European federation. (French)
- On January 18th, 1947, the German daily Die Welt wonders about the concept of the United States of Europe and is very pleased about the action led by Winston Churchill, ancient British Prime minister, in favor of European unity. (German)
In the same section there are other works of Winston Churchill
- In July 1947, Winston Churchill, leader of the British Conservative Party, writes an article which is published in the French federalist periodical Federation stressing the importance of a united Europe.
(2) Go into "Historical Events" - "1945-1949 Pioneering Phase" - "The European Idea" - "The Federalists Congresses" - "Gstaad"
- On 5 July 1947, at the end of the constituent Conference in Gstaad, the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) draws up a report on its work and sets its objectives regarding the establishment of a European federation.
- On 9 September 1947, at the end of its inaugural Congress in Gstaad, the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) adopts a Declaration of European Solidarity in which it affirms its determination to build a federal Europe. (French)
- Meeting at the first conference of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) held in Gstaad from 8 to 10 September 1947, 114 members of Europe's national parliaments adopt a resolution setting out the arrangements that need to be put in place for the creation of a European federation.
- In September 1948, during its second Congress in Interlaken, the European Parliamentary Union (EPU) adopts a detailed programme for the establishment of the United States of Europe and of a European Parliament, a federal executive body and a European supreme court
... And much more

Working Table of Contents First Draft, Dec. 13th 2010 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction
II. Coudenhove Kalergií»s Pan-European Movement
II.1 Idea and Goals of the Movement
II.2 Timeline
II.3 Subdivision of Time Periods
II.2.1 Beginnings of an Idea (1920-1923)
II.2.2 Development of the Movement with Briand and Stresemann (1923-1929)
II.2.3 The Movement in Ruins: Hitler's Seizure of Germany and the Great Depression (1930-1939)
II.2.5 The European Congress in Exile and Gaining American Support (1929-1945)
II.2.6 Creating the Concrete Framework of the European Union (1945-1950)
III. Spreading the Idea
This section of the paper will discuss what each method of 'Spreading the Idea' specifically means. For instance in the chapter 'Influencing the Media' it will specify what the 'Media' includes and give an overview on the ways Coundehove Kalergi influenced it.
III.1 Influencing the Media
III.2 Convincing the Politicians
III.3 Winning over the People
III.4 Organizing Conferences
IV. Beginnings of an Idea (1920-1923)
IV.1 Influencing the Media
IV.2 Convincing the Politicians
IV.3 Winning over the People
IV.4 Organizing Conferences
V. Development of the Movement with Briand and Stresemann (1923-1929)
V.1 Influencing the Media
V.2 Convincing the Politicians
V.3 Winning over the People
V.4 Organizing Conferences
VI. The Movement in Ruins: Hitlerí»s Seizure of Germany and the Great Depression (1930-1939)
VI.1 Influencing the Media
VI.2 Convincing the Politicians
VI.3 Winning over the People
VI.4 Organizing Conferences
VII. The European Congress in Exile and Gaining American Support (1929-1945)
VII.1 Influencing the Media
VII.2 Convincing the Politicians
VII.3 Winning over the People
VII.4 Organizing Conferences
VIII. Creating the Concrete Framework of the European Union (1945-1950)
VIII.1 Influencing the Media
VIII.2 Convincing the Politicians
VIII.3 Winning over the People
VIII.4 Organizing Conferences
IX. Conclusion
Appendix: List of People Related to the PanEuropean Movement