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Analysis of Decline of East-Asian Medicine - Where should Traditional Medicine in Korea (ROK) Head ?


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
You, In Sun
Research Paper, AP European History Class, Spring 2011



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Method of Research
III.1 Goal of Research
III.2 Method
IV. Decline of East-Asian Medicine
IV.1 East-Asian Medicine before the Influence of Western Medicine
IV.2 Process of Decline
IV.2.1 Process of Decline in China
IV.2.1.1 Before Qing Dynasty
IV.2.1.2 Qing Dynasty
IV.2.1.3 Republic of China and People's Republic of China
IV.2.2 Process of Decline in Japan
IV.2.2.1 Before Meiji Restoration
IV.2.2.2 Empire of Japan
IV.2.2.3 Post-war Japan
IV.2.3 Process of Decline in Korea
IV.2.3.1 Before Japanese Rule
IV.2.3.2 Japanese Rule
IV.2.3.3 Post-WW II Korea
IV.3 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine
IV.3.1 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in China
IV.3.2 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in Japan
IV.3.3 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in Korea
V. Analysis
V.1 Reasons for Decline
V.1.1 External Influence
V.1.2 Internal Influence
V.1.2.1 Government Policy
V.1.2.2 Internal Need (Epidemic, Vaccine Surgery)
V.1.3 Analysis of Reasons for Decline
V.2 Problems of Korean Traditional Medicine
V.2.1 Problem
V.2.2 Solution
V.2.2.1 Scientific Evidence
V.2.2.2 Appeal to All Age Group
V.2.2.3 Cooperation with Western Medicine
VI. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            Medicine and its usage have always been a vital part of everyday life. As medicine and our lives are inseparable, the relationship between medicine and culture had been great in the past. However, globalization and westernization had an adverse effect on the diversity of medicine. East-Asian medicine, which is renowned for its long history, had especially suffered deeply from the influences of western medicine.
            East-Asian medicine is now considered by some as 'pseudoscience', which is considered a pejorative term. Also, the recognition and the popularity of traditional medicine in Korea (ROK) are considerably small as one could see in the table below.

Table 1. Usage of Medical Institutes (Korea, 2005) (1)
Usage of medical institutes Percentage
Used medical institutes 73.4 %
Did not use medical institutes 26.6 %


            From the 73.4 % of users of medical institutes, only a small portion uses traditional medicine institutes

Table 2. Usage of Each Medical Institutes (Korea, 2005) (2)
Medical Institute Percentage of Usage
General Hospital 14.5 %
Clinic 64 %
East-Asian Medicine 5.6 %
Pharmacy 12.9 %
Others 2.9 %


            As one could see, only a small portion, 5.6 %, of patients used East-Asian medicine as a way of treatment. This number is less than one-tenth of the usage of western clinics.
            This lack of recognition and other problems which face traditional oriental medicine in East Asia must be remedied by scientific approach towards East-Asian medicine and changes in the perception of East-Asian medicine. For those solutions to happen, one must clearly know the process and the reason for decline and also clarify the current situation of traditional East-Asian medicine.
            This paper would mostly focus on Korea (ROK) because of its unique situation. Unlike China(PRC) which has merged western and traditional oriental medicine or Japan which traditional oriental medicine had almost lost its significance, Korea (ROK) is the only East-Asian country with distinct traditional East-Asian medical community and system. (3) This difference makes the solution which would be discussed below to be possible.
            Although this paper would mainly be about the decline of traditional East-Asian medicine in Korea (ROK), the other two nations in East-Asia, China (PRC) and Japan are vital in understanding the process of decline and obtaining possible solutions for the problems facing traditional medicine. So, the paper would also deal with the process of decline and the current situation of East-Asian medicine in those two countries.
            This paper is divided into 4 parts;

            1. Analyzing the decline of East-Asian medicine
            2. Discussing the current situation of East-Asian medicine
            3. Analyzing the reason for decline of East-Asian medicine
            4. Suggestion of solutions

II. Definition
            Basic terms which would be used in this paper include East Asia, East-Asian medicine (traditional oriental medicine), and western medicine. These terms may be confusing if they are not clearly defined. Apart from the terms, some clarification for the names of the nations is done in this chapter.
            East Asia or Eastern Asia is a sub-region of Asia that is defined in either geographical or cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it covers about 12,000,000 km2. East Asia includes several countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Mongolia, North and South Korea, and Taiwan. (4) However, in this paper, East Asia would mean China, Japan and Korea (South) which are the three most important countries in terms of traditional medicine.
            This paper defines traditional East-Asian medicine as a group of traditional medicine originated in East Asia. (5) East-Asian medicine developed by exchange of ideas between East Asian nations: China, Japan, and Korea.
            Also, Western medicine is defined as a term used to describe the medicines that developed mainly in Europe. Although the distinction between western medicine and other types of medicine currently became less clear, this paper would be addressing western medicine as a term opposed to traditional medicine mentioned above. Therefore the term 'Western Medicine' could be used.
            Lastly, clarification of the names of nations is in order. In this paper, the term "Korea" before the context of 1948 is united Korea before the Korean War, but "Korea" in a context after 1948 means Republic of Korea (ROK). Also, "China" after the context of 1949 is People's Republic of China (PRC).

III. Method of Research

III.1 Goal of Research
            Currently traditional oriental medicine in Korea is suffering from external influences such as government policies, lobbying from several different interest groups, lack of interest from the young, and so on. (6) For traditional East-Asian medicine in Korea to survive and have a stable position in the medical community, close examination of its history, especially the history of its interaction with western medicine, must be done.
            This paper would therefore focus on clarifying the history of the first encounter of traditional East-Asian and western medicine and discuss the exchanges of ideas ever since. By analyzing the decline and the status quo of traditional oriental medicine and by diagnosing why East-Asian medicine declined, this paper would try to find a solution for the problems facing traditional oriental medicine.

III.2 Method
            Overall format of the story is divided into 4 parts as mentioned above.
            1. Analyzing the decline of East-Asian medicine
            2. Discussing the current situation of East-Asian medicine
            3. Analyzing the reason for decline of East-Asian medicine
            4. Suggestion of solutions
            The sources used for the paper include several different books on the topic, papers referring to the topic, and newspaper articles concerning the issue. As these materials are mostly written by doctors who practice western or traditional East-Asian medicine, they could be called primary sources.

IV. Decline of East-Asian Medicine
            Decline of East-Asian medicine started as western medicine began to influence and take the place of East-Asian medicine. According to a book by Hwang, Sang-Ik, 'Meeting of Oriental Medicine and Modern Western Medicine', until mid-19th century, western, that is to say European, medicine did not have superiority over eastern medicine. (7) However, western medicine improved over time while traditional Asian medicine was comparatively stagnated. (8) Also, Europeans tried to actively use medicine as one of the catalysts for entering Asian nations. (9) Those two factors combined, western medicine started to advance into East Asia and caused traditional East-Asian medicine to gradually lose its footing.
            In this chapter, the way that East-Asian medicine declined would be discussed. Especially, East-Asian medicine before the influence of western medicine, the process of decline of 3 East-Asian nations, and current situation of traditional oriental medicine in those 3 nations would be the main focus of this chapter.

IV.1 East-Asian Medicine before the Influence of Western Medicine
            East-Asian medicine before the influence of western medicine was not as undeveloped. A system for prescribing and curing diseases existed and most of the population could get some form of medication. (10)
            There was not much difference between traditional medicine in East-Asian nations before western medicine started to influence those nations. By constant interchange of information and techniques, traditional medicine in East Asian has developed to a similar extent.
            However, traditional oriental medicine was not perfect. It is true that traditional oriental medicine lacks complicated surgical techniques or vaccination. These two needs have raised the need for western medicine in East-Asian nations. (11) However, the time and the way of influx of western medicine differed.

IV.2 Process of Decline
            In all 3 nations of East Asia, the practitioners of Oriental medicine suffered a loss of clients, of share in the health market, because of the influx of western medicine. The process of decline of Oriental medicine in 3 East-Asian countries is discussed in this chapter and a table which summarizes the process of decline is presented in Chapter V : Analysis.

IV.2.1 Process of Decline in China

IV.2.1.1 Before the Qing Dynasty
            There existed limited contact between East-Asian and western medicine before the Qing Dynasty.
            During the Yuan Dynasty, Marco Polo and John of Monte Corvino traveled from Europe to China and spread western medicine in the process. However, the impact was very limited affecting only parts of the ruling class. (12) Also, the contact ended when the Yuan Dynasty collapsed.
            These contact restarted in the late Ming Dynasty. Starting from 16th century Jesuit missionaries started spreading several western ideas including western medicine to China. However, Chinese medicine was one of the most sophisticated in the world at that time, thus only some part of western medicine had an impact. Anatomical knowledge especially had some influence in Chinese medicine. Some medical techniques such as acupuncture were actually conveyed to Europe. (13)

IV.2.1.2 Under the Qing Dynasty
            Early Qing Dynasty was a period when the exchange between East-Asian and western medicine stopped again. The missionaries who brought western medicine before Qing Dynasty were banned until the late Qing Dynasty. (14)
            From 19th century in late Qing Dynasty, western medicine gained more influence. From the end of the Ming dynasty (mid 1600s), when missionaries were banned from China, western medicine developed a lot in terms of established system, vaccination, and anatomy. However, most Chinese were reluctant toward accepting new ideas from the Europeans. (15) Especially after the Opium War, Chinese became more hostile towards Europeans. Although there were some attempts to westernize other fields, medical field did not westernize much because Chinese considered traditional medicine to be related to Chinese philosophy as a whole and took pride in it. However, the Chinese had to give in to European and Japanese influence as time went by. (16)
            The first attempt at westernization, of course, started with the attempt to foster military medical officers. In the 1880s, Li Hongzhang (), a high-ranking official of Qing Dynasty at that time, decided to implement western medicine on military-related medical treatment. He also established the first western-style hospital in Tianjin in 1880 and affiliated it with the medical school that he set up. As one could see, the system for military medical officers was clearly established, but other education and practice of western medicine was limited. (17) However, in the 1903, the first private medical school was established in former Beijing Univerity (), Imperial Capital University (). Although a medical school existed in China, not many doctors practiced western medicine and most of the doctors who did only treated the upper class, having no widespread effect. (18)

IV.2.1.3 Republic of China and People's Republic of China
            After Chinese Revolution, although Republic of China showed initiative in adapting western medicine (Sun Yat Sen, the leading figure of the Chinese Revolution of 1911, had studied western medicine), western medicine did not influence China much. Western hospital could only be found on few cities and the number of doctors practicing western medicine was extremely small. (19)
            The communist government after Chinese Civil War approved both the scientific quality of western medicine and the popularity of traditional medicine. Since then the fusion of Chinese and western medicine became the slogan for Chinese medical society. (20)

IV.2.2 Process of Decline in Japan

IV.2.2.1 Before the Meiji Restoration
            Japan was first "discovered" by the Portuguese in 1543. Unlike the Chinese, Japanese showed interest in western medicine books brought by the Portuguese which the Japanese translated. Constant battles by the daimyos made western surgical techniques necessary. (21)
            The Japanese were not awkward about obtaining the knowledge of others. This could be shown by the fact that the first modern hospital was built in 1557. It was considerably faster than other East-Asian nations. (22)
            However, Japan did enter into a period of seclusion like other parts of East-Asia. Japanese government banned all Europeans except for a small number of Dutch merchants. Although more limited than before, Dutch merchants continually spread knowledge of western medicine. (23)

IV.2.2.2 Empire of Japan
            Japan was very active in adapting western medicine. During Meiji Restoration, Japan decided to learn medical model from Germany and sent several officials there to learn western medicine. (24)
            However, traditional oriental medicine in Japan suffered deeply because of the influx of western medicine. Like other East-Asian countries, the teaching of traditional Oriental medicine was done person-to-person without a clear education system. The Japanese government did not do anything to affect this, but just pursued the policy to provide western-style health care to its entire population. Intent upon giving the whole population adequate medical care, the Japanese government did not attempt to establish modern academic institutions to teach traditional Oriental medicine. The coexistence of two schools of medicine resulted in the gradual decline of oriental medicine in Japan.
            Several medical schools were set up by Japanese government by the late 1800s. These medical schools enabled Japan, comparatively faster than other countries, to have a widespread system of western medicine with a constant supply of doctors. (25)
            After adapting fully to western medicine, Japan tried to influence other nation such as China or Korea. Japan's medical policies were similar to those which were implemented by imperialists. (26)

IV.2.2.3 Postwar Japan
            Postwar Japan's medical policy did not show much difference from the period before. Traditional medicine was more or less annexed into western medicine. Its traces could only be found on rare occasions when some doctors prescribe traditional medication to patients.

IV.2.3 Process of Decline in Korea

IV.2.3.1 Before Japanese Rule
            Korean traditional medicine had no ability to cure epidemics that were widespread across the country. The epidemic started to take place more and more in the late Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, several scholars in the late 1700s and 1800s have expressed the need for western medicine, especially vaccination. (27)
            However, western medicine did not have much of an impact because seclusion policy of Joseon was more severe than other countries. When other countries have opened up to European nations, Joseon had kept its seclusion comparatively well. Thus the spread of western medicine was slower for Korea compared to other East-Asian nations. (28) Even vaccination which other East Asian nations started to implement in the mid or late 1800s was not implemented in Korea. Korea remained the only country in East-Asia to be free of western medicine even until the late 1870s.
            After the end of seclusion policy by the Korean Government in 1876 (Japanese), western medicine came in two routes: the first was Japanese imperialistic route and the second was religious one from the missionaries. The Korean government did recognize the importance of western medicine, but it kept its guard to Japan and missionaries. The Korean government comparatively trusted the missionaries more. (29)
            The first attempt of westernization of Korean government started in 1884. The first western hospital Jae-Jung Won () was funded by the government. The government concentrated on educating western doctors for military usage. However, Jae-Jung Won did not work as Korean Government meant it to work and turned into a place of power struggle between European missionaries and the Korean government. Later, Jae-Jung Won in 1899 was shut down by missionaries; this prompted the Korean government to have a hostile position towards outward forces. However, these attempts were all in vain because Japan soon colonized Korea. (30)

IV.2.3.2 Japanese Rule
            After the Eulsa Treaty () in 1905, Japanese rule dominated Korea and affected traditional medicine in Korea. Japanese administration dominated the medical system of Korea and changed it.
            Although the medical system seemed almost the same with the one before Japanese rule, the subject of operation, treatment of traditional medicine, and the impact and the area of influence were clearly different during and after Japanese rule.
            The subject of operation changed drastically from Korean doctors and European missionaries to Japanese. Koreans were limited to low positions and most of the important position was occupied by Japanese.
            Also, the status of traditional medicine was degraded by several government regulations. The doctors who practiced traditional medicine were discriminated and were limited to certain areas by a regulation by Japanese government in 1908. However, the Japanese did not stop traditional doctors from practicing because of the lack of doctors. Even so, due to several different types of discriminations, the number of traditional doctor dropped to less than 1000 in 1945 which was the end of colonial period for Korea.
            One positive aspect of Japanese rule is the area of influence that medical care had. Hospitals practicing western medicine, which used to be concentrated in the capital, Seoul, were now opened in many provincial cities, widening access to western health care. (31)
            However, traditional medicine slightly regained its importance as Japan went to war with China and United Stated from 1937 to 1945. There was a shortage of doctors practicing western medicine. Therefore, the Japanese were forced to encourage some part of traditional medicine which they did not accept before. Herbs, especially, was encouraged as a means of medication. Herbs were even cultivated in rural areas by district governments. Also, scientific research of oriental medicine was approved by the Japanese government, but the research was limited to herbs and not other forms of traditional medicine such as acupuncture, moxibustion, and so on. Even the government-run hospitals employed doctors who practiced traditional medicine. (32)
            Japanese rule for 40 years have tried to limit oriental medicine but failed to do so and produced only scanty result.

IV.2.3.3 Post-WWII Korea
            East-Asian medicine in Korea did not change much after the changes brought in by the Japanese and had no proper educational system for doctors immediately after the war had ended. However, in 1947, the first educational institute for traditional medicine was established, but it was not stable and finally was established as a 6-year program in 1964 and changed its name to Dongyang Medical School (). The next year in 1965, it was annexed into Kyunghee University (). There are currently 11 universities which have traditional medicine curriculum. (33)
            These universities have made it possible for Korea to have a separate system of traditional and western medicine which is what other East-Asian nations do not have.

IV.3 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine

IV.3.1 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in China
            Traditional medicine in China had suffered greatly. European and Japanese influence, and the policies by the communist government mainly weakened traditional medicine in China. Although the Communist government had propagandized the coexistence of western and traditional medicine, traditional medicine had lost its influence because of the lack of proper support. Traditional medicine only remains in existence by western doctors' limited prescription and by a small number of traditional doctors. Therefore, Chinese medical system is known to have combined western and traditional medicine based on western medicine. (34)
            The current situation of traditional medicine could be more accurately shown in statistical data. In the beginning of People's Republic of China there were about 800 thousand doctors who practiced traditional medicine. That number decreased to 540 thousand in 1949 and 270 thousand in 2005. (35) Considering the 1.33 billion population of China, it could be said that traditional medicine had lost much of its importance in China.

IV.3.2 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in Japan
            Japanese government had pursued a policy of emphasizing western medicine since Meiji Restoration. However, Japanese government is currently shedding new lights on traditional medicine. Now, although it is limited, doctors could prescribe traditional medication. There is no particular educational system for traditional oriental medicine, but nowadays some studies are being undertaken. (36)

IV.3.3 Current Situation of East-Asian Medicine in Korea
            Korea is the only nation in East-Asia that has a separate academic system for western and traditional medicine. (37) Japanese rule had weakened traditional medicine, traditional medicine had been marginalized. A combined effort of groups and government have successfully regained East-Asian medicine's status in Korea.
            There are 11 universities that offer courses in traditional medicine and every year 800 new medical doctors graduate. The number of doctors is in the increase. From 8000 in 1990s, now the number is approximately 20000. (38)
            However, several problems exist in East-Asian medicine in Korea. First is the problem of conflict between western doctors, pharmacists, and traditional doctors. The conflict is still ongoing and would continue until clear distinction between the three is made. Second is the lack of interest by the young. Most of the clients of traditional medicine are not young and this problem must be solved if traditional medicine were to flourish in the long-run.
            Although it had not regained the significance it had in the past, traditional medicine in Korea had received some recognition. However, in order to flourish in the long-run, it has to solve the problems: lack of scientific evidence, decrease in recognition of traditional medicine, and conflicts with western medicine.

V. Analysis

V.1 Reasons for Decline
            The process of decline could be summarized in the table below.

Table 3. Process/ Extent of decline of traditional oriental medicine in East Asia
China Japan Korea
Advent of Western Medicine Late 13th century Marco Polo, Monte Corvino 16th century Missionaries 16th century Portuguese Merchants 17th century Dutch Merchants 19th century missionaries/ Japanese
Important Personnel Marco Polo, Mostly Government Officials (ex:LiHongzhang) Mostly Government Officials (ex: Ito Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi) Missionaries (Horace Newton Allen) Japanese Officials (Ito Hirobumi)
First Western Hospital Miscellaneous (1880, founded by Li Hongzhang in Tianjin) Miscellaneous (1557, founded by Daimyo in Oita) Jae-Jung Won (1884, Seoul founded by Horace Newton Allen)
Extent of Decline Medium Comparatively large Comparatively small
Status Quo Combination of Western and Eastern medicine based on western medicine Emphasis on Western Medicine Separate system for Western and traditional oriental medicine


            The reasons for the decline of traditional medicine in East Asia could be categorized into two categories: external influence and internal influence. External influences include influences from colonizing powers. Internal influences include government policies and internal needs such as epidemic or surgery.
            This chapter would point to the reasons why the decline of traditional medicine in East Asian happened. The reasons below are not totally mutually exclusive but related to one another.

V.1.1 External Influence
            Before the end of WWII, decline of traditional medicine could be mostly attributed to external influence. External influences could mean influences from Europeans or influences from colonizing powers, mainly Japan.
            China's decline of traditional oriental medicine could be attributed a lot to external influences. From the period when Marco Polo introduced western medicine to China to the period when Japanese emphasized western medicine, external influences have constantly emphasized western medicine and decreased the influence of traditional oriental medicine. At first, mainly missionaries were the ones to spread western medicine to China, but as time passed by Japanese were the main reason for the spread of western medicine and discrimination against traditional medicine.
            Japan is actually the country to have influenced other countries in spreading western medicine, but it also did receive external influences before it started to actively adapt western medicine. The start of Japan's western medicine is with the merchants from Spain and Portugal in the 16th century. This soon changed into Dutch merchants and those merchants enabled Japanese to get constant influences from Europeans. However, after the end of seclusion by commodore Perry, Japan started to promote western medicine on its own.
            Korea was the country to be influenced by western medicine the latest. The Korean government pursued a policy of seclusion until external forces forced Korea to give up seclusion in the late 19th century. Then western medicine from missionaries and Japanese started to spread western medicine at the same time. During the Japanese rule, the Japanese tried to discourage traditional medicine in Korea.

V.1.2 Internal Influence

V.1.2.1 Government Policy
            Government policy is another factor that accelerated the decline of traditional medicine in East Asia. This and internal need that would be discussed below are the internal reasons for decline of East-Asian medicine.
            China's government policy has had some positive and negative effects toward traditional medicine. Before the Opium War, Chinese government stance remained neutral to western medicine as some advocated the influx of western medicine while others were against it. Some of the advocates of western medicine have sponsored the spread of western medicine by establishing education institutes and hospitals. However, after the Opium War, hostile relationship with outward forces have made the Chinese government negative towards western medicine, but soon, Japanese influences became preeminent in China and the spread of western medicine have been accelerated. Later on, from WWII and Chinese revolution, Chinese government has been supportive of the combination of western and East-Asian medicine. However, as the government did not provide adequate support for traditional medicine, traditional medicine has lost its significance.
            Japan's government, since the end of seclusion, has been positive towards western medicine. Until recently, it has not taken much measure for East-Asian medicine, but is now gradually taking interest in traditional medicine. However, traditional medicine still remains under-developed in Japan.
            Korea is a country which constantly had a supportive stance towards traditional medicine. Although the external influence kept on oppressing traditional medicine in Korea, the government in Korea tried to support traditional oriental medicine as much as it can. However, the effect of the government was minimal compared to external forces, especially the Japanese influence, had been too strong. After Korean War, the government had established educational institution for traditional medicine which is what no other nations in East Asia did and remained relatively supportive towards traditional medicine.

V.1.2.2 Internal Need (Epidemic, Vaccine, Surgery)
            Although East-Asian medicine was indeed sophisticated, it had limitations in some fields such as vaccination or surgery. Therefore, this internal need is another factor to be considered when one thinks about the reasons for the decline of traditional medicine in East Asia.
            China's internal need was not that great when it first came into contact with western medicine before the late Qing Dynasty, but slowly realized the need for it as time passed by. When the Europeans first tried to spread western medicine in China, traditional medicine in China was one of the most sophisticated in the world. However, in the late Qing Dynasty, after medical breakthrough in Europe, Chinese realized the need for western medicine. The Chinese especially took interest in surgery and the militaristic usage of western medicine and this prompted the spread of western medicine. Later on, the communist government, realizing the need for surgery, vaccination, and many other western techniques, concentrated on the spread of western medicine and tried to merge western and traditional medicine.
            Japan started to implement western medicine because of its internal need. When the Spanish and Portuguese merchants came to Japan in 16th century, Japan was in desperate need of surgery because of the wounds that resulted from the wars by the daimyos. The Japanese were positive about adapting western medicine and the Meiji Restoration prompted the government to send several officials to Europe in order to learn western medicine.
            Korea needed western medicine desperately because of the widespread epidemic that affected the whole population in the late Joseon Dynasty. When the missionaries and Japanese started affecting Korean medical system in the late 19th century, the first thing that they both did was vaccination. Most of the doctors' main job was vaccination and although later on there was an increased need for military medical officials, the need for vaccination was still the major need. Later on after the end of Japanese Rule, the medical needs of normal citizens were met by both western and traditional oriental medicine.

V.1.3 Analysis of Reasons for Decline

Table 4. Reasons for Decline (East Asian Nations)
External Influence Government Policy Internal Needs
China Considerable influence, both by Europeans and Japanese Gained importance as more time passed by, communist government Mostly military usage, but did not have a major influence
Japan Influence was minimal and influence was only implemented in the beginning Major Factor, plan by the government promoted the spread of western medicine The want for surgery promoted the spread and then encompassed other fields
Korea Major factor, mostly by Japan but decreased in importance after regaining independence Minimal in the initial period, but after the war, gained in importance Epidemic was a major factor in the spread of western medicine, but other needs soon promoted the spread


            Reasons for decline in East Asian nations could be seen as similar, but actually they were quite different for each nation and had different results for each nation.
            For China, external influence was the main reason for the decline of traditional medicine. Influences from European imperialist powers and Japanese have brought in Western medicine which caused the downfall of traditional oriental medicine. However, not only external influence, but also internal influence such as government policy also had an influence in traditional medicine after the Chinese revolution.
            Japan's traditional medicine declined mainly because of internal reasons. Only at the start of the decline of traditional medicine did external force have some influence.
            For Korea, the reason for the decline was both external and internal. Koreans were in need of western medicine and government policy after the seclusion was for adapting some western medicine. However, external influence was a more major factor contributing to the downfall of traditional oriental medicine. Starting from the missionaries, Europeans constantly tried to spread western medicine and also the Japanese Rule emphasized western medicine while disregarding traditional oriental medicine.

V.2 Problems of Korean Traditional Medicine
            This chapter would mainly point out the problems facing traditional medicine in Korea and propose solutions. Using the information provided above, this chapter would try to suggest possible ways to solve the problems.

V.2.1 Problem
            The reasons for decline of Korean traditional medicine could be clearly seen in the table below.

Table 5 Reasons for Decline (Korea)
External Influence Government Policy Internal Needs
Korea Major factor, mostly by Japan but decreased in importance after regaining independence Minimal in the initial period, but after the war, gained in importance Epidemic was a major factor in the spread of western medicine, but other needs soon promoted the spread


            Several factors contributed to the decline of Korean traditional medicine. Although the situation in Korea is better than other East-Asian countries, it is currently suffering from lack of scientific evidence, decrease in recognition of traditional medicine, and conflicts with western medicine.

V.2.2 Solution
            There cannot be a perfect solution to the problems faced by Korean traditional medicine. However, several measures could be implemented to lessen the problem of lack of scientific evidence, decrease in recognition of traditional medicine, and conflicts with western medicine. These measures, which would be mentioned in the chapters below, include getting scientific evidence, appealing to the young, and cooperation with western medicine.

V.2.2.1 Scientific Evidence
            One of the solutions is obtaining scientific evidence for various treatments in traditional medicine. Although several researches aiming to find scientific evidence for traditional medicine are currently being conducted, there were only small achievements and no significant breakthrough for traditional medicine. A systematic and focused research is needed.
            This solution is not implying that traditional medicine is not scientific. East-Asian medicine have accumulated thousands of years' knowledge and combined it with its unique philosophy. However, as its basis is mostly philosophical and empirical, traditional medicine could be said to lack a logical basis for its treatment.
            Clearly establishing scientific evidence is expected to solve two problems that face traditional medicine: identity and education. If traditional medicine were to remain without scientific evidence, it would just be a series of treatment and would not be recognized as a proper area of medicine. Then, it is obvious that traditional medicine would be merged into western medicine as it did in China. Also, the problem of education could be fixed by obtaining scientific evidence. Although there are several textbooks for traditional medicine, there are parts of traditional medicine which must be educated personally. Scientific evidence would change the current system enabling the education to be done solely based on textbook and therefore foster the spread of traditional medicine.

V.2.2.2 Appeal to All Age Groups
            Another solution that traditional medicine should try is appealing to all age group. Most of the patients of traditional medicine are old. Old patients are mostly people who recognize the medical properties of traditional medicine, but other age groups, the young and the middle-aged, do not show much recognition to traditional medicine.
            The lack of recognition of the young and the middle-aged is currently a significant problem and would continue to become more serious as those age groups would become the main part of patient in the future. Therefore, traditional medicine must appeal to all age group in order for it to survive in the long-run, or else, it would become obsolete.

V.2.2.3 Cooperation with Western Medicine
            Another important part traditional medicine community should consider is cooperation with western medicine community. Both traditional and western medicines have merits and demerits and both must cooperate in order to achieve the best result.
            Currently, the conflict between western doctors, pharmacists, and traditional doctors is taking place. This exhaustive conflict must be remedied by a clear distinction of the roles of western doctors, pharmacists, and traditional doctors.

VI. Conclusion
            The goal of the paper is to find a solution for the problems facing traditional medicine by clarifying the history of first encounter of East-Asian and western medicine and discussing the exchanges of ideas ever since. This paper was focused on Korea.
            This paper had taken 4 steps to achieve those goals.
            1. Analyzing the decline of East-Asian medicine
            2. Discussing the current situation of East-Asian medicine
            3. Analyzing the reason for decline of East-Asian medicine
            4. Suggestion of solutions
            These processes have created several problems for Korean traditional medicine such as lack of scientific evidence, decrease in recognition of traditional medicine, and conflicts with western medicine. These problems should be remedied by obtaining scientific evidence, getting the appeal from all age groups and cooperating with western medicine.


Notes
           
(1)      Kostat
(2)      Kostat
(3)      Kim 2008
(4)      "East Asia." Wikipedia
(5)      "Traditional Chinese Medicine." Wikipedia "Traditional Korean Medicine." Wikipedia, "Kampo(Japanese medicine)." Wikipedia
(6)      Lee 2008 Chart 2. Usage of Each Medical Institutes (Korea)
(7)      Hwang 1998
(8)      Lee 2009
(9)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.13-21
(10)      Hwang 1998
(11)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.26-36
(12)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.24-26
(13)      Ho 1997
(14)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.26-30
(15)      Jeon 2006
(16)      Ho 1997
(17)      Ho 1997
(18)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.29-30
(19)      Ho 1997
(20)      "Traditional Chinese Medicine." Wikipedia
(21)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 p.30
(22)      "Meiji Restoration." Wikipedia
(23)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 p.32
(24)      "Meiji Restoration." Wikipedia
(25)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 p.33
(26)      Jeon 2006
(27)      Hwang 1998
(28)      Kim 2008 pp.25-77
(29)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.35-37
(30)      Hwang 1998
(31)      Kim 2008 pp.58-77
(32)      Kim 2008 pp.65-77
(33)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.35-37
(34)      "Traditional Chinese Medicine." Wikipedia
(35)      Ho 1997
(36)      East Asia meets Western Medicine 2007 pp.28-30
(37)      Hwang 1998
(38)      Hwang 1998

Bibliography The following websites were visited in June 2011



11.      "East Asia." Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
12.      "Traditional Chinese Medicine." Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
13.      "Traditional Korean Medicine" Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
14.      "Kampo" Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
15.      "Meiji Restoration" Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .


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