The Contribution of British Entrepreneurs to the Industrial Revolution on the European Continent


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
YIS



Table of Contents


First Draft , Sept. 5th 2011
Working Table of Contents , Mar. 2nd 2011
Working Table of Contents , Feb. 23th 2011
List of References , Dec. 23th 2010



First Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Background
III.1. Industrial revolution in Britain
III.2. Continental Spread of Industrial Revolution
IV. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe - Entrepreneurs
IV.1. France
IV.1.1. John Kay, John Holker
IV.1.2. Aaron Manby
IV.1.3. Others
IV.1.4. French Spread of Industrial Revolution
IV.2. Germany
IV.2.1. Cockerill Family
IV.2.2. William Thomas Mulvany
IV.2.3. Others
IV.2.4.German Spread of Industrial Revolution
IV.3. Low Countries
IV.3.1. Cockerill Family
IV.3.2. Others
IV.3.3. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Low Countries
IV.4. Northern Europe
IV.4.1. James Finlayson
IV.4.2. Others
IV.4.3. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Northern Europe
IV.5. Central Europe
IV.5.1. John Thornton
IV.5.2.John Heywood, James Longworth
IV.5.3. Others
IV.5.4. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Central Europe
V. Analysis of British Entrepreneurs
V.1. Motives for British Entrepreneurs
V.1.1. Internal Motives
V.1.2. External Motives
V.2. Classification of British Entrepreneurs
V.3. Analysis
VI. Conclusion
VII. Note
VIII. Bibliography

I. Introduction
            Although the exact reasons why Great Britain was the first country to experience industrial revolution in Europe are not clearly defined, 18th century was certainly a period of industrialization for Great Britain. (1) However, Great Britain was not the only country which experienced industrial revolution. Several other countries in Continental Europe also experienced industrial revolution slightly after the industrial revolution in Great Britain.
            One of the significant reasons for the spread of industrial revolution in Continental Europe is several active British entrepreneurs that transferred the necessary technology and system required for industrial revolution.(2) However, studies about this subject : the contribution of British entrepreneurs to the industrial revolution on the European continent, have not been done much.
            Therefore, this paper would focus on how the British entrepreneurs have influenced the spread of industrial revolution and analyze the consequences that the British entrepreneurs have brought to the European continent. Entrepreneurs¡¯ motives for immigration would especially be treated with extra attention. In the end, by analyzing different motives, this paper would explain the reason why in some countries industrialization occurred faster than in other countries.

II. Definition
            Basic terminologies which must be defined are industrial revolution and entrepreneurs. First, in this paper industrial revolution would be defined as a period from the 18th to 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in Great Britain and then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. (2) Also while entrepreneurs are defined as people who have possession of a new enterprise, venture or idea and are accountable for the inherent risks and outcome of a product, it must also be noted that several engineers also had a significant role and must not be overlooked. (3)
            The areas that would be discussed in this paper include France, Germany, Low Countries, Central Europe and Northern Europe. These areas are chosen in terms of the extent of industrialization, in other words, how fast and how much industrial revolution had taken place.

III. Background

III.1. Industrial revolution in Britain
            It is well known that the development of modern large-scale industrial capitalism took place in Britain at an earlier period than on the continent. A number of factors contributed to the rapid expansion of British manufactures in the second half of the 18th century.
            For industrialization to happen, adequate supplies of capital, raw materials and labor as well as access to suitable home and overseas markets were necessary. Britain complied with all of these conditions. Also, Great Britain was home for great amount of entrepreneurs who were eager to develop and transfer new technologies and expand their business. (4)

III.2. Continental Spread of Industrial Revolution
            Industrialization in continental Europe was slower compared to Britain. Some scholars attribute this to wars and civil disturbance which led to shortage of capital in continental Europe. (2) Others do not accept this generalization and asserts that there existed different reasons for each country. According to them, existence of large number of virtually sovereign states was to blame for Germany. While in France, shortage of coal and other raw materials and rigid bureaucracy were to blame. (5)
            However, it was not long until new technologies and systems crossed the sea and reached continental Europe. There were various ways that technical knowledge spread from Britain to the continent. Those ways include government policies, industrial spies, and so on. This paper would discuss one of those particular ways which is spread of knowledge through British entrepreneurs.

IV. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe - Entrepreneurs

IV.1. France

IV.1.1. John Kay, John Holker
            John Kay, the inventor of the fly shuttle, was an entrepreneur who settled in France in 1749 and contributed to the spread of industrialization in France. John Kay apprenticed with a hand-loom reed maker, but returned and started to design machines which were vital in the development of textile industry. In 1733, John Kay got a patent for flying shuttle. This invention was vital for the development of textile industry in and out of Great Britain. (6)

            The main reason which made him settle in France was his dissatisfaction with the British government which did not let him maintain his patent rights on his fly shuttle. (7) Therefore, in 1749, John Kay had a contract with the French government and agreed to spread techniques, especially the flying shuttle, in Normandy. His job was essential in establishing the textile industry in France.
            John Holker reached France in 1750 due to religious problems. The Jacobite rising in 1745 has affected him because he was a Catholic and a Jacobite. (8) Holker settled in Rouen and developed the textile industry there. He was not only an entrepreneur but also one of the world¡¯s first industrial espionage agents. His knowledge helped the French textile industry as he supplied the French with the newest techniques.

IV.1.2. Aaron Manby
            Aaron Manby was a British entrepreneur who spread the iron industry to France during 1820s. Although little is known about his early life, Aaron Manby was an entrepreneur specialized in iron. In order to expand his business, he founded an important ironworks and engineering establishment near Paris. His firm not only undertook re-melting, puddling and rolling of iron but also the manufacture of machinery, iron ships and steam engines. After he established the iron industry in France, he returned to Britain and lived until his death. (9)

IV.1.3. Others
            Apart from the entrepreneurs mentioned above, there existed several British entrepreneurs who contributed to the spread of industrial revolution in France. These entrepreneurs include Townsend, a woolcomber who settled in Calais district, Elias Barnes who introduced improved wheel for spinning cotton, Job Dixon who was an English engineer who was one of the earliest machine builders in Alsace, and so on. (10)

IV.1.4. French Spread of Industrial Revolution
            The development of the French textile industries, particularly in Normandy, owed much to British machinery and technical knowledge. (11) France is among the first countries along with the Low Countries to industrialize. This is due to the active advance of British entrepreneurs.
            The similarities of British entrepreneurs who spread industrialization in France is that they all were active when it comes to spreading industrialization. Although the French government was eager to adapt British technologies on their nation, British entrepreneurs were the ones who wanted to go to France. The reasons for leaving Britain include fleeing from religious persecution, frustration about government policy, and so on.

IV.2. Germany

IV.2.1. Cockerill Family
            John Cockerill who is mostly known for his contribution in Belgium also contributed to the modernization of the German woolen and linen industry. Although the textile industry had been long established in Germany, especially in Hanover and Silesia, it declined after 1815 due to its technical backwardness.(12) Therefore, the Prussian government encouraged the modernization of the industry. John Cockerill saw the opportunity and expanded his business to Germany. (13)

IV.2.2. William Thomas Mulvany


            William Thomas Mulvany was an Irish engineer who went to Ruhr, Germany in 1854. He first started out as a chairman of a mining company but soon founded the Prussian Mining and Ironworks Company in 1866. The company flourished, taking over three mines in Hansa, Zollern and Erin. Mulvany was a pioneer of mining industry in Germany. (14)

IV.2.3. Others


            A comparatively small number of British entrepreneurs played a significant role in the early stages of industrialization in Germany. Those entrepreneurs include John Baildon, a Scot who succeeded in erecting an engine in a porcelain factory in 1822 or Barlow and Manby who founded Imperial Continental Gas Association in 1825. (15)

IV.2.4. German Spread of Industrial Revolution
            Germany secured only a relatively small proportion of the British workers who went to the continent. Also, those who did come to Germany came relatively later than to France or to the Low Countries.
            Most of the entrepreneurs in Germany were not British, but German who learned British techniques. However, those who were British were pioneers of their fields but were late compared to those who went to France or the Low Countries.

IV.3. Low Countries

IV.3.1. Cockerill Family
            Few English families can have played a greater part than the Cockerills in introducing machinery into Belgium. (16) The elder William Cockerill, his sons and his son-in-laws were all responsible for organizing modern lines of carding and spinning of wool and weaving of woolen cloth in Belgium. Contrary to what one may thing William Cockerill¡¯s first destination was not Belgium. Due to unemployment distress, he leaved Britain in 1797. He first settled in Russia and then in Sweden, but faced failure. He then moved to Verviers, Belgium in 1799 where he established the foundation for the textile industry. (17)
            His sons, especially John Cockerill was essential in iron industry of Belgium. He showed great potential as an entrepreneur even in his early age and his father William gave him more and more responsibility between 1809 and 1814; he was trying to expand his company to Liege. Afterwards, Liege became the center of iron industry in Belgium. (16)
            The Cockerillls played an essential role in industrializing Belgium, especially Verviers and Liege.

IV.3.2. Others
            If one consider the proximity that Belgium has to Britain, it is not surprising that a lot of British entrepreneurs entered Belgian market. For example, Irishman named O¡¯Kelly introduced a pumping machine into Liege in 1720 and Thomas Murray opened a factory to produce sulfuric acid in 1760. (16)
            James Hodson is another noticeable entrepreneur who was significant in the modernization of Belgium. James Hodson was born in Nottingham and married William Cockerill¡¯s daughter. Following his father-in-law, Hodson contributed to the industrialization of Belgium. He had a machine-building business of his own and lent capital to other entrepreneurs. Hodson and Cockerills are known to have increased the quality of life in Verviers. (16)

IV.3.3. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Low Countries
            Although the Low Countries have smaller area compared to other continental Europe, its significance in industrialization was maximized by many British entrepreneurs who came to the area. Many entrepreneurs chose the Low Countries, especially Belgium, because of the proximity. Therefore, most of them were active when it comes to spreading industrialization in the area.

IV.4. Northern Europe

IV.4.1. James Finlayson
            James Finlayson is a Scottish engineer who spread industrial revolution to Northern Europe, especially Tampere, Finland. He moved to Finland in 1820 and got permission from Finnish government to build a factory in Tampere. Finlayson imported many engineers from Britain and manufactured machines used in textile industry. Later on, in 1828, instead of machines, he launched cotton mills. In 1836, he sold to company and moved back to Scotland. (18)

IV.4.2. Others
            Northern Europe is one of the areas where there is relatively small number of British entrepreneurs. Apart from Finlayson, there are no significant British entrepreneurs who were mentioned in the sources. Most of the entrepreneurs in Northern Europe are native.

IV.4.3. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Northern Europe
            Industrial revolution in Northern Europe was slightly slower than France or the Low Countries. This was due to limited supply of British entrepreneurs in Northern Europe. In the earlier stage of industrial revolution only Finlayson is known as British entrepreneur who had significant influence.

IV.5. Central Europe

IV.5.1. John Thornton
            In 1800, John Thornton started to influence the development of the industrial revolution in the Habsburg dominions by supplying machines for spinning cotton, wool and flax. The weaving industry had drastically developed under Thornton in early 19th century. Owing to Thornton, the Habsburg dominions were significantly more developed in spinning and weaving of cotton than Bohemia. (19)

IV.5.2.John Heywood, James Longworth
            Swiss government persuaded two English entrepreneurs, John Heywood and James Longworth to settle in Switzerland. They assisted in setting up Machine Spinning Cotton Company in 1801. Although Switzerland was late in industrializing, due to the two entrepreneurs, they did succeed in spinning and weaving on their own. (19)

IV.5.3. Others
            Other British entrepreneurs in the Austrian dominions in the 1830¡¯s who deserve mention are L. Thomas at Graslitz, R. Holmes at Neudeck, David Evans and Joseph Lee at Prague, and so on. In Switzerland, several other entrepreneurs existed. One of them, Richard Hilles was known as ¡°the first Anglo-Swiss trader¡±. (20)

IV.5.4. Spread of Industrial Revolution in Central Europe


            British entrepreneurs in Central Europe greatly influenced industrialization in terms of textiles, iron, and transportation. The spread of Industrial revolution in Central Europe was comparatively slower than other countries. However, government policies in Central Europe have fostered the industrialization.

V. Analysis
            This chapter would focus on influences that British entrepreneurs have exerted on industrial revolution in Continental Europe. The result of the influences, especially on the difference in the date of start of industrial revolution in several countries, would be discussed in this chapter.

V.1. Motives for British Entrepreneurs
            There exist several motives which prompted the immigration of several British entrepreneurs. Those motives include economic hardships, religious persecution, foreign governments¡¯ offers, and so on. These motives could be divided into two categories. First category is internal motives which are motives which come from the entrepreneurs themselves. Second one is external motives which are motives which come from outside the entrepreneurs.
            Those two different kinds of motives are important criteria in separating entrepreneurs who immigrated to Continental Europe.

V.1.1. Internal Motives
            Internal motives are what initially made British entrepreneurs immigrate to Continental Europe. There are several different kinds of internal motives for British entrepreneurs such as unemployment, search for profit, and so on.
            Unemployment was one significant cause for the immigration of British entrepreneurs. When Great Britain¡¯s industrialization was reaching maturity, there was not as much job opportunity for entrepreneurs. Although some entrepreneurs were eager to start their business, there were too much competition and could not enter the market. That was why several entrepreneurs searched for a market that was not crowded: Continental Europe.
            Less competition and more profit was another motive which made the entrepreneurs move. Although the entrepreneurs in Britain did manage to get a lot of profit, some were eager for more and were intrigued by the opportunities Continental Europe had. They were especially interested how there was little amount of competition in Continental Europe compared to Britain.
            Conflicts with the domestic government were another important factor which made British entrepreneurs flee to Continental Europe. Several tax systems along with problems regarding patents have consistently caused British entrepreneurs to be disappointed with the government and thus consider starting off their business in Continental Europe where better conditions were offered by the foreign government and lesser competition existed.

V.1.2. External Motives
            External motives are those which are not caused by entrepreneurs themselves but by others such as foreign governments. Those motives were caused later compared to internal motives.
            Offers from foreign governments¡¯ were the main external reason which prompted the immigration of British entrepreneurs. Wanting the economic prosperity that Britain was experiencing after industrialization, several foreign countries offered better environment and better market for British entrepreneurs. Some of them succeeded in doing so, attracting several entrepreneurs and starting off their own industry. Some of those industries even went as far as to threaten the original in Britain.

V.2. Classification of British Entrepreneurs
            In the previous chapter, a criterion for dividing British entrepreneurs: type of motives, have been discussed. If one classifies British entrepreneurs based on this criterion, one can see that there exists uniformity in the result.

Chart.1. Classification of Entrepreneurs based on motives and dates (21)
Entrepreneur Date of Immigration Motive
France John Kay 1749 Internal (patent problems)
John Holker 1750 Internal (Religious Persecution)
Aaron Manby 1820s External
Low Countries Cockerill Family 1797 Internal (Unemployment)
O'Kelly 1720 Internal (Irish Discrimination)
Germany John Cockerill 1820s External
Mulvany 1854 External
Northern Europe Finlayson 1820 External
Central Europe John Thornton 1800 External
John Heyward, John Longworth 1801 External


            If we change the focus to dates and countries,

Chart.2. Relationship between motives and the date of immigration (21)
Internal Motives External Motives
France John Kay (1749) Germany John Cockerill (1820s)
John Holker (1750) Mulvany (1854)
France Aaron Manby (1820)
Low Countries Cockerill Family (1797) Central Europe John Thornton (1800)
O'Kelly (1720) John Heywood/John Longworth (1801)
Northern Europe James Finlayson (1820)


            One could see that the entrepreneurs who had internal motives rather than external motives were relatively faster when it comes to the date for immigration.

V.3. Analysis
            Seeing Great Britain¡¯s prosperity after industrial revolution, several countries in Continental Europe wanted to emulate Great Britain. However, those countries lacked necessary techniques and infrastructure. Therefore the need for British entrepreneurs got higher and higher.
            Thus, several countries started to lure British entrepreneurs by applying higher tariffs and offering better conditions for the entrepreneurs. However, even though several countries have offered similar conditions, industrialization did not happen simultaneously in Continental Europe. Analyzing the results, one could see that the countries which were relatively closer to Britain were faster when it comes to industrial revolution.
            Also, one could see in the analysis in the previous chapter, difference in the motive for immigration was related to the difference in the date of start of industrial revolution. At first, internal motives were the primary reason why British entrepreneurs immigrated to Continental Europe. Therefore, they started going to countries that were relatively closer to Britain. Industrialization started faster for those countries which were closer to Britain rather than those which were far. The countries which were relatively far had to offer better conditions if they were to have English entrepreneurs work in their countries.

VI. Conclusion
            This paper had mostly looked over the influence that British entrepreneurs had on the spread of industrial revolution in Continental Europe. The paper first started with articulating the characteristics of some British entrepreneurs who expanded into several different countries. Then, analyses of the motives of those British entrepreneurs and the consequences of those differences in motives have been dealt in this paper. Therefore, this paper tried to explain the reason why proximity to Britain was related to the start of industrial revolution and came to the conclusion that motives for immigration was one of the reasons why proximity to Britain was important in the order of the start of revolution.

VII. Note

(1) Teich, Mikula?, and Roy Porter. "The British Industrial Revolution." The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 1996. 13-36. Print.
(2) Henderson, W. O. ¡°British Influence on the Industrial Development of the Continent, 1750-1875¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 1-10 Print.
(3) "Entrepreneur." Wikipedia. Web. 28 July. 2011. .
(4) "Industrial Revolution." Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
(5) Henderson, W. O. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent: Germany, France, Russia, 1800-1914. [London]: F. Cass, 1961. Web. .
(6) Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 11-13 Print.
(7) "John Kay (Flying Shuttle)." Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
(8) Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 14-16 Print.
(9) Henderson, W. O. ¡°English Influence on the Growth of the French Iron, Engineering and Transport Industries in 1750-1850¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 37-76 Print.
(10) Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 10-76 Print.
(11) Henderson, W. O. ¡°English Influence on the Development of the French Textile Industries, 1750-1850¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 10-37 Print.
(12) Veblen, Thorstein. Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. New Brunswick (U.S.A.): Transaction, 1990. Web. .
Kocka, Jurgen. Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany. New York: Berghahn, 1999. Web. .
(13) Teich, Mikula?, and Roy Porter. "German Industrialization." The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 1996. 95-126. Print.
(14) Henderson, W. O. ¡°W. T. Mulvany : an Irish Pioneer in the Ruhr.¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 179-193 Print.
(15) Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 139-166 Print.
(16) Henderson, W. O. ¡°The Influence of British Entrepreneurs on the Industrial Revolution in Belgium, 1750-1850¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 102-138 Print.
(17) Prados, De, and Patrick Karl. O'Brien. Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and Its European Rivals, 1688-1815. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2004.
(18) Singleton, Frederick Bernard., and Anthony F. Upton. A Short History of Finland. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1998. Web. . , "James Finlayson (Industrialist)." Wikipedia. Web. 30 July. 2011. .
(19) Henderson, W. O. ¡°British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in the Habsburg Dominions, Holland and Switzerland.¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 194-210 Print.
(20) Teich, Mikula?, and Roy Porter. "Switzerland." The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 1996. 126-149. Print. , Teich, Mikula?, and Roy Porter. "Austria: industrialization in a multinational setting." The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 1996. 226-246. Print.
Henderson, W. O. ¡°British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in the Habsburg Dominions, Holland and Switzerland.¡± Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. 194-210 Print.
(21) Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. Print
Teich, Mikula?. The Industrial Revolution in National Context Europe and the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1996. Print.

VIII. Bibliography

1. Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.. Leicester: University, 1972. Print
2. Teich, Mikula?. The Industrial Revolution in National Context Europe and the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1996. Print.
3. Henderson, W. O. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent: Germany, France, Russia, 1800-1914. [London]: F. Cass, 1961. Web. .
4. Veblen, Thorstein. Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. New Brunswick (U.S.A.): Transaction, 1990. Web. .
5. Kocka, Jurgen. Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany. New York: Berghahn, 1999. Web. .
6. Singleton, Frederick Bernard., and Anthony F. Upton. A Short History of Finland. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1998. Web. .
7. Falkus, Malcolm E. The Industrialisation of Russia, 1700-1914,. [London]: Macmillan, 1972. Print.
8. Camijn, Aart J. Een Eeuw Vol Bedrijvigheid: De Industrialisatie Van Nederland, 1814 - 1914. Utrecht U.a.: Veen, 1987. Print.
9. Prados, De, and Patrick Karl. O'Brien. Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and Its European Rivals, 1688-1815. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2004.
10. Wikipedia. Web. 02 Sept. 2011. .



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Background
III.1. Pre-Industrial Europe
III.2. Industrial revolution in Britain
IV. Spread of Industrial Revolution
IV.1. France
IV.2. Germany
IV.3. Russia
IV.4. Low Countries
IV.5. Northern Europe
IV.6. Central Europe
V. Analysis
V.1. Motives for spread
V.1.1. Competition
V.1.2. Government
V.1.3. Analysis
V.2. Difference of spread between different industries
V.2.1. Difference
V.2.2.Analysis
V2.3. Timeline
VI. Conclusion
VII. Note
VIII. Bibliography



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Background
III.1. Pre-Industrial Europe
III.2. Industrial revolution in Britain
IV. Spread of Industrial Revolution
IV.1. France
IV.2. Belgium
IV.3. Germany
IV.4. Finland
IV.5. Russia
IV.6. Central Europe
V. Analysis
V.1. Motives for spread
V.1.1. Competition
V.1.2. Government
V.1.3. Analysis
V.2. Difference of spread between different industries
V.2.1. Difference
V.2.2.Analysis
V2.3. Timeline
VI. Conclusion
VII. Note
VIII. Bibliography



List of References . . Go to Teacher's Comment

1. McKay, John P. Pioneers for Profit; Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1970. http://books.google.com/books?id=1vCRavSNZBwC&pg=PA299
2. Kocka, Jurgen. Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany, 1800-1918. New York: Berghahn, 1999. http://books.google.com/books?id=IYMkq2YPdnkC&pg=PA142
3. Singleton, Fred, and A. F. Upton. A Short History of Finland. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print. http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=w3qwCHn3EgEC&pg=PA82
4. Henderson, William Otto. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent Germany, France, Russia, 1800-1914. London: Routledge, 2006. Print. http://books.google.com/books?id=DVOlHv6P68IC&pg=PA215
5. Veblen, Thorstein, and Joseph Dorfman. Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. [s. L.]: Read Book, 2006. Print http://books.google.co.kr/books?hl=ko&lr=&id=F-EIPY7i_pwC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7
6. Teich, Mikula?. The Industrial Revolution in National Context Europe and the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 2006. Print http://books.google.com/books?id=z7GVCC0hlBsC
7. Falkus, Malcolm E. The Industrialisation of Russia, 1700-1914,. [London]: Macmillan, 1972. Print.
8. Camijn, Aart J. Een Eeuw Vol Bedrijvigheid: De Industrialisatie Van Nederland, 1814 - 1914. Utrecht U.a.: Veen, 1987. Print.
9. Prados, De, and Patrick Karl. O'Brien. Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and Its European Rivals, 1688-1815. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2004. Print. http://books.google.co.kr/books?hl=ko&lr=&id=e_eXhDW5paYC&oi=fnd&pg=RA1-PA145
10. Henderson, W. O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750-1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe. Leicester: University, 1972. Print