National Anthem in 1750~1900 in Europe


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
PSW



Table of Contents


Second Draft , Nov. 9th 2011
New Outline , Oct. 5th 2011
New Outline , Sept. 22nd 2011
Working Table of Contents (3) , June 17th 2011
First Draft , June 17th 2011
References , June 17th 2011
Working Table of Contents (2), Apr. 8th 2011
Working Table of Contents , Mar. 18th 2011



Second Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1. Anthems and Hymns
II.2. Identity, Integration, and Disintegration
III. Germany
III.1. German States and One Entity (1630-1945)
III.2. Division and Unification (1945-present)
III.3. Specific States after World War II (1945-present)
IV. Italy
IV.1. Italian States (-1866)
IV.2. Unification of Italy (1866-present)
V. Austria-Hungary
V.1. Integration (1700-1918)
V.2. Disintegration (1918-present)
VI. Yugoslavia
VI.1. Expansion (-1918)
VI.2. Forceful Integration (1918-1980)
VI.3. Disintegration and Conflict (1980-present)
VII. Soviet Union
VII.1. Expansion (-1945)
VII.2. One Entity (1945-1991)
VII.3. Disintegration (1991-present)
VIII. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography

I. Introduction

II. Definition

II.1. Anthems and Hymns

Although there are different definitions about Anthems and Hymns, this research paper defines Anthems as the officially adopted song or hymn on a country, kingdom, region, or a city. Such officially adopted anthems should satisfy three factors: that the song or hymn should be sung by the majority of the citizens: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years, at least more than ten years: and that the song or hymn should reflect the particular social message about the region, country, kingdom, or a city. Hymns are the regional, national songs reflecting a particular social and political message of the region. The hymns should satisfy at least two factors: that the hymn should convey either strong political or concrete social message: that the hymn should be sung for several years. This paper deals with European Anthems and Hymns. Therefore, other continents anthems and hymns are not dealt in this research paper even though they could have relationship with Integration and Disintegration.

II.2. Identity, Integration, and Disintegration

The identity of a group of people is the spirit of acknowledging the group as one entity. Each group will show its own characteristic and culture which contribute to establishment of a unique identity. The unique characteristic is often exhibited through various political changes, especially in case of Integration and Disintegration. Integration means a situation in which a group of people unite and concord with other group of people, forming a single and comprehensive group or a country. Disintegration means a situation in which a once integrated country dissolves into several distinct groups. The focus of the research paper is to find out the identity of a certain group embedded in the lyrics and musical elements of certain national anthems which were publicized during the era of Integration and Disintegration. Therefore, anthems and hymns during important historical events such as World War II or the Concert of Europe are not dealt in this research paper unless the era has any relationship with Integration or Disintegration.

III. Germany

III.1. German States (1815-1945)

Schleswig & Holstein: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen (1844, 1842-1920) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3lQrDnMqSY&feature=watch_response
Prussia: Das Preuenlied (1830, 1851, 1830-1870) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZAjk1nwN3k
Kingdom of Bavaria: Heil unserm Konig, Heil! (1860, 1966) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A1aZbHAPNmw&feature=related
Grand Duchy of Hesse: Furstenhymne
Bayern: Bayern Hymn (1835, 1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Qa0IKLhpkc&feature=related
Wurttemberg: Preisend mit viel schonen Reden (1818, 1840-1945) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eZuenSFTMc&feature=related
Sachsen (Kingdom of Saxony): Sachsenhymne (1890)
Baden: Das Badnerlied (1865) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XfVWpsZXNE
Hessen: Das Hessenlied (1919-1951) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFGH00Rh4kQ
Hamburg: Die Hamburg-Hymne Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen (1828, 1829) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUZe4KVF4aQ
Furstentum Waldeck: Das Lied Mein Waldeck (1879, 1890) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Q5ezsy3gI0&feature=related
Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Vandalia (1836)
Hymne des Freistaates Thuringen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQy66dZaM2k&feature=related
Heil dir im Siegerkranz (1790/1871-1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qcmn5PBdNo
Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o

footnote: Province of Limburg: Limburg mijn Vaderland (1909, 1912) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Cw5gHhIdOQ&feature=related

Each states had their own style of hymns and anthems. However, the national anthem Das Deutschlandlied was able to cover up the overall hymns of each states thanks to three factors
1) wide-spread character of the song
2) similarity on musical chords and techniques
3) ethnic similarity

III.2. Division and Unification (1945-present)

There are different features between West Germany and East Germany. West Germany sustained the national anthem but refused to sing the lyrics. East Germany made a new anthem focusing on communism and virtues of the Germans
Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
East Germany: Auferstanden aus Ruinen (1949, 1990) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTV92wqYjfA

III.3. Specifics after World War II

The hymns of each region established after World War II are different.
Saxony-Anhalt: Lied fur Sachsen-Anhalt (unknown, 1991) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA7Am_C5uL8
Niedersachsen: Das Niedersachsenlied http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVvRzXNGx2s&feature=related
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUpZPQqZK4U&feature=related

IV. Italy

IV.1. Italian States

Several Italian States had their own regional anthems. There could be other previous Italian States which had regional anthems, but in the research paper there are only three Italian states searched.
Venetia: "Juditha Triumphans" (1716-1798) (by Antonio Vivaldi) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXcbZ_39v3M
Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Inno al Re http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul15xTUHeeI
Kingdom of Sardinia: Hhymnu sardu nationale (1816/1816-1861) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNfRtGxgUNo

footnote: San Marino: Inno della Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7IRW6LkYb0&NR=1
IV.2. Unification

Marcia Reale(1831/1861-1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXjFeoDl8LE&feature=related
Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3RToBymttA
The Italians refused to sing the lyrics, and consequently changed the national anthem after World War II.
V. Austria-Hungary
V.1. Gaining Autonomy
Austria was in the stage of integrating other nations, or forming double-kingdoms, such as Austria-Hungary. The lyrics of the national anthem suggest the authority of the emperor. Since the emperor needed justification to rule several sections of the empire, the national anthem naturally focused on emphasizing the benefits the emperor give to the prosperity and development of the empire. Although Hungarian anthem was adopted on 1844, it was seldom used during the period of Austro-Hungarian era.
Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
Austria-Hungary: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (1797, 1804-1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw9zXepzEzA
Hungary: Magyar Himnuz http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q6UFEjZBQk&feature=related
V.2. Disintegration (1918-)

After the end of World War I, with the declaration of National self-determination by Woodrow Wilson, Austria-Hungary empire was disintegrated into several countries. After the World War I, Austria focused on retaining its peaceful policies, trying not to participate in other warfare. The countries which gained independence from Austria were able to ratify the anthems composed during the 19th century. However, some of the anthems show different characteristics compared to other countries, such as unusual use of transcendental scales or subsequent use of minor chords.
Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-GJo3cSjdw
Hungary: Magyar Himnuz http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q6UFEjZBQk&feature=related
Poland http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQTq07gihqg
Czechoslovakia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3AxtXROEKA&feature=related
Czech Republic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiJgTFmF9Zo
Slovakia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTxJlUK7tWo
VI. Yugoslavia

VI.1. Unification

The anthems here represent both the independence and the integration between the countries since they dd not have obsolete power.
Montenegro: ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo/late 19th Century~early 20th century) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74aKZNbtV68
Serbia: ج ѬӬլ (1872/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMk7cgX1RSA
Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnPKOffeNEs
Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMs_d_vx9AM
VI.2. Forceful Integration

Yugoslavia: became the united country after the World War II
The anthem Hej Sloveni focused on enhancing the spirit of the Slovaks, which was not tempting for other peoples including the Macedonians, Croatians, and Albanias.
Yugoslavia: Hej Sloveni (1834/1977) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdXeHGp62VI
VI.3. Disintegration

Countries divided from Yugoslavia called for independence. Serbia still calls for integration, to regain the glory of the age of Yugoslavia. The anthem of these countries are notable since most of these anthems are in minor, expressing the misery but strong inclination to gain independence.
Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnPKOffeNEs
Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMs_d_vx9AM
Montenegro: Oj svijetla majska zoro (Unknown/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewX_loFoOL4
Bosnia & Herzegovina: Jedna si jedina (Unknown/1992) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MELkCeYwIcY
Kosovo: Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove (2000/2000), Europe (2008/2008) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4zk7sAWlkA&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsSXRIl3Qmk&feature=related
Macedonia: ֬߬֬ Ѭ Ѭܬ֬լ߬? (1941,1943,1992) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wyNLbjbXq6Q
VII. Russia

VII.1. Russian Empire: Expansion

Ҭ֬լ, Ѭ٬լѬӬѬ۬! (1791/1791- 1816) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdpFC8sEuC8&feature=related ݬڬӬ ܬڬ (1815/1816 - 1833) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zoDIBV7OTgg
ج, Ѭ Ѭ߬! (1833/1833 -1917) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EPQ53dkCXs&NR=1&feature=fvwp
The upper three anthems are focusing on praising the kings and others. The age of expansion for the Russian Empire was made.
The Internationale (1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCFibtD3H_k
߬֬߬Ѭڬ߬? (1902/1918-1944) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpvwh292VKI
The Internationale or the translated version of the Internationale in Russian was used during the early ages of Soviet Union. People celebrated about the country they established

VII.2. Soviet Union: One Entity

լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (1943/1944-1990)
The lyric changes overall on 1944 and on 1977
On 1944 the lyric focuses on the triumph the Soviet Union made during the World War II and praise both Lenin and Stalin: since communism was already sustained and fortified, it was not that need for the Soviet Union to fortify the communism over people
On 1977 the lyric focuses on the conflict between soviet union and the united states. The anthem focuses on spreading the communism to other people, more enforcing the ideology. The quotation about the glory of the war is not stated.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS18cOHinsg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BD_%D0%A1%D0%A1%D0%A1%D0%A0
VII.3. Disintegration

Similarity:
1) want to establish own national characteristics
2) want to show them as peaceful people: all the melodies and the major statements of the anthem are all peaceful, focusing on the peace and dignity of the peoples
Russia itself: remember the glory of the Soviet Union The president: the isolation of the generations which experienced the Soviet Union age. Therefore, only the lyrics were changed except for the original song. (Except during 1990 to 2000 when the lyrics and the song was changed.)
Ѭڬڬ֬ܬѬ ֬߬ (1833/1990-2000), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxh0kg_9T7U
լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (2000/1938/2000-) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1r7QeSzANk
Georgia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIRXdKaNR6Q&NR=1
Estonia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yS_IHqUOMrs
Latvia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxjdcvraOSM
Lithuania http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jn9K52SkZ40&feature=related
Poland http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3M9wrLN_dV0&feature=related
Ukraine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS2dhMIlpm8&NR=1
Belarus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeWRJ7zcIro&feature=related
Hungary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iOKbRRSgic
Moldova http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5VgrD7Q7m4

There were several historical figures who protested against the use of Russian Anthem, such as one Czech athlete who refused to pledge honor to the Russian anthem during the 1968 olympics.
Other countries which were previously in Soviet Union, such as Turkmenistan or Uzbekistan, are not dealt in this research paper. This is because these countries are currently part of Asia, not Europe. Therefore, including these countries would override the assumption of the Research Paper: to deal European Anthems and Hymns.

Sources for Further Research National thought in Europe: a cultural history p.148, 188 (overall)
Focus: music, nationalism, and the making of the new Europe p.113- (overall) http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC from Google Books
The music of European nationalism: cultural identity and modern history (overall) p.117-p.152 http://books.google.com/books?id=fkQf7k2OaDcC from Google Books
Nation and Identity in contemporary Europe p.252-p.292 (Yugoslavia) http://books.google.com/books?id=uwhXdLi-YAAC from Google Books
The voice of nations: European national anthems and their authority Unification Anthems (Germany, Italy) http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15337726 from Questia
Austria, Hungary and the Habsburgs http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=115124739 from Questia
Soviet Union, 1933-1939 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24597369 from Questia
Soviet Union in the 1980s http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97629111 from Questia
The Unification of Germany 1989-1990 http://books.google.com/books?id=AwpeGlFU_7QC from Google Books
The naval policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918: navalism, industrialism http://books.google.com/books?id=O8xHL01QG8cC from Google Books
Italy from Napoleon to Mussolini http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34201901 from Questia
Yugoslavia: A Concise History http://books.google.com/books?id=iw9PHRR1oe4C from Google Books
Basic Sources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_anthem

** Basic Direction of this term paper
The interpretation on the European Anthems and Hymns will be done by two aspects: the lyrics and the musical elements. By comparing, contrasting, and analyzing the contemporary society with the anthems and hymns, I will find out the underlying identity, inevitable elements of history and composition of the anthems and hymns.

Historical References

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgIKJ48im1E
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDJeeS8enSU
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DH59uw4ykko&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7lAZ89Pu_c&feature=related
Czekoslovakia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dykBBhaoczg&feature=related
Soviet Union http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyyUjyOIITk&NR=1
New Outline . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Title : European Anthems, Hymns, and Identity (National, Regional): Within Voices of Integration and Disintegration

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1. Anthems and Hymns
II.2. Identity, Integration, and Disintegration
III. Germany
III.1. German States and One Entity (1630-1945)
III.2. Division and Unification (1945-present)
IV. Italy
IV.1. Italian States (-1866)
IV.2. Unification of Italy (1866-present)
V. Austria-Hungary
V.1. Integration (1700-1918)
V.2. Disintegration (1918-present)
VI. Yugoslavia
VI.1. Expansion (-1918)
VI.2. Forceful Integration (1918-1980)
VI.3. Disintegration and Conflict (1980-present)
VII. Soviet Union
VII.1. Expansion (-1945)
VII.2. One Entity (1945-1991)
VII.3. Disintegration (1991-present)
VIII. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography

I. Introduction

II. Definition

II.1. Anthems and Hymns
            Although there are different definitions about Anthems and Hymns, this research paper defines Anthems as the officially adopted song or hymn on a country, kingdom, region, or a city. Such officially adopted anthems should satisfy three factors: that the song or hymn should be sung by the majority of the citizens: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years, at least more than ten years: and that the song or hymn should reflect the particular social message about the region, country, kingdom, or a city. Hymns are the regional, national songs reflecting a particular social and political message of the region. The hymns should satisfy at least two factors: that the hymn should convey either strong political or concrete social message: that the hymn should be sung for several years. This paper deals with European Anthems and Hymns. Therefore, other continents anthems and hymns are not dealt in this research paper even though they could have relationship with Integration and Disintegration.

II.2. Identity, Integration, and Disintegration
            The identity of a group of people is the spirit of acknowledging the group as one entity. Each group will show its own characteristic and culture which contribute to establishment of a unique identity. The unique characteristic is often exhibited through various political changes, especially in case of Integration and Disintegration. Integration means a situation in which a group of people unite and concord with other group of people, forming a single and comprehensive group or a country. Disintegration means a situation in which a once integrated country dissolves into several distinct groups. The focus of the research paper is to find out the identity of a certain group embedded in the lyrics and musical elements of certain national anthems which were publicized during the era of Integration and Disintegration. Therefore, anthems and hymns during important historical events such as World War II or the Concert of Europe are not dealt in this research paper unless the era has any relationship with Integration or Disintegration.

III. Germany

III.1. German States and One Entity
Schleswig & Holstein: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen (1844, 1842-1920) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3lQrDnMqSY&feature=watch_response
Prussia: Das Preuenlied (1830, 1851, 1830-1870) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZAjk1nwN3k
Kingdom of Bavaria: Heil unserm Konig, Heil! (1860, 1966)
Grand Duchy of Hesse: Furstenhymne
Bayem: Bayern Hymn (1835, 1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Qa0IKLhpkc&feature=related
Wurttemburg: Preisend mit viel schonen Reden (1818, 1840-1945) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eZuenSFTMc&feature=related
Sachsen (Saxony): Sachsenhymne (1890)
Baden: Das Badnerlied (1865)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XfVWpsZXNE Hessen: Das Hessenlied (1919-1951)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFGH00Rh4kQ
Hamburg: Die Hamburg-Hymne Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen (1828, 1829) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUZe4KVF4aQ
Furstentums Waldeck: Das Lied Mein Waldeck (1879, 1890)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Q5ezsy3gI0&feature=related Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Vandalia (1836)
Hymne des Freistaates Thurigen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQy66dZaM2k&feature=related
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUpZPQqZK4U&feature=related
Saxony-Anhalt: Lied fur Sachsen-Anhalt (unknown, 1991) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA7Am_C5uL8
Das Neidersachsenlied http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVvRzXNGx2s&feature=related
Heil dir im Siegerkranz (1790/1871-1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qcmn5PBdNo
Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o

footnote: Province of Limburg: Limburg mijn Vaderland (1909, 1912) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Cw5gHhIdOQ&feature=related

III.2. Division and Unification

Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
East Germany: Auferstanden aus Ruinen (1949, 1990) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTV92wqYjfA

IV. Italy

IV.1. Italian States

Marcia Reale(1831/1861-1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXjFeoDl8LE&feature=related
Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3RToBymttA
Venecia "Juditha Triumphans" (1716-1798) (by Antonio Vivaldi) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXcbZ_39v3M
Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Inno al Re http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul15xTUHeeI
Kingdom of Sardinia: Hhymnu sardu nationale (1816/1816-1861) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNfRtGxgUNo

footnote: San Marino: Inno della Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7IRW6LkYb0&NR=1

IV.2. Unification

Marcia Reale(1831/1861-1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXjFeoDl8LE&feature=related

V. Austria

V.1. Integration

Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
Austria-Hungary: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (1797, 1804-1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw9zXepzEzA
Hungary: Magyar Himnuz http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q6UFEjZBQk&feature=related
Poland http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQTq07gihqg
Czech http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiJgTFmF9Zo
Slovakia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTxJlUK7tWo
Czechoslovakia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3AxtXROEKA&feature=related

V.2. Disintegration (1918-)

Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-GJo3cSjdw

VI. Yugoslavia

VI.1. Expansion

Montenegro: ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo/late 19th Century~early 20th century) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74aKZNbtV68
Serbia: ج ѬӬլ (1872/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMk7cgX1RSA
Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnPKOffeNEs
Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMs_d_vx9AM

VI.2. Forceful Integration

Yugoslavia: Hej Sloveni (1834/1977) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdXeHGp62VI

VI.3. Disintegration

Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnPKOffeNEs
Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMs_d_vx9AM
Montenegro: Oj svijetla majska zoro (Unknown/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewX_loFoOL4
Bosnia & Herzegovina: Jedna si jedina (Unknown/1992) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MELkCeYwIcY
Kosovo: Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove (2000/2000), Europe (2008/2008) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4zk7sAWlkA&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsSXRIl3Qmk&feature=related

VII. Russian Empire

VII.1. Expansion

Ҭ֬լ, Ѭ٬լѬӬѬ۬! (1791/1791- 1816) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdpFC8sEuC8&feature=related
ݬڬӬ ܬڬ (1815/1816 - 1833) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zoDIBV7OTgg
ج, Ѭ Ѭ߬! (1833/1833 -1917) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EPQ53dkCXs&NR=1&feature=fvwp
The Internationale (1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCFibtD3H_k
߬֬߬Ѭڬ߬? (1902/1918-1944) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpvwh292VKI

VII.2. One Entity

լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (1943/1944-1990) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS18cOHinsg

VII.3. Disintegration

Ѭڬڬ֬ܬѬ ֬߬ (1833/1990-2000), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxh0kg_9T7U
լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (2000/1938/2000-) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1r7QeSzANk
Georgia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIRXdKaNR6Q&NR=1
Estonia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yS_IHqUOMrs
Latvia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxjdcvraOSM
Lithuania http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jn9K52SkZ40&feature=related
Poland http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3M9wrLN_dV0&feature=related
Ukraine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS2dhMIlpm8&NR=1
Belarus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeWRJ7zcIro&feature=related
Hungary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iOKbRRSgic
Moldova http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5VgrD7Q7m4

            Other countries which were previously in Soviet Union, such as Turkmenistan or Uzbekistan, are not dealt in this research paper. This is because these countries are currently part of Asia, not Europe. Therefore, including these countries would override the assumption of the Research Paper: to deal European Anthems and Hymns.

            Sources for Further Research

National thought in Europe: a cultural history p.148, 188 (overall) Focus: music, nationalism, and the making of the new Europe p.113- (overall) http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC&pg=PA115&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Europe%20national%20anthem&f=false
The music of European nationalism: cultural identity and modern history (overall) p.117-p.152 http://books.google.com/books?id=fkQf7k2OaDcC&pg=PA157&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Europe%20national%20anthem&f=false
Nation and Identity in contemporary Europe p.252-p.292 (Yugoslavia) http://books.google.com/books?id=uwhXdLi-YAAC&pg=PA132&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=yugoslavia&f=false
The voice of nations: European national anthems and their authority Unification Anthems (Germany, Italy) http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15337726
Austria, Hungary and the Habsburgs http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=115124739
Soviet Union, 1933-1939 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24597369
Soviet Union in the 1980s http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97629111
The Unification of Germany 1989-1990 http://books.google.com/books?id=AwpeGlFU_7QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=unification+of+germany&hl=en&ei=AGGCTtC8L4WOiAe2ltjsDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
The naval policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918: navalism, industrialism http://books.google.com/books?id=O8xHL01QG8cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=austria+hungary&hl=en&ei=KmOCTqy8PO-7iAfxkaHqDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCDgU#v=onepage&q&f=false
Italy from Napoleon to Mussolini http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34201901
Basic Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_anthem

** Basic Direction of this term paper The interpretation on the European Anthems and Hymns will be done by two aspects: the lyrics and the musical elements. By comparing, contrasting, and analyzing the contemporary society with the anthems and hymns, I will find out the underlying identity, inevitable elements of history and composition of the anthems and hymns.



New Outline . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Title: European Anthems, Hymns (National, Regional), and Identity: Within Voices for Integration and Disintegration

I. Germany
I.1. German States (1648-1870)
I.2. One Entity (1870-1945)
I.3. Division (1945-1989)
I.4. Unification (1989-present)
II. Italy
II.1. Italian States (-1866)
II.2. Unification of Italy (1866-present)
III. Austria-Hungary
III.1. Integration (1700-1918)
III.2. Disintegration (1918-present)
IV. Yugoslavia
IV.1. Expansion (-1918)
IV.2. Forceful Integration (1918-1980)
IV.3. Disintegration and Conflict (1980-present)
V. Soviet Union
V.1. Expansion (-1945)
V.2. One Entity (1945-1991)
V.3. Disintegration (1991-present)
VI. Other Regions
VI.1. Georgia
VI.2.
VII. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography

I. Introduction

II. Definition

II.1. Anthems and Hymns
            Although there are different definitions about Anthems and Hymns, (Definition on Anthems and Hymns are not yet thoroughly set. However, this is the overall outline for the definition. I would define Anthems as the officially adopted song or hymn on a country, kingdom, region, or a city. Such officially adopted anthems should satisfy three factors: that the song or hymn should be sung by the majority of the citizens: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years, at least more than ten years: and that the song or hymn should reflect the particular social message about the region, country, kingdom, or a city. I would define hymn as the song reflecting a particular social and political message of the country. The hymns should satisfy at least two factors: that the song or hymn should convey strong political and social message: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years.)

II.2. Identity, Integration, and Disintegration

VI.1. Germany
VI.1.1. Heil dir im Siegerkranz (1790/1871-1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qcmn5PBdNo
VI.1.2. Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
VI.1.4. East Germany: Auferstanden aus Ruinen (1949, 1990) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTV92wqYjfA
III.17. Schleswig & Holstein: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen (1844, 1842-1920) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3lQrDnMqSY&feature=watch_response
IV.13. Prussia: Das Preuenlied (1830, 1851, 1830-1870) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZAjk1nwN3k
IV.14. Kingdom of Bavaria: Heil unserm Konig, Heil! (1860, 1966)
IV.15. Grand Duchy of Hesse: Furstenhymne
V.11. Bayem: Bayern Hymn (1835, 1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Qa0IKLhpkc&feature=related
V.12. Wurttemburg: Preisend mit viel schonen Reden (1818, 1840-1945) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eZuenSFTMc&feature=related
V.13. Sachsen (Saxony): Sachsenhymne (1890)
V.14. Baden: Das Badnerlied (1865) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XfVWpsZXNE
V.15. Hessen: Das Hessenlied (1919-1951) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFGH00Rh4kQ
V.16. Hamburg: Die Hamburg-Hymne Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen (1828, 1829) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUZe4KVF4aQ
V.17. Province of Limburg: Limburg mijn Vaderland (1909, 1912)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Cw5gHhIdOQ&feature=related V.18. Furstentums Waldeck: Das Lied Mein Waldeck (1879, 1890)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Q5ezsy3gI0&feature=related IX.3.2. Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Vandalia (1836)

Hymne des Freistaates Thurigen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQy66dZaM2k&feature=related
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUpZPQqZK4U&feature=related
Saxony-Anhalt: Lied fur Sachsen-Anhalt (unknown, 1991) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA7Am_C5uL8
Das Neidersachsenlied http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVvRzXNGx2s&feature=related

VI.2. Italy
VI.2.1. Marcia Reale(1831/1861-1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXjFeoDl8LE&feature=related
VI.2.2. Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3RToBymttA
IV.10. Venecia "Juditha Triumphans" (1716-1798) (by Antonio Vivaldi) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXcbZ_39v3M
IV.11. Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Inno al Re http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul15xTUHeeI
IV.12. Kingdom of Sardinia: Hhymnu sardu nationale (1816/1816-1861) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNfRtGxgUNo
IV.13. San Marino: Inno della Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7IRW6LkYb0&NR=1

IV.5. Austria
IV.5.1. Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C91u-j1po9o
IV.5.2. Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-GJo3cSjdw
IV.8. Austria-Hungary: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (1797, 1804-1918)

Hungary: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q6UFEjZBQk&feature=related Magyar Himnuz
Poland: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQTq07gihqg
Czech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiJgTFmF9Zo
Slovakia: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTxJlUK7tWo

V.7. Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnPKOffeNEs
V.8. Yugoslavia: Hej Sloveni (1834/1977) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdXeHGp62VI
III.13. Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMs_d_vx9AM
III.14. Albania: Himni I Flamurit (1912/ 1912) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OP4aS19cFc
VII.4. Montenegro
VII.4.1. ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo/late 19th Century~early 20th century) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74aKZNbtV68
VII.4.2. Oj svijetla majska zoro (Unknown/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewX_loFoOL4
VII.5. Bosnia & Herzegovina: Jedna si jedina (Unknown/1992) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MELkCeYwIcY
VII.6. Kosovo: Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove (2000/2000), Europe (2008/2008) Kur ka ra: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4zk7sAWlkA&feature=related
Europe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsSXRIl3Qmk&feature=related
VIII.2. Serbia: ج ѬӬլ (1872/2006) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMk7cgX1RSA

IV.7. Russian Empire
** The Internationale http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCFibtD3H_k
IV.7.1. Ҭ֬լ, Ѭ٬լѬӬѬ۬! (1791/1791- 1816) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdpFC8sEuC8&feature=related
IV.7.2. ݬڬӬ ܬڬ (1815/1816 - 1833) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zoDIBV7OTgg
IV.7.3. ج, Ѭ Ѭ߬! (1833/1833 -1917) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EPQ53dkCXs&NR=1&feature=fvwp
V.9.1. ߬֬߬Ѭڬ߬? (1902/1918-1944) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpvwh292VKI
V.9.2. լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (1943/1944-1990) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS18cOHinsg
V.9.3. Ѭڬڬ֬ܬѬ ֬߬ (1833/1990-2000), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxh0kg_9T7U լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (2000/1938/2000-) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1r7QeSzANk

National Anthem of Georgia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIRXdKaNR6Q&NR=1

Sources for Further Research

National thought in Europe: a cultural history p.148, 188 (overall)
Focus: music, nationalism, and the making of the new Europe p.113- (overall) http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC&pg=PA115&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Europe%20national%20anthem&f=false
The music of European nationalism: cultural identity and modern history (overall) p.117-p.152 http://books.google.com/books?id=fkQf7k2OaDcC&pg=PA157&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Europe%20national%20anthem&f=false
Nation and Identity in contemporary Europe p.252-p.292 (Yugoslavia) http://books.google.com/books?id=uwhXdLi-YAAC&pg=PA132&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=yugoslavia&f=false
The voice of nations: European national anthems and their authority Unification Anthems (Germany, Italy) http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15337726
Austria, Hungary and the Habsburgs http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=115124739
Soviet Union, 1933-1939 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24597369
Soviet Union in the 1980s http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97629111



Working Table of Contents (3) . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1. Anthem and Hymns
II.2. Organization
III. Aims for Resistance and Beyond
III.1. France: La Marseillaise (1792/1795)
III.2. Poland: Mazurek D?browskiego (1797/1926)
III.3. Hungary: Himnusz (1823/1844)
III.4. Portugal: A Portuguesa (1890/1910, 1911)
III.5. Lithuania: Tauti?ka giesm? (1898/1919)
III.6. Ireland
III.6.1. Amhran na bhFiann (1907/1926)
III.6.2. Other National Songs
III.7. Scotland hymns
III.8. Slovakia: Nad Tatrou sa blyska (1844/1918, 1939, 1993)
III.9. Latvia: Dievs, sv?t? Latviju! (1873/ 1920)
III.10. Romania & Moldova
III.10.1. De?teapt?-te, romane (1848/ 1989, 1991, 1994)
III.10.2. Imn pentru Republica Popular? Roman? (Zdrobite c?tu?e) (1948-1953)
III.11. Ukraine: ߬ Ӭެ֬ݬ ܬ?a (1862/ 1992, 2003)
III.12. Bulgaria: Mila Rodino (1885/ 1964)
III.13. Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844/ 1848/ 1905, 1989)
III.14. Albania: Himni I Flamurit (1912/ 1912)
III.15. Russian Empire: ѬҬѬ Ѭ֬ݬ֬٬ (1875/ 1917-1918)
III.16. Spain: El Himno de Riego (1820/1822-1823,1873-1874, 1931-1939)
III.17. Schleswig & Holstein: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen (1844, 1842-1920)
IV. Praising Sovereign
IV.1. England (United Kingdom): God Save the Queen (unknown)
IV.2. Denmark: Der er et yndigt land (1819/1835)
IV.3. Spain: La Marcha Real (unknown/1770)
IV.4. Russia: լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ ڬ۬ܬ ֬լ֬Ѭڬ (1939/2000)
IV.5. Austria
IV.5.1. Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841)
IV.5.2. Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946)
IV.6. Monaco: Hymne Monegasque (1931/1841/1848)
IV.7. Russian Empire
IV.7.1. Ҭ֬լ, Ѭ٬լѬӬѬ۬! (1791/1791- 1816)
IV.7.2. ݬڬӬ ܬڬ (1815/1816 - 1833)
IV.7.3. ج, Ѭ Ѭ߬! (1833/1833 -1917)
IV.8. Austria-Hungary: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (1797, 1804-1918)
IV.9. France: Marche Henry IV (1590s/1590-1789,1815-1848)
IV.10. Venecia "Juditha Triumphans" (1716-1798)
IV.11. Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Inno al Re
IV.12. Kingdom of Sardinia: Hhymnu sardu nationale (1816/1816-1861)
IV.13. Prussia: Das Preuenlied (1830, 1851, 1830-1870)
IV.14. Kingdom of Bavaria: Heil unserm Konig, Heil! (1860, 1966)
IV.15. Grand Duchy of Hesse: Furstenhymne
IV.16. Romania
IV.16.1. Mar? triumfal ?i primirea steagului ?i a M?riei Sale Prin?ul Domnitor(1862-1884)
IV.16.2. Tr?iasc? Regele (1884 1884-1947),
V. Concern on Enlightenment
V.1. Estonia: Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room (1848/1920)
V.2. Finland: Maamme laulu (1848/1867)
V.3. Sweden: Du gamla, Du fria (1844/ never officially adopted)
V.4. Luxembourg: Ons Heemecht (1859/1895)
V.5. Switzerland
V.5.1. Rufst du, mein Vaterland (1811, 1850s-1981)
V.5.2. Schweizerpsalm (Cantique suisse/ Salmo Svizzero/ Psalm Svizzer) (1841/ 1961, 1981)
V.6. Wales: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (1856, 1863)
V.7. Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972)
V.8. Yugoslavia: Hej Sloveni (1834/1977)
V.9. Soviet Union
V.9.1. ߬֬߬Ѭڬ߬? (1902/1918-1944)
V.9.2. լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (1943/1944-1990)
V.9.3. Ѭڬڬ֬ܬѬ ֬߬ (1833/1990-2000), լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ (2000/1938/2000-)
V.10. German Democratic Republic: Auferstanden aus Ruinen (1949/1949-1990)
V.11. Bayem: Bayern Hymn (1835, 1946)
V.12. Wurttemburg: Preisend mit viel schonen Reden (1818, 1840-1945)
V.13. Sachsen (Saxony): Sachsenhymne (1890)
V.14. Baden: Das Badnerlied (1865)
V.15. Hessen: Das Hessenlied (1919-1951)
V.16. Hamburg: Die Hamburg-Hymne Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen (1828, 1829)
V.17. Province of Limburg: Limburg mijn Vaderland (1909, 1912)
V.18. Furstentums Waldeck: Das Lied Mein Waldeck (1879, 1890)
V.19. Romania
V.19.1. Imn de Stat al Republicii Populare Romane (1953-1977)
V.19.2. Imnul de stat al Republicii Socialiste Romania/Trei culori (1977-1989)
VI. Voice for Unification
VI.1. Germany
VI.1.1. Heil dir im Siegerkranz (1790/1871-1918)
VI.1.2. Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918)
VI.1.3. Deutschland uber alles, (Das Lied der Deutschen)
VI.2. Italy
VI.2.1. Marcia Reale(1831/1861-1946)
VI.2.2. Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005)
VI.3. Poland: Mazurek D?browskiego (1797/1926)
VII. Voice for Independence.
VII.1. Greece: Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian (1823/1865)
VII.2. Belgium: La Brabanconne (1830/1860)
VII.3. Norway: Ja, vi elsker dette landet (1859-1868/1864)
VII.4. Montenegro
VII.4.1. ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo/late 19th Century~early 20th century)
VII.4.2. Oj svijetla majska zoro (Unknown/2006)
VII.5. Bosnia & Herzegovina: Jedna si jedina (Unknown/1992)
VII.6. Kosovo: Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove (2000/2000), Europe (2008/2008)
VIII. Religious Messages
VIII.1. Vatican City: Pontifical Anthem (Papa Anthem) (1869/ 1949)
VIII.2. Serbia: ج ѬӬլ (1872/2006)
VIII.3. Iceland: : Lofsongur (unknown, 1874, 1983)
VIII.4. Matla: L-Innu Malti (1922, 1964)
IX. Other Cases
IX.1. Historical: Andorra: El Gran Carlemany (unknown, probably 1890s / 1921)
IX.2. Chorale and Theatre: Czech
IX.2.1. Svaty Vaclave, vevodo ?eskezem?(Unknown/13th Century~1992)
IX.2.2. Kde domov m?j (1834/1992)
IX.3. Development
IX.3.1. Liechtenstein: Oben am jungen Rhein (1850 / 1920)
IX.3.2. Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Vandalia (1836)
IX.4. Labor Movement and Socialist: The Internationale (1871 / 1910)
IX.5. Relationship: Saxony-Anhalt: Lied fur Sachsen-Anhalt (unknown, 1991)
X. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



First Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction

We come across with national, state, city, regional anthems and hymns on important situations. We always hear those anthems and hymns, but we tend to focus less on the historical background of these anthems and hymns. Anthems and Hymns changed according to politics and society. Especially in Europe, where political situation and social situation changed dramatically over 300 years, the change of the anthems were primarily based on those changes. Analysis and interpretation on the anthems will give people a wider viewpoint on the viewpoints of people at that time.
Depending on the political situation and social situation, the anthems and hymns changed its characteristics. On rare occasions, the official anthem of a country changed more than three times. Sometimes, the lyrics of the anthems were deleted or changed. Such development and changes in the lyrics of the anthems reflect how people thought about the anthems and hymns changed. However, the anthems and hymns also changed the political situation and social situation. Anthems composed for resistance purposes had substantial effects on leading people for a particular purpose. Enlightening anthems gave people prestige and confidence on their country, city, or region, providing impetus for them to have substantial changes in the region. Therefore, this paper deals on three factors: How did the anthems and hymns had effects on European political and social situations? : How did the European political and social situations have effects on the anthems and hymns? : How do the anthems and hymns reflect the viewpoint or paradigm of the people at that time? Through such analysis and interpretations, we will come closer on getting at least a wide but detailed viewpoint on the history of anthems and hymns.

II. Definition

II.1. Anthems and Hymns
(Definition on Anthems and Hymns are not yet thoroughly set. However, this is the overall outline for the definition. I would define Anthems as the officially adopted song or hymn on a country, kingdom, region, or a city. Such officially adopted anthems should satisfy three factors: that the song or hymn should be sung by the majority of the citizens: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years, at least more than ten years: and that the song or hymn should reflect the particular social message about the region, country, kingdom, or a city. I would define hymn as the song reflecting a particular social and political message of the country. The hymns should satisfy at least two factors: that the song or hymn should convey strong political and social message: that the song or hymn should be sung for several years.)

II.2. Organization

The paper will be categorized into a particular format. First, each anthems and hymns will be divided into several categories: Aims for Resistance and Beyond, Praising Sovereign, Concern on Enlightenment, Voice for Unification, Voice for Independence, Religious Messages, and Other Cases. Each of the categories will deal with each anthem and hymn. Beside the table of contents, there will be several numbers n brackets, such as (1792/1795/1856) or (1792, 1795, 1856 / 1934). The first year represents the year when the lyrics were written. The last year represents the year when the anthem or hymn was adopted. The year between (the number of years could vary) represents when the music for the anthem was written; when the anthem was used without adoption; or when the hymn was sung or rejected. Sometimes, there are categories which there are only one set of number or no numbers beside the title of the anthems. These categories suggest that one of the categories are not found yet exactly on several references. This paper would like to point out that each country in each category has exact time period. In case of Germany, there will be descriptions on anthems and hymns on German States, such as Bavaria, Saxony, and other independent states before unification independent from descriptions of those in Unified Germany. Similar cases will be dealt with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Scandinavian countries, Yugoslavia, and countries which were formerly the parts of Soviet Union. Therefore, for each category, there will be an implication on when the nation, city, or region was established and when they ended. For cases of origins of anthems and hymns which were used before establishment of the countries will also be dealt, but will be mentioned that these hymns and anthems were used before the establishment of the countries.
This paper will deal about how the anthems and hymns were linked or affected to social and political situations in Europe. Each category explains similarity between the effects of anthems and hymns on certain countries, cities, or regions. Aims for Resistance and Beyond part explains about national anthems and hymns primarily used during revolutions or wars with other countries. Praising Sovereign part explains on national anthems and hymns praising the majesty within the country, thus forming unity among the citizens. Concern on Enlightenment part elaborates on how the national anthems and hymns were used to enlighten citizens of the country, of the city, and of the region. Voice for Unification part elaborates on national anthems and hymns used during unification of the countries, thus forming unity among different countries. Voice for Independence part elaborates on national anthems and hymns used during the independence of each countries. In this paper, the independence part is divided from resistance part since independence movement tried to create new nation, while the resistance movement tried to create new political system within the country, not having necessity to create a new nation. So, the characteristics of the national anthems differ. Religious Message part explains on how the national anthems and hymns contained messages from Christianity or other religions. Other cases show some of the national anthems created in a different style, such as national anthem originated from theatrical performance, or anthems concerning on historical messages. Since the classification of each national anthem and hymns are not precise, the table of contents can change by research or analysis. Also, there were several regions, cities, or countries which their anthems and hymns were not found during the research. Such regions are listed below.

Hymns of Pose, Galicia, Congress Poland
Flemish and Wallonian hymn
Catalonia, Basque Country, Galicia
Kingdom of United Netherlands
Dynastic Union of Sweden and Norway
Oldenburg
Groherzogtum Baden
Kingdom of Lombardia
Napoli
Tuscani



References . . Go to Teacher's Comment

References

Primary Sources: Lyrics of Anthems

All of the lyrics of the anthems and hymns above were on Wikipedia articles. It was relatively easy to find the lyrics of each anthems and Hymns. However, there will be limitations on some of the songs which does not have lyrics: in that case, the classification will be done based on the description of historical situation with the anthems.

Wikipedia Articles showing lyrics of the anthems and hymns
La Marseillaise / Mazurek D?browskiego / Himnusz / A Portuguesa / Tauti?ka giesm? / Amhran na bhFiann / Nad Tatrou sa blyska / Dievs, sv?t? Latviju! / De?teapt?-te, romane / Imn pentru Republica Popular? Roman? (Zdrobite c?tu?e) / ߬ Ӭެ֬ݬ ܬ?a / Mila Rodino / Zdravljca /Himni I Flamurit / ѬҬѬ Ѭ֬ݬ֬٬ / El Himno de Riego / Schleswig & Holstein: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen / God Save the Queen / Der er et yndigt land / La Marcha Real / լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ ڬ۬ܬ ֬լ֬Ѭڬ / Das Deutschlandlied / Land der Berge, Land am Strome / Hymne Monegasque / Ҭ֬լ, Ѭ٬լѬӬѬ۬! / ݬڬӬ ܬڬ ج, Ѭ Ѭ߬! / Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser / Marche Henry IV / Juditha Triumphans / Inno al Re / Hhymnu sardu nationale / Das Preuenlied / Heil unserm Konig, Heil! / Furstenhymne / Mar? triumfal ?i primirea steagului ?i a M?riei Sale Prin?ul Domnitor / Tr?iasc? Regele / Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room / Maamme laulu / Du gamla, Du fria / Ons Heemecht / Rufst du, mein Vaterland / Schweizerpsalm (Cantique suisse/ Salmo Svizzero/ Psalm Svizzer) / Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau / Lijepa na?a domovino / Hej Sloveni / ߬֬߬Ѭڬ߬? / լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ / Ѭڬڬ֬ܬѬ ֬߬ / լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ / Auferstanden aus Ruinen / Bayern Hymn / Preisend mit viel schonen Reden / Sachsenhymne / Das Badnerlied / Das Hessenlied / Die Hamburg-Hymne Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen / Limburg mijn Vaderland / Das Lied Mein Waldeck / Imn de Stat al Republicii Populare Romane / Imnul de stat al Republicii Socialiste Romania/Trei culori / Heil dir im Siegerkranz / Das Deutschlandlied / Deutschland uber alles (Das Lied der Deutschen) / Marcia Reale / Il Canto degli Italiani / Mazurek D?browskiego / Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian / La Brabanconne / Ja, vi elsker dette landet / ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo) / Oj svijetla majska zoro / Jedna si jedina / Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove / Europe / Pontifical Anthem (Papa Anthem) / ج ѬӬլ / Lofsongur / L-Innu Malti / El Gran Carlemany / Svaty Vaclave, vevodo ?eskezem? / Kde domov m?j / Oben am jungen Rhein / Vandalia / The Internationale / Lied fur Sachsen-Anhalt

Secondary Sources

The Voice of Nations: European National Anthems and Their Authors / F.Gunther Eyck / Greenwood Press / London / 1995
The music of European nationalism: cultural identity and modern history / Philip V. Bohlman / ABC-CLIO / London / 2004
Music of European Nationalism / Philip V. Bohlman / Taylor & Francis / 2009
Singing Nations: National Anthems as a Cultural Expression of the Formation, Reproduction and Promotion of National Identity in France and Germany / Kristina Kolb / Grin Verlag / 2009



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Title: National Anthem in 1750~1900 in Europe

I would like to change the topic from Nationalistic Songs from 1750 to 1900 into European National Anthems and Hymns: political and social effects from 1750 to present. I narrowed the scope from Nationalistic Songs to National Anthem and Hymns because it would be a tremendous task to deal with most of the nationalistic songs of each nation. Also, some of the songs do not have accurate origin or usage, which limits analysis on how these nationalistic songs contributed to other social factors. The reason why I widened the scope from 1750 to 1900 into 1750 to present is because not only the national anthems were related to each other throughout history, but also there were dozens of national anthems and hymns created or established in 20th century. It would be an ineffective analysis to deal only the nations independent from 1750 to 1900. It would be more effective if we compare and contrast the social situations and national anthems in each countries throughout the whole history. Therefore, I would change the topic into "European National Anthems and Hymns: political and social effects from 1750 to present."
The paper will be categorized into this format. First, each nation or regions national anthems and hymns will be divided into several categories: Resistance, Sovereign, Unification, Independence, Enlightenment, Religious, and Other Cases. Each of the categories will deal with each regions national anthems and hymns. Beside the table of contents, there will be a sign similar to (1792/1795/1856) or (1792, 1795, 1856 / 1934). The first year represents the year when the lyrics were written. The last year represents the year when the national anthem or hymn was adopted. The year between (the number of years could vary) represents when the music for the national anthem was written; when the national anthem was used without adoption; or when the hymn was sung or rejected. I would like to point out that each country in each category has exact time period. In case of Germany, there will be descriptions on national anthems and hymns on Bavaria, Saxony, and other independent states before unification independent from descriptions of those in Unified Germany. Similar cases will be dealt with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Scandinavian countries, Yugoslavia, and countries which were formerly the parts of Soviet Union. Therefore, for each category, there will be an implication on when the nation was established and when the nation ended. For cases of origins of national anthems and hymns which were used before establishment of the countries will also be dealt, but will be mentioned that these hymns and anthems were used before the establishment of the countries.
The paper will deal about how the national anthems were linked or affected to social and political situations in Europe. Each category explains similarity between the effects of national anthems on certain countries. Resistance part explains about national anthems and hymns primarily used during revolutions or wars with other countries. , Sovereign part explains on national anthems and hymns praising the majesty within the country, thus forming unity among the citizens. Unification part elaborates on national anthems and hymns used during unification of the countries, thus forming unity among different countries. Independence part elaborates on national anthems and hymns used during the independence of each countries. I divided the independence part from resistance part since independence movement tried to create new nation, while the resistance movement tried to create new political system within the country, not having necessity to create a new nation. So, the characteristics of the national anthems differ. Enlightenment part elaborates on how the national anthems and hymns were used to enlighten citizens of the country. Religious part explains on how the national anthems and hymns contained messages from Christianity or other religions. Other cases show some of the national anthems created in a different style, such as national anthem originated from theatrical performance. Since the classification of each national anthem and hymns are not precise, the table of contents can change by research or analysis.

I have changed the table of contents, but there are still some national anthems I am still searching.

* National Anthems not searched yet
1) National anthems for countries under influence of Soviet Union
2) Hymns of Russian Empire
3) Hymns of USSR
4) Hymns of Pose, Galicia, Congress Poland
5) Flemish and Wallonian Hymn
6) Catalonia, Basque Country, Galicia
7) Kingdom of United Netherlands
8) Dynastic Union of Sweden and Norway
9) Hymns of Italian states
10) Hymns of German states

* National Anthems not categorized yet
1) Germany (Before Unification)
1)1) Bayern: BayernHymn (1835, 1946)
1)2) Wurttembrug hymn: Preisend mit viel schonen Reden (1818)
1)3) Sachsen: Sachsenhymne (1890)
1)4) Preussen: Das Preuenlied (1830, 1851)
1)5) Baden: Das Badnerlied (1865)
1)6) Hessen: Das Hessenlied
1)7) Oldenburg: Hymne des alten Landes Oldenburg (1844)
2) Italy (before Unification)
2)1) inno venecia
2)2) inno lombardia
2)3) inno Sicily Patria Mia
2)4) inno Sardina
2)5) inno napoli - nino D'angelo
2)6) inno Tuscani: La Leopolda

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1. National Anthem
II.2. Organization
III. Resistance: revolution, war.
III.1. France: La Marseillaise (1792/1795)
III.2. Poland: Mazurek D?browskiego (1797/1926)
III.3. Hungary: Himnusz (1823/1844)
III.4. Portugal: A Portuguesa (1890/1910, 1911)
III.5. Lithuania: Tauti?ka giesm? (1898/1919)
III.6. Ireland: Amhran na bhFiann (1907/1926) & other National Songs
III.7. Scotland National Songs
III.8. Slovakia: Nad Tatrou sa blyska (1844/1918, 1939, 1993)
III.9. Latvia: Dievs, sv?t? Latviju! (1873/ 1920)
III.10. Romania & Moldova: De?teapt?-te, romane (1848/ 1989, 1991, 1994)
III.11. Ukraine: ߬ Ӭެ֬ݬ ܬ?a (1862/ 1992, 2003)
III.12. Bulgaria: Mila Rodino (1885/ 1964)
III.13. Slovenia: Zdravljca (1844, 1848, 1905, 1989)
III.14. Albania: Himni I Flamurit (1912, 1912)
IV. Sovereign: praise to the king
IV.1. England (United Kingdom): God Save the Queen (unknown)
IV.2. Denmark: Der er et yndigt land (1819/1835)
IV.3. Spain: La Marcha Real (unknown/1770)
IV.4. Russia: լѬӬ֬߬߬ Ԭڬެ ڬ۬ܬ ֬լ֬Ѭڬ (1939/2000)
IV.5. Austria: Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841) Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946)
IV.6. Monaco: Hymne Monegasque (1931/1841/1848)
V. Unification: songs during unification
V.1. Germany: Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918), Deutschland uber alles, (Das Lied der Deutschen)
V.2. Italy: Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005)
VI. Independence: songs during independence. Differs from resistance that these songs were contributing to independence. This section would include both resistance and independence.
VI.1. Greece: Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian (1823/1865)
VI.2. Belgium: La Brabanconne (1830/1860)
VI.3. Norway: Ja, vi elsker dette landet (1859-1868/1864)
VI.4. Montenegro: ܬ ެѬ?֬٬(Onamo Namo/late 19th Century~early 20th century) , Oj svijetla majska zoro (Unknown/2006)
VI.5. Bosnia & Herzegovina: Jedna si jedina (Unknown/1992)
VI.6. Kosovo: Kur ka ra kushtrimi n'Kosove (2000/2000), Europe (2008/2008)
VII. Enlightenment: songs which tried to enlighten people on their country, but rather peaceful
VII.1. Estonia: Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room (1848/1920)
VII.2. Finland: Maamme laulu (1848/1867)
VII.3. Sweden: Du gamla, Du fria (1844/ never officially adopted)
VII.4. Luxembourg: Ons Heemecht (1859/1895)
VII.5. Switzerland: Rufst du, mein Vaterland (1811, 1850s-1981) Schweizerpsalm (Cantique suisse/ Salmo Svizzero/ Psalm Svizzer) (1841/ 1961, 1981)
VII.6. Wales: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (1856, 1863)
VII.7. Croatia: Lijepa na?a domovino (1835 / 1846 / 1972)
VII.8. Yugoslavia: Hej Sloveni (1834/1977)
VIII. Religious: Songs based on religious teachings or bible
VIII.1. Vatican City: Pontifical Anthem (Papa Anthem) (1869/ 1949)
VIII.2. Serbia: ج ѬӬլ (1872/2006)
VIII.3. Iceland: : Lofsongur (unknown, 1874, 1983)
VIII.4. Matla: L-Innu Malti (1922, 1964)
IX. Other Cases: other cases exist
IX.1. Historical: Andorra: El Gran Carlemany (unknown, probably 1890s / 1921)
IX.2. Chorale and Theatre: Czech: Svaty Vaclave, vevodo ?eskezem?(Unknown/13th Century~1992) Kde domov m?j (1834/1992)
IX.3. Development: Liechtenstein: Oben am jungen Rhein (1850 / 1920)
X. Conclusion



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Year when the text was written, year when it was adopted, year when the song was written

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1. National Anthem
II.2. Organization
III. Resistance: revolution, war.
III.1. France: La Marseillaise (1792/1795)
III.2. Poland: Mazurek Dobrowskiego (1797/1926)
III.3. Hungary: Himnusz (1823/1844)
III.4. Portugal: A Portuguesa (1890/1910, 1911)
III.5. Lithuania: Tautiska giesme (1898/1919)
III.6. Ireland: Amhran na bhFiann (1907/1926)
III.7. Scotland National Songs
III.8. Slovakia: Nad Tatrou sa blyska (1844/1918, 1939, 1993)
III.9. Latvia: Dievs, sveti Latviju ! (1873/ 1920)
III.10. Romania & Moldova: Desteapta-te, romane (1848/ 1989, 1991, 1994)
III.11. Ukraine: ߬ Ӭެ֬ݬ ܬ?a (1862/ 1992, 2003)
III.12. Bulgaria: Mila Rodino (1885/ 1964)
IV. Sovereign: praise to the king
IV.1. England (United Kingdom): God Save the Queen (unknown)
IV.2. Denmark: Der er et yndigt land (1819/1835)
IV.3. Spain: La Marcha Real (unknown/1770)
IV.4. Russia: (1939/2000)
IV.5. Austria: Land der Berge, Land am Strome (1947/1946)
IV.6. Monaco: Hymne Monegasque (1931/1841/1848)
V. Unification: songs during unification
V.1. Germany: Das Deutschlandlied (1840~1841/1918), Deutschland uber alles, (Das Lied der Deutschen)
V.2. Italy: Il Canto degli Italiani (1847/1946, 2005)
VI. Independence: songs during independence. Differs from resistance that these songs were contributing to independence. This section would include both resistance and independence.
VI.1. Greece: Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian (1823/1865)
VI.2. Belgium: La Brabançonne (1830/1860)
VI.3. Norway: Ja, vi elsker dette landet (1859-1868/1864)
VII. Enlightenment: songs which tried to enlighten people on their country, but rather peaceful
VII.1. Estonia: Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room (1848/1920)
VII.2. Finland: Maamme laulu (1848/1867)
VII.3. Sweden: Du gamla, Du fria (1844/ never officially adopted)
VII.4. Luxembourg: Ons Heemecht (1859/1895)
VII.5. Switzerland: Rufst du, mein Vaterland (1811, 1850s-1981) Schweizerpsalm (Cantique suisse/ Salmo Svizzero/ Psalm Svizzer) (1841/ 1961, 1981)
VII.6. Wales: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (1856, 1863)
VIII. Religious: Songs based on religious teachings or bible
VIII.1. Vatican City: Pontifical Anthem (Papa Anthem) (1869/ 1949)
VIII.2. Serbia: (1872/2006)
VIII.3. Iceland: : Lofsongur (unknown, 1874, 1983)
IX. Other Cases: other cases exist
IX.1. Historical: Andorra: El Gran Carlemany (unknown, probably 1890s / 1921)
IX.2. Theatre: Czech: Kde domov muj (1834/1992)
IX.3. Development: Liechtenstein: Oben am jungen Rhein (1850 / 1920)
X. Conclusion