History of National Anthems

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Nov. 9th 2011
Oct. 5th 2011
Sept. 22nd 2011
Jun. 17th 2011
Jun. 17th 2011
Jun. 17th 2011
Apr. 8th 2011
Mar. 19th 2011
Mar. 18th 2011

Nov. 9th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

(1) under III.1 you list regional hymns, but at the end you list two national hymns, the official one and the unofficial one. They do not belong under this heading.
(2) Each states had their own style of hymns and anthems Each state ... had its own ...
(3) under V.1 you list hymns of nationalities living within A-H as well as the official hymn of A-H
The latter belongs under a separate heading (Gott erhalte)
(4) V.2 Disintegration 1918, at end of the list Czech Republic, Slovakia ; better put them in a separate chapter, disintegration of Czechoslovakia
(5) Watch spelling of Czechoslovakia
(6) VI.2 Forceful Integration : this chapter heading may fit for parts of the population, not so much for the other part
(7) The anthem Hej Sloveni focused on enhancing the spirit of the ˇ°Slovaksˇ±, which was not tempting for other peoples including the Macedonians, Croatians, and Albanias. Double check spelling of "Slovaks" in your source. I assume it intends to describe the Slavs. The Macedonians (of today) and the Croatians regard themselves as Slavs; in Yugoslavia only the Albaniansm as well as members of the Hungarianm German and Italian minority, felt "excluded".
(8) The International does not fit under the heading : Russian Empire
(9) Disintegration of USSR : Poland, Hungary do not belong there

Oct. 5th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

(1) Misspellings I criticized last time (Thurigen =>Thüringen) not corrected.
(2) You can treat national anthems only as such once they were adopted by the respective nation, by a political decision - not by the year when the lyrics were composed. You may want to differentiate between 'unofficial' and 'official' natiuonal anthem.
(3) III.1 Germany - here you deal with Kaiserreich and Weimar Republic. some of the hymns you list are hymns of states which existed before German unification and which after 1871 continued to be used as regional anthems (Prussia, Baden, Bavaria). If they refer to a monarch, they were used until 1918. Under the same heading you refer to anthems of Prussian provinces (Schleswig-Holstein) Do you realize that Bayern (you misspell it as Bayem) is identical with Bavaria ? Niedersachsen, Sachjsen-Anhalt, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were created after World War II. The bottom two hymns were all-Germany hymns. This list needs further subdivision and correction. (4) IV.1 Italy : some hymns for all Italy, other for pre-unification Italian states. subdivide list.
(5) V.1 Austria : only Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser belongs here. And perhaps the Hungarian hymn from 1866 onward, but then heading : Austria-Hungary.
The others belong into V.2
(6) VI.1 Yudoslavia : Expansion => Yugoslavia : Unification
(7) VII.2 Russian Empire : One Entity => Soviet Union : One Entity
(8) Google books urls http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC&pg=PA115&dq=Europe+national+anthem&hl=en&ei=NTJ5TsbUKeuNiAfHg0k&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Europe%20national%20anthem&f=false
too long, cut after http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC&pg=PA115 if you want to lead to page 115, cut after http://books.google.com/books?id=vlPEf6aLbfwC if you want to refer to the book

(9) Google books : if you refer to modern books where Google Books gives you restricted access, list : Excerpt from Geeogle Books

Sept. 22nd 2011 . go to PSW's Log

(1) Now you established a focus, which gives the paper an analytical dimension.
(2) Spelling issues : Württemberg, Niedersachsen, Fürstentum Waldeck, Thüringen, Venetia
(3) You may want to consider to delete Province Limburg. It was part of the German Federation from 1839 to 1866, and a pro-German sentiment was existant in the province in the 19th century where the Catholic population felt discriminated by the pro-Protestant politics od Den Haag, but the hymn you list was written much later and is in Dutch language. You may refer to it, with an explanation, in a footnote.
(4) You may want to consider to delete San Marino. Still independent. You may want to refer to it in a footnote.
(5) Why do you list Georgia separate and not as a part of the former USSR ?
(6) IV.5 Austria, IV.8 Austria-Hungary : invert order.
(7) under IV.8 : Czech Republic, Slovakia - what about Czechoslovakia ?
(8) III.14 Albania : why listed under Yugoslavia ? Was never part of it.
(9) chapter numbering : IV.5, IV.8, V.7, V.8, III.13, III.14 - numbers missing, strange order
As I already mentioned, this organization is much more promising.

Jun. 17th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

Spellung : Tuscany (English) or Toscana (Italian)
on your log, many hymn titles will appear garbled - font problem; we address that when you are done.

Jun. 17th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

When the next generation of students starts research papers, I will tell them I want any chapter as a first chapter EXCEPT for the introduction. This is the last chapter to write, you probably will revise it when you are done with body and conclusion.

Jun. 17th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

lokks fine. Sachsen-Anhalt is a German Bundesland and as such never was or wanted to be politically independent; if you include it, you may want to include Niedersachsen and others.

Apr. 8th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

(1) you want to focus on 1750-1900, but you have entities which emerged after 1900 in your list : USSR, Yugoslavia.
(2) Keep searching.
If you go here : http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kategorie:Mitgliedstaat_des_Deutschen_Bundes
go to any state listed there, example : http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gro%C3%9Fherzogtum_Hessen
in the box on the right you may find a line titled Hymne
in this case : Hymne Furstenhymne
one way to find more.

Mar. 19th 2011 . go to PSW's Log

Your list is organized by theme of national anthem and by (presently existing) country. This means you searched for national anthems 'as is'.
Now, I approve of the change of title from 'Political Songs' to 'National Anthems', as this way you establish more focus. However, this is a history paper. So I suggest the following :
- you extend your search on historic national anthems.
(1) the Austrian anthem was written in 1946. Did Austria not have an anthem 1919-1938 ?
(2) find the hymn Austria used under the Emperors (until 1918)
- often hymns were changed when major constitutional changes happened.
(3) check for all countries which once were Communist, if under Communism, and after the fall of Communism, the national anthem changed.
(4) what you list under Russia : was this the Russian hymn or that of the USSR ?
(5) what hymn did the Russian Empire use ?
- countries which no longer exist
(6) find the hymns of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
(7) find the hymns of the Italian pre-unification states
(8) find the hymns of the German pre-unification states
(9) did Posen (Prussian Poland), Galicia (Austrian Poland), Congress Poland (Russian Poland) have hymns ?
- what about regions which failed to establish independence ?
(10) are there a Flemish and a Wallonian hymn ?
(11) do Scotland, Northern Ireland have hymns ? You did list Wales
(12) do Catalonia, the Basque country, Galicia (Spain) have hymns ?
- from your list it seems you did not look for some countries :
(13) Croatia. Here check if the present hymn and that used 1941-1945 is the same
(14) Bosnia & Herzegovina.
(15) Montenegro
(16) Belarus
(17) Slovenia
(18) Malta
- morte historic states :
(19) Did the Kingdom of the United Netherlands 1815-1830 have a different hymn ?
(20) Did the Dynastic Union of Sweden and Norway 1814-1905 have a common hymn ?

Mar. 18th 2011

Germany : http://www.bundestag.de/htdocs_e/bundestag/symbols/anthem/index.html (from website of Germany's parliament)
Switzerland : http://www.swissworld.org/en/culture/swissness/switzerland_and_its_anthems/
Keep in mind, that national anthems were not 'constant', but over time were changed, especially if a major constitutional change was involved (Russian Empire to Soviet Union)