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Methods and Results of Communication in First Time Encounters : the Cases of da Gama, Columbus, Magellan, Cortes, and Pizarro


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Cho, Hwi Gue
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2012



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Age of Discovery Explorers
III.1 Vasco da Gama
III.1.1 Journey
III.1.2 Translator : Fernao Martins
III.1.2.1 Status
III.1.2.2 Role
III.1.3 Result of Communication
III.1.3.1 Search for Prester John
III.2 Christopher Columbus
III.2.1 Journey
III.2.2 Translator : Luis de Torres
III.2.2.1 Status
III.2.2.2 Role
III.2.3 Result of Communication
III.2.3.1 Evangelism
III.2.3.2 Subjugation
III.3 Ferdinand Magellan
III.3.1 Journey
III.3.2 Translator : Enrique of Malacca
III.3.2.1 Status
III.3.2.2 Role
III.3.3 Results of Communication
III.3.3.1 Evangelism
III.3.3.2 Slave Trade
IV. Conquistadores
IV.1 Hernan Cortes
IV.1.1 Expedition
IV.1.2 Translator : La Malinche
IV.1.2.1 Status
IV.1.2.2 Role
IV.1.3 Results of Communication
IV.1.3.1 Evangelism
IV.1.3.2 Colonization
IV.2 Francisco Pizarro
IV.2.1 Expedition
IV.2.2 Translator : Felipillo
IV.2.2.1 Status
IV.2.2.2 Role
IV.2.3 Results of Communication
IV.2.3.1 Evangelism
V. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            The European explorers of the Age of Discovery - more specifically, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, Hernan Cortes, and Francisco Pizarro - have been known as contributors to world history and invaders of the New World at the same time. However, when they first set sail on their journeys and first met the natives, they were confronted by the language barrier which blocked fluent communications between the two parties.
            This paper will examine the ways the European explorers worked to overcome the language barrier, mainly by hiring or enslaving translators. Listing the European explorers one by one, this paper will first describe the explorer's journey, then explain the translator he had, the status of the translator, and the role the translator played. Lastly, the paper will lay out the results of the communications and the later interactions that ensued.
            For accurate and credible evidences of incidences the European explorers and the natives met for the first time, the paper would use predominantly primary sources, such as travelogues, diaries, letters, or journals, as a means of obtaining the information on what actually happened and how it happened. Secondary sources written at a later, more modern point of history will only be used for limited assistance when the related primary source is not found, and will not be used predominantly for main information.

II. Definition
            The Age of Discovery would refer to a time period between the early 15th century and the early 17th century. However, as this paper features only first time encounters, the time period could be shortened to between 1492, Columbus' first journey for the West Indies, and 1532, the completion of the conquest of the Incas and the Aztec by Pizarro and Cortes, respectively.
            The explorers would refer to da Gama, Columbus, Magellan, Cortes, and Pizarro; the European sailors who sailed to the Indies and America for various purposes. The natives would refer to the people indigenous to the untraveled areas of the Indies and America. The paper refrained from using the term 'Indians' as it is a misnomer for Native Americans; still, in occasions the misnomer needed to be used, it was put inside quotation marks.
            Lastly, the New World would mean America and part of Australia; in other words, the Western Hemisphere that Europeans were not cognizant about. The Old World, consequently, would mean Asia, Europe, and Africa; the lands that the Europeans knew since long to have existed.

III. Age of Discovery Explorers

III.1 Vasco da Gama

III.1.1 Journey
            Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese sailor, was one of the most successful sailors in the Age of Discovery. Prior to da Gama's voyage to India around Africa, Bartolomeu Dias, another Portuguese explorer, had rounded the Cape of Good Hope, the cape at the southernmost point of Africa, in 1488. John II, the King of Portugal, did his share too as he sent out people to examine the possible trade routes and spice trades in India. Thus, it was the perfect time for da Gama to step up; with the national interest at spice trade, Manuel I, the son of John II, willingly gave da Gama the support he needed to set sail.
            On July 8th, 1497, with four ships Sao Gabriel, Sao Rafael, Berrio, and a storage ship of unknown name set sail from Lisbon to India. Da Gama's original plan was to round Africa through the Cape of Good Hope, arrive at India, gain control of the trade routes, and return back to Portugal. However, this plan had some difficulties, as most of the lands beyond the Cape of Good Hope were under Muslim control; thus, for da Gama, a Christian, to pass unharmed, he needed to take numerous cautious measures.
            Traveling along Mozambique, Mombasa, and the Eastern coasts of Africa, da Gama faced hostility, as the Muslims were aggressive towards the Christians. Sometimes forced to pretend as if he were a Muslim, Da Gama and his fleets safely passed through the Eastern coasts of Africa to arrive at India, near Calicut, on May 20th, 1498.
            After five months, in which he had to face Muslim traders who regarded him as their rivals, da Gama set sail back to Portugal, on August 29th, 1498. When he arrived in Portugal exactly after a year, on August 29th, 1499, he was handsomely rewarded, for the King was pleased with what da Gama discovered. Da Gama later took on two more voyages. In the former one, he was unsuccessful and had to return home, only having done cruelty and lowered his own status. In the latter one, he reached India safely, only to contract malaria soon after reaching the land, eventually leading to his death.

III.1.2 Translator : Fernao Martins

III.1.2.1 Status
            Fernao Martins was a Portuguese sailor who spoke Arabic and worked as an interpreter for Vasco da Gama in his journeys in India. He seemed to have been captured by the Moors prior to da Gama's arrival in India, so that he learned to speak Arabic fluently, but not Malayalam or any other Indian language. Descriptions of Fernao Martins is given first in da Gama's journal of his voyage through India, but the exact name Fernao Martins is exempted, only referring to him as 'a sailor,' as below :
            "All this we learned through a sailor the captain-major had with him, and who, having formerly been a prisoner among the Moors, understood their language" (1)
            Fernao Martins was an interpreter for Vasco da Gama in his journey in India, yet his presence is often forgotten or overlooked when discussing da Gama's voyage and communications with the natives. Even in da Gama's own journal of voyage the name of Fernao Martins is exempted, with the communications between the natives and the explorers being depicted as granted and natural. Fernao Martins was not emphasized in any form and was only mentioned as 'a sailor' or 'a man.' The editors of Vasco da Gama's journal in his voyage substantiate the presence of Fernao Martins as the interpreter and the absence of the recognition prior to the main text, as below :
            "The author mentions certain things as having been done by persons whose names he does not give. The name of one of these is supplied by Castanheda and Barros. We thus learn from Barros that Fernao Martins was the sailor mentioned by the author as being able to speak the language of the Moors; and from Castanheda that he was one of the two men sent with a message to the King of Calecut." (2)

III.1.2.2 Role
            Fernao Martins served the regular duties of an interpreter during his work with Vasco da Gama. One of the duties was delivering messages to the leaders of the Islamic groups in Malabar da Gama encountered while traveling, as da Gama and the European explorers were capable of speaking neither Malayalam, the native language of Malabar, nor Arabic, the lingua franca of the Indian Ocean trade, and thus were unable to communicate directly with the Malabar leaders. In da Gama's journal, Martins delivering a message to a local Muslim king is documented as below :
            "When we arrived at Calecut the king was fifteen leagues away. The captain-major sent two men to him with a message, informing him that an ambassador had arrived from the King of Portugal with letters, and that if he desired it he would take them to where the king then was. The king presented the bearers of this message with much fine cloth. He sent word to the captain bidding him welcome, saying that he was about to proceed to Qualecut (Calecut)." (3)
            Fernao Martins was a medium through which the European explorers and the local leaders communicated. As the two factions were foreign to each other's languages, Martins was a valuable asset, as he spoke not only Portuguese but also Arabic, which was commonly used in the Indian Ocean trade and thus enabled him to work as a two-way translator. Fernao Martins didn't only deliver messages, but also participated in da Gama's conversations and discussions with the local leaders as a simultaneous interpreter. One account of his two-way simultaneous translation between da Gama and a Malabar king is given in da Gama's journal of his voyage in India, as below :
            "The palace was crowded with armed men. Our captain was kept waiting with his conductors for fully four long hours, outside a door, which was only opened when the king sent word to admit him, attended by two men only, whom he might select. The captain said that he desired to have Fernao Martins with him, who could interpret, and his secretary. It seemed to him, as it did to us, that this separation portended no good." (4)
            Fernao Martins was an essential part in da Gama's journey, seen in the above journal entry when da Gama brought him in a private conversation with the native king. Martins, as a translator, provided the opportunity to communicate with the Moorish natives and at last aided the explorers in further interacting with the Moorish natives, resulting in da Gama's various actions towards the natives.

III.1.3 Results of Communication

III.1.3.1 Search for Prester John
            The Moors were controlling the coast and the trade routes to India. Generally, they were hostile to Christians, so Christians were barred from "providing [themselves] with these spices and precious stones." Then, concerning the relationship between the Christians and the Moors, came the legend of Prester John, widespread and wildly popular. Da Gama, able to understand the Moorish dialect through the translator Fernao Martins, was mesmerized by the tales of Prester John. Da Gama, in his journal, recounts the Moors telling him about the legendary Prester John :
            "We were told, moreover, that Prester John resided not far from this place; that he held many cities along the coast and that the inhabitants of those cities were great merchants and owned big ships. The residence of Prester John was said to be far in the interior, and could be reached only on the back of camels ... This information, and many other things which we heard, rendered us so happy that we cried with joy, and prayed God to grant us health, so that we might behold what we so much desired." (5)
            Prester John was an imaginary figure, an unreal hero of the Christian world. The Europeans imagined that there was a Christian king among the Muslim 'pagans' of the Orient. Da Gama, along with the explorers and the rulers of Europe, planned to overtake the Moors with the help of Prester John, forging a Christian alliance to defeat Islam once and for all. Of course, Prester John, being imaginary, did not exist, and the Europeans tried in vain for several years to reach Prester John before giving up on meeting him.

III.2 Christopher Columbus

III.2.1 Journey
            Columbus, an Italian explorer, began and ended his journey with trips to various parts of America including both the American mainland and the Caribbean islands. Having explored the Atlantic Ocean thoroughly, Columbus is credited with opening the age of European colonization of the New World and the intercontinental exchange between the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere of animals, plants, culture, diseases, and ideas, which was later named after him as the Columbian Exchange.
            Columbus began his voyage in 1492. Prior to his voyage, he had difficulty finding a sponsor for his trips, as his plans were considered far-fetched. After being rejected by John II of Portugal, Henry VII of England, and the respective rulers of Genoa and Venice, Columbus found his support in King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille, rulers of modern day Spain. Columbus' request, granted by the rulers, was that he would be made the Admiral of the Ocean, appointed governor of the discovered land, and granted one-tenth of the revenue.
            On August 3rd, 1492, Columbus set off with three ships, the Santa Maria, the Santa Clara, and the Pinta, in a journey originally intended to reach the East Indies. Instead, he reached America. On October 12th, Rodrigo de Triana, a lookout for Columbus' ship, spotted land and alerted Columbus; thus Columbus discovered and arrived at an island in the Bahamas. The moment of discovery is well noted in Columbus' diary entry of that date :
            "As the Pinta was the swiftest sailer, and kept ahead of the Admiral, she discovered land and made the signals which had been ordered. The land was first seen by a sailor called Rodrigo de Triana, although the Admiral at ten o'clock that evening standing on the quarter-deck saw a light, but so small a body that he could not affirm it to be land ... At two o'clock in the morning the land was discovered, at two leagues' distance; they took in sail and remained under the square-sail lying to till day, which was Friday, when they found themselves near a small island, one of the Lucayos, called in the Indian language Guanahani." (6)
            The island was called 'Guanahani' by the natives; Columbus would later name it San Salvador. Because Columbus had set sail meaning to reach the East Indies, he thought that Guanahani, the land he arrived at, was part of the Indies, hence naming the native Lucayans 'Indians' and the native language 'the Indian language' as in the diary.
            Having landed on the northern coast of Cuba and Hispaniola, Columbus left thirty-nine sailors there and returned to Portugal and then to Spain; there, he would be received handsomely by the King and the Queen. Having told of gold and treasures in the New World, Columbus traveled to America three more times, eventually arriving at parts of South America including the coasts of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Although Columbus served as governor of the islands he discovered as promised before, he was poorly welcomed after a time, as he was arrested upon the completion of his third voyage and replaced with Francisco de Bobadilla; Columbus' journeys in America would end after his fourth and the very last journey.

III.2.2 Translator : Luis de Torres

III.2.2.1 Status
            Luis de Torres was a Jew who served as an interpreter for Columbus' crew in their journey. Originally, he served the governor of Murcia Juan Chacon as an interpreter, as he knew Hebrew, Chaldean, Portuguese, and even Arabic. Prior to Columbus' departure, Luis de Torres converted to Catholicism to avoid discrimination. Columbus recounts accepting Luis de Torres as his translator in his journal listed below :
            "The other was one Luis de Torres, and he had lived with the adelantado of Murcia and had been a Jew and knew, he says, Hebrew and Chaldean and even a bit of Arabic." (7)
            Luis de Torres' versatility with languages, including Hebrew, Chaldean, Arabic, and of course, Portuguese, led Columbus to accept him not as a servant or slave, but as an interpreter who was without a doubt a firm member of Columbus' crew in their voyage.

III.2.2.2 Role
            Luis de Torres seems to have served a unique role, unlike many other translators. Instead of being only an interpreter who mechanically translated dialogues or conversations, Luis de Torres was trusted and given authority, almost to the extent that he was more of a diplomat or a pioneering explorer than an interpreter. For example, arriving at Cuba, Columbus set out Luis de Torres and another man to explorer the natives and their villages before Columbus and his main crew would make their exploration. Luis de Torres was also trusted with interacting and bonding with the native leaders, as Columbus gave him the power and the responsibility to diplomatically talk with the leaders, instead of Columbus doing the talks and Luis de Torres translating. An account of Columbus giving directions to Luis de Torres to adhere to while addressing the native leaders is mentioned in Columbus' journal of his voyage, as below :
            "He gave them instructions as to how they were to inquire about the king of that land and what they should say to him on behalf of the sovereigns of Castile: how they had sent the Admiral in order that he might, on their behalf, give him their letters and a present, and in order to learn of his cercumstances and to obtain his friendship, and to favor him in whatever he might need from them, etc., and that they might learn about certain provinces and harbors and rivers of which the Admiral had information, and how far they were distant from there, etc.. " (8)
            It is safe to say Luis de Torres was not merely a translator - he was a diplomat who was legitimately a member of Columbus, crew. He impacted Columbus' interactions and actions in the journey by making important negotiations or discoveries, including the first European discovery of tobacco, made while Luis de Torres was scouting the native village ahead of Columbus on orders.

III.2.3 Results of Communication

III.2.3.1 Evangelism
            Columbus was, like many at that time, a devout Christian. When he embarked on a journey to the foreign lands of the Caribbean, Columbus, to his discovery, saw natives who were not yet evangelized. Thus, he tried to spread Christianity as soon as he could communicate with the natives. For him, persuading and, at times, coercing the natives to believe in Christianity was a central part of his long explorations. The excerpt from Columbus' journals, concerning the purpose and motivation of his missionary work, is shown as follows :
            "I, he says, in order that they would be friendly to us - because I recognized that they were people who would be better freed [from error] and converted to our Holy Faith by love than by force - to some of them I gave red caps, and glass beads which they put on their chests, and many other things of small value, in which they took so much pleasure and became so much our friends that it was a marvel. " (9)
            Note that Columbus valued 'love' over 'force' - a rare quality that would seldom be seen by the explorers/conquerors after Columbus. Here, the 'red caps' and 'glass beads' are given as a bribe-present so that the natives would take a hospitable, friendly attitude towards the explorers, later setting the tone for communication in terms of religion. Presumably due to Columbus' hospitable approach, the natives also seem to have taken a liking to him and other explorers; in his letter to Lord Raphael Sanxis, the treasurer of King Ferdinand of Spain, Columbus further mentions the relationship of the explorers and the natives.
            "These people practice no kind of idolatry; on the contrary they firmly believe that all strength and power, and in fact all good things are in heaven, and that I had come down from thence with these ships and sailors; and in this belief I was received there after they had put aside fear ... They are coming with me now, yet always believing that I descended from heaven, although they have been living with us for a long time, and are living with us to-day. And these men were the first who announced it wherever we landed, continually proclaiming to the others in a loud voice, 'Come, come, and you will see the celestial people.'" (10)
            The natives in the Caribbean seem to have viewed Columbus somewhat as a godly person who came from heaven and thus were immediately friendly to the explorers. This draws a striking comparison with the Aztecs in Mesoamerica who half-worshipped the conquistador Cortes as the legendary god Quetzalcoatl, the only difference being that while Cortes was directly involved in violent encounters, Columbus was primarily at peace with the natives. The absence of idolatry and established religion must also have aided in Columbus implanting Christian beliefs, as the natives, without a firm instilled belief, were willing to be indoctrinated by Columbus, whom they considered godly.

III.2.3.2 Subjugation
            Although Columbus might not have known, he later was remembered as a trailblazer, a pioneer of European colonization and slavery of the natives of the Atlantic. Columbus' biggest impact on the colonization of the New World happened in his first voyage, when he returned to Spain after having established La Navidad, the first European colony in the New World. The easy way in which he subjugated the entire island unintentionally set the background for the infamous trans-Atlantic slave trade, an exchange in which millions of slaves were moved and forced to labor, as many conquistadores and colonizers were inspired to extend Columbus' colonization and dominate the New World by force. In his diary entry of October 11th, Columbus records his thoughts of making the natives work as servants :
            "They should be good and intelligent servants, for I see that they say very quickly everything that is said to them; and I believe that they would become Christians very easily, for it seemed to me that they had no religion. Our Lord pleasing, at the time of my departure I will take six of them from here to Your Highnesses in order that they may learn to speak. No animal of any kind did I see on this island except parrots. " (11)
            Columbus refers to the natives as servants rather than equals. Their peacefulness and obedience must have appealed to Columbus, as he viewed them as potentially good servants, even proposing to bring six natives to King Ferdinand. Columbus' transfer of the six servants was be the first of its kind and would unintentionally trigger the trans-Atlantic slave trade as the other conquistadores tried to subjugate the New World by force later on in history.

III.3 Ferdinand Magellan

III.3.1 Journey
            Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailor also called Fernao de Magalhaes in his country, was an explorer that set a mark in the Age of Discovery; his expedition was the first to circumnavigate the Earth completely. He embarked on a journey that Columbus failed to achieve; the arrival at the Indies.
            Seeking out support, Magellan visited the future Holy Roman Emperor, then King of Spain Charles V. Unlike Columbus, Magellan's plans were in harmony with the King's plans; the King wanted to open up the spice routes, the very thing Magellan planned and proposed to do. Thus the King granted Magellan support, and also granted him the governance and the monopoly over the trade routes he would discover.
            With full support and five, well-loaded ships, the Trinidad, the San Antonio, the Concepcion, the Santiago, and the Victoria, Magellan set sail for the Indies on August 10th, 1519. They first arrived in America, just as Christopher Columbus did. However, Magellan, as all the people in his era, knew that America was not the Indies that Columbus was so ardently looking for. At the southern tip of South America, under Argentina and Chile, Magellan finally found a passage linking the Atlantic to the Pacific; it would later be named 'the Strait of Magellan' to honor him who discovered the path.
            At the Pacific side, Magellan passed the Marianas and Guam, finally reaching the Philippines on March 17th, 1520. The natives were friendly towards Magellan, and Magellan propagated Christian beliefs to many natives. However, when Magellan tried to convert Lapu-Lapu, the chief of a tribe, he failed, and later accepted the pledge of the ruler of Cebu Island, Rajah Humabon, asking Magellan to kill his arch-enemy Lapu-Lapu; this led to his demise, as Magellan was killed in the fight with Lapu-Lapu's troops.
            Although Magellan had died, his crew resumed their journey. With the sailors dying of heat and disease, the ships reached the Spice Islands, the main center of spice trade. There, the crew loaded the ships with valuable spice and split up due to inevitable circumstances. While the Trinidad failed to return to Spain, the Victoria successfully rounded the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa and reached Spain on September 6th, 1522, fourteen men aboard the ship, completing the first circumnavigation of the world.

III.3.2 Translator : Enriwue of Malacca

III.3.2.1 Status
            Enrique of Malacca, also called Henrich or Henry the Black, was a mulatto who was enslaved by Magellan throughout his journey in the Indies after turning into a slave in the 1511 Portuguese conquest of Malacca. Magellan purchased Enrique and utilized him, as he was from Sumatra and knew how to speak Malay. Enrique's translations proved to be useful as Enrique was the main communication method between Magellan and the Filipino natives, who understood Enrique's Malay as it was similar to their language. Enrique's ties with Magellan are described further in Pigafetta's journal of Magellan's travels, as shown below :
            "Magellan had purchased Enrique, who was possibly a captive of the Malaccan conquest, during his service in the East Indies, and given him the Christian name by which he is historically known. For over a decade, Enrique was Magellan's servant in posting along the coasts of India and Africa" (12)
            Although Magellan bought Enrique and kept him as a slave, he was technically not a slave. Instead, he was an indentured servant, a person who is contracted to work for a period of time. For Enrique, the period of time was until the end of Magellan's journey. In his last will, Magellan refers to this indentured servitude and orders for Enrique to be freed as his journey ends with Magellan's death, as below :
            "My captured slave Enrique, mulatto, native of the city of Malacca, of the age of twenty-six years more or less, shall be freed and manumitted, and quit, exempt, and relieved of every obligation of slavery." (13)
            However, Magellan's order was not kept, and unfortunately, Enrique was unable to be freed from the indentured servitude. Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law, broke Magellan's last will and continued to keep Enrique as a slave, often using inhuman punishment to make him work. As a result, Enrique was enraged against Barbosa and later committed a violent action. Pigafetta further describes Barbosa's enslavement of Enrique after Magellan's death in his journal :
            "Upon Magellan's death, according to his will, Enrique, who had suffered a minor wound, was now a free man ... To make matters worse, Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law and the Trinidad's new captain, refused to recognize his freedom from bondage and forced him to work by threat of severe punishment. Enrique was so hurt and angered that he decided to take part in a vengeful plot." (14)
            Enrique would get his revenge by plotting with the native leader and murdering Duarte Barbosa and many other explorers in a massacre. Enrique was the lone survivor in a banquet where many of Magellan's remaining crew, including Barbosa, attended, as they were all poisoned intentionally by the natives.

III.3.2.2 Role
            Enrique spoke three languages, which were Malay, Spanish, and Portuguese. Thus, he was able to converse freely with the explorers, as well as communicate fairly well with the natives of the Malay region. In the Philippines, he was also able to communicate, as they used the Malay language or one similar to it. Pigafetta, in his journal of Magellan's travels, gives an account when Magellan arrived at Limasawa Island, an island in the Southern Leyte province of the Philippines, as below :
            "Then the fleet continued a west-by-southwest course, landing on an island called Limasawa (Mazaua) at the south end of the Leyte Gulf. There the people showed high excitement, for it turned out that Enrique spoke not only their language but also their dialect." (15)
            Knowing how to speak the natives' dialect, Enrique was a valuable interpreter to Magellan and the explorers, as he was the main man in communicating and interacting with the natives the crew met while traveling the Philippines. Enrique took the role of delivering messages in a diplomatic effort to win over the native leaders, as he could communicate fluently with the natives. Such an account is documented below in Pigafetta's journal, as Enrique persuades a native leader by an order from Magellan:
            "At the beginning of April the fleet proceeded to another island in the Philippines, Cebu ... As interpreter, Enrique explained their mission of peace and goodwill, while adding that his master was a captain of the greatest king in the world." (16)
            Enrique's job was simple; translating the conversations between the natives and the explorers, as well as explaining Magellan's intentions of 'peace' and 'goodwill.' As a medium of communication and translator, Enrique spurred the communications between the natives and the explorers and resulted in the explorers fervently interacting with the natives.

III.3.3 Results of Communication

III.3.3.1 Evangelism
            As with Columbus, spreading Christianity took a big part of Magellan's interactions with natives around the world. As a Christian, Magellan took it as his duty to indoctrinate the natives into believing in God. Magellan seems to have been received favorably at first, if not by many rulers, then at least by a king. Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian who accompanied Magellan on his travel to the Indies, tells the story of the friendly king on his journal :
            "The captain and the king sat in chairs of red and violet velvet, the chiefs on cushions, and the others on mats. The captain told the king through the interpreter that he thanked God for inspiring him to become a Christian, and that [now] he would more easily conquer his enemies than before. The king replied that he wished to become a Christian, but that some of his chiefs did not wish to obey, because they said that they were as good men as he. Then our captain had all the chiefs of the king called, and told them that, unless they obeyed the king as their king, he would have them killed and would give their possessions to the king. They replied that they would obey him." (17)
            The friendliness was mutual; because Magellan saw instilling Christian beliefs a great goal, he desired to convert the king, as well as his people, into Christians. Thus, when the king proposed his desire to convert, Magellan very willingly aided the king in reaffirming his authority. Ironic is the reason of his chiefs' disobedience; it was that 'they were as good men as he' - or, in other words, equality, one of the most prominent qualities emphasized in Christianity. Regardless of this, however, Magellan converted numerous natives into Christians, teaching them Christian beliefs and Christian practices. An excerpt from the same journal above describes Magellan's teachings:
            "A large cross was set up in the middle of the square; the captain told them that if they wished to become Christians as they had declared on the previous days, they must burn all their idols and set up a cross in their place, they were to adore that cross daily with clasped hands, and every morning they were to make the sign of the cross (which the captain showed them how to make); and they ought to come hourly, at least in the morning, to that cross, and adore it kneeling; the intention that they had already declared, they were to confirm with good works." (18)
            For Magellan, Christianity was not simply a tool, a bogus used to govern and rule the kings. Instead, he set on truly and sincerely propagating the Christian belief. The journal demonstrates several of the Bible's teachings; tabooing idolatry, worshipping the holy cross, crossing oneself, and praying. Magellan would continue instilling the Christian beliefs to the natives until his death in the Philippines; even then, as he fought Lapu-Lapu, the enemy chief, Magellan wished to convert him to Christianity, which he failed to do so on stout dismissal of the chief.

III.3.3.2 Slave Trade
            Ferdinand Magellan, as with other explorers, was also engaged in slave affairs. However, instead of taking and keeping the natives slaves against their will, as other explorers did, Magellan was involved in a slave trade with the natives, who voluntarily and willingly sold some of their people to Magellan as slaves in return for forged metals foreign such as knives or nails. The exchange process is described in detail in Pigafetta's observation journal in Magellan's voyage :
            "For one hatchet or a large knife, they gave us one or two of their young daughters as slaves, but they would not give us their wives in exchange for anything at all. The women will not shame their husbands under any considerations whatever, according to what was told to us. They refuse to consent to their husbands by day, but only by night." (19)
            Although slave trade cannot, by any means, be called moral or just, Magellan's result of interaction with the natives was, compared to other explorers, relatively fair. A mutual agreement was reached prior to the trade, and both parties, the natives and the explorers, agreed on exchanging what they had; the natives people, and the explorers technology. Unlike Columbus, who governed and enslaved the natives, Magellan was a part of a more peaceful, mutual relationship, trading slaves for materials with the natives, an equal - at least to the two parties ? trade.

IV. Conquistadores

IV.1 Hernan Cortes

IV.1.1 Expedition
            Cortes, born in Spain and registered citizen in Hispaniola, began setting the base for his journeys with Diego Velazquez, the Governor of Cuba, in 1511 when Cortes accompanied then-aide-to-Governor Velazquez in a mission to conquer Cuba. Although Cortes was promoted to high positions due to his heroics, Velazquez began to keep him in check, and tense feelings grew between the two. In February 1519, Cortes committed a blatant mutiny against Governor Velazquez, landing in the Yucatan peninsula with a small army of around 500 men.
            Having accepted Geronimo de Aguilar into his crew, a stranded Spaniard, Cortes proceeded quickly to earn a name for himself, claiming the land of the Mayans in March 1519 in the name of the Spanish King. Cortes proceeded to obtain Veracruz in July 1519, thus enhancing his status to directly below the King of Spain.
            Cortes; actual conquest of the Aztec Empire began in August 1519, when he decided to advance to Tenochtitlan, the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire. On his way, he made alliances with other Native American tribes, as many of them were also against the Aztec Empire and thus was on the same side with Cortes. In November 1519, Cortes was handsomely received by the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II right into the heart of the empire.
            Upon Moctezuma's stoning on July 1st, 1920, Cortes lost his ground to stand, as the natives, kept hospitable by the authority of Moctezuma, turned hostile on the explorers. While Cortes and his troops barely escaped Tenochtitlan, they were joined by reinforcements from Cuba. With things turned around by the reinforcements, Cortes slowly tried retaliating on the natives, which did plentiful damage as the cannons and the artillery were overpowering for the natives. At last, on August 13th, 1521, Cortes captured Cuautemoc, the leader of the Aztec Empire, with the help of other tribes nearby the Aztec Empire; thus the Aztec Empire collapsed, attacked by a small group of soldiers with high-quality artillery and weapons. Cortes, the hero of the conquest, ruled the former Aztec Empire's lands for two years, from 1522 to 1524.

IV.1.2 Translator : La Malinche

IV.1.2.1 Status
            La Malinche, often referred to as Dona Marina in respect to her, was a slave Nahua woman who later rose to the status of mistress of Hernan Cortes. Over the Spanish conquest of Mexico, La Malinche served as the advisor, wife, and translator of Cortes. With La Malinche existed a translator with the name of Geronimo de Aguilar, who acted as the translator before La Malinche and later helped La Malinche interpret the Mayan language. Still, La Malinche had a far greater influence on Cortes, as her role was not only limited to translating. Her various roles are documented as follows :
            "Aguilar continued to be useful on formal occasions, but he could not have acted as a consort, co-conspirator, advisor, as did la Malinche, when local customs were involved. Unwittingly, she became Cortes' teacher and he was seen as Marina's master, the two being considered one party and one voice. What she said had to be what Corte wanted to say. " (20)
            As a slave woman who rose significantly in status, La Malinche had to have unique abilities. One of them was learning languages, such as Spanish, incredibly quickly. Another was her knack for giving good advices to Cortes. Later, the relationship between La Malinche and Cortes grew to love, as they even had a child between them, Don Martin Cortes.

IV.1.2.2 Role
            As mentioned above, La Malinche acted as an advisor and a proxy for Cortes in situations when Cortes needed La Malinche to act in place of him. After utilizing her linguistic abilities to communicate with the natives, Cortes finally trusted La Malinche enough to give her more authority. Cortes gave her the authority to speak as best as she can in her own way, not merely interpreting Cortes' speeches. Cortes' such orders are documented as below :
            "By the time the expedition reached Mexico, Cortes would often ask La Malinche to run errands for him and speak on his behalf the best way she knew how. She was always conscious of her own status and never abused the confidence that Cortes placed in her." (21)
            As one of the most important purposes of Cortes' explorations was evangelism, La Malinche had to take a part in it too. While converting the natives to Christianity, La Malinche's presence proved very useful, as she knew the customs and the traditional religions of the natives, as well as the languages and the new Christian beliefs of the European explorers. Thus, she became the medium of communication and religious conversion between the explorers and the natives. Her role in evangelism is also described, as below :
            "La Malinche perforce became a catechist and an apologist for the Spanish culture and religion. Being an intelligent woman, and knowing her own people much better than the strangers, she took the lead in explaining the benefits of the new state of affairs : Her main argument was that the Spanish came to make peace among the tribes; the new cross symbol and the pictures of the Virgin Mary were new symbols to prove her point. The cross symbol had been worn by Quetzalcoatl, and the image showing a mother-goddess could only mean love and peace." (22)
            She cleverly mixed the traditional native ideas of Quetzalcoatl and the new European beliefs of Christianity to guide the natives to the basic beliefs of Christianity. Her explanation of religion and the motives of the explorers were well-understood and effective among the natives, as she knew well about the natives, much more than the explorers did. La Malinche was a big part of the evangelism that took part in Cortes' explorations and conquests of Mexico.

IV.1.3 Results of Communication

IV.1.3.1 Evangelism
            Many of the explorers in the Age of Discovery also took on the duties of a missionary; spreading Christianity to the natives foreign to Christianity. Cortes, especially, seems to have ardently and arduously served this specific duty, having converted many natives into Christians by propagation. Although Cortes is known for conquering the Aztec empire with force, he, in his first encounter with the natives, took a peaceful, religious approach. In many of Cortes' journals and letters, Cortes' incidences with the natives and how the native finally was baptized and instilled beliefs are well documented. In his letter to Charles V, emperor of Spain, Cortes recounts his encounter with the 'Indian' chief in the Iztapan region of Honduras.
            "That my wish was that nobody should be hurt, having been sent to those parts merely for the purpose of protecting them and taking care of their property, as well as showing them the way of worshipping one only God, who is in heaven, Creator and Maker of all things, by whose will all living creatures are governed. In order to do this, they were to relinquish all their idols and their abominable rites, because they were nothing more than lies and deceptions of the devil, who, being the sworn enemy of mankind, had devised those and other similar arts to ensure their perpetual damnation in the midst of horrible and everlasting tortures." (23)
            "That Cortes' wish was nobody was hurt" might perhaps be classified as ironic, as Cortes brought about the destruction of the Aztec empire, yet Cortes' passion in instilling Christian beliefs is well demonstrated in this account. Cortes believes that showing the natives "the way of worshipping one only God," more specifically, indoctrinating them and converting them to Christianity, is one of the reasons for his journey and existence, and tries to cease the idolatry and cannibalistic rites that the natives already have. Cortes, similar to Columbus and Magellan, seems to be propagating Christianity from his sincere beliefs that the natives, who had not met Europeans before and hence not been exposed to Christianity before, should be educated and instilled to believe Christian ideas.

IV.1.3.2 Colonization
            Although evangelism was definitely an important result of interactions in Cortes' voyages in South America, the first and the foremost result of the voyage, with which Cortes is infamously renowned, is the colonization of the area under the Spanish King. In meetings with the native chiefs, Cortes asserts and persuades them to promise to obey the King under any circumstances. An account of such a meeting is given in Cortes' letters to the Spanish King :
            "I spoke to them for some time, and tried to make them understand how they were to believe in God, and serve your Majesty. Every one of them promised then and there to become your Majesty's vassal, to obey the imperial commands, and do at any time whatever he might be desired to do." (24)
            Cortes, amidst his colonization process, does not prioritize violence over communication. Instead, he tries to persuade the chiefs, and it seems to work well, as the native chiefs have no objections against obeying an abstract figure, the Spanish King, whom they have never seen and probably wouldn't see. Encouraged by the positive, favorable reactions of the natives, Cortes even goes further on to deem the land the King's. According to the same letter he sent to the King, Cortes had announced, although indirectly, the complete subordination and subjugation of the land :
            "That another of the objects of my mission was to inform them how, by the will of divine Providence, your Majesty stood obeyed and respected throughout the world, and therefore that they were bound to place themselves under the imperial sway, and do whatever we, who are your Majesty's ministers in these parts, should command them to do. If they did as I told them, they were sure to be very well treated, and maintained in justice, and their persons and properties protected; if on the contrary, proceedings would be instituted against them, and they would be punished according to law. " (25)
            Cortes argues that the King could and would reward the natives if they obey and punish them if they defy; in fact, this is an effective announcement of the colonization and subjugation of the American land to the Spanish King. Cortes proposes that the Spanish King would hold the same power, the same authority he holds in Spain in America; the power of jurisdiction. Yet, the leaders of the natives eagerly agree to Cortes' suggestions, unbeknownst colonizing their land and subjugating themselves. This concession seems to have been the base of the Spanish colonization of America later on in history.

IV.2 Francisco Pizarro

IV.2.1 Expedition
            Pizarro, a Spanish explorer, was first drawn to exploration of South America by the valuable materials; a rumor had it that there were priceless gold and silver lying around in America. Moved by his desire, Pizarro planned the conquest of Incas two times; in 1524 and in 1526. Both plans failed, as the natives were hostile, the weather was hard to bear, and the preparation was not enough.
            Then, after few years of quietude, Pizarro was again drawn to exploration when he discovered in 1528 that the natives held valuable metal plentifully. Pizarro returned to Spain and asked King Charles I for a permission, which the King granted willingly and voluntarily. Pizarro, with the support of the King, prepared for and began his voyage in 1530, a conquest of the Incas starting to appear.
            The natives, as expected, were hostile towards the Spaniards; Pizarro even found difficulty getting past the coast parts of the land. Even when he got to the inlands, Pizarro and his troops met Inca Atahualpa, who was the Emperor of the Inca Empire hostile to foreigners. Atahualpa tried to repel Pizarro, threatening him with armed natives, ordering him to 'restore all that he has taken in the Inca land' and leave without their desired fulfilled. In response, however, Pizarro defeated and killed Atahualpa's native troops and arrested the Inca leader for himself in November 16th, 1532.
            As the Emperor, Inca Atahualpa had handsome amount of gold and valuable materials. Thus, he proposed a ransom for his freedom. Giving a room full of gold, Atahualpa suggested huge amounts of gold the Spaniards could take in return for freeing him from capture. Pizarro, however, refused and rejected to let go the tribe king, and Atahualpa was executed on July 26th, 1533.
            Having lost the Emperor, the Inca Empire became unstable and staggered. Capturing the momentum, Pizarro drove on even further, conquering Cuzco, the Inca capital, in the same year of Atahualpa's execution, and therefore effectively conquering the Inca lands under his control. After the conquest of the Incas, Pizarro built Lima, the present capital of Peru, on the land of the Incas; he would live there for a while until in 1541, Pizarro was killed by his friend's son whose father he had executed in a war.

IV.2.2 Translator : Felipillo

IV.2.2.1 Status
            Felipillo was a native of America, born at Puna Island in modern-day Ecuador. As he learned from the natives, he was able to speak Quechua, and later learned basic communication Spanish from Pizarro's soldiers. Then, he served as an interpreter for Pizarro in his various journeys through Peru. He seems to have taken an important part of Pizarro's crew, as they relied on him for communications with the natives. Below is documented when the enraged Atahualpa wished Felipillo to be killed, as he was in a misfortunate affair with the royal concubine, but was spared by the Spaniards.
            "But Felipillo was too important to the Spaniards to be dealt with so summarily." (26)
            As Felipillo was the medium of communication between the natives and the explorers, he could not be killed. However, what the explorers didn't know until much later was that Felipillo was intentionally mistranslating the conversations in order to fulfill his own desires and achieve his own goals based on his own emotions such as hatred.

IV.2.2.2 Role
            Felipillo was in the middle of the communications between the explorers and the natives. Most of Pizarro's communications with the Incas were done by Felipillo, who translated their dialogues into the Quechua language. However, his translations were far from accurate, as he let his personal emotions interfere in his interpretation process, Often, Felipillo, who was blatantly against the Inca natives, mistranslated the explorers, leading the natives to deride the Christian religion and ignore the explorers, resulting in explorers murdering the natives. Felipillo's action and motive is documented as below:
            "The intercourse with the Inca was carried on chiefly by means of the interpreter Felipillo, or little Philip, as he was called, from his assumed Christian name, - a malicious youth, as it appears, who bore no good will to Atahualpa, and whose interpretations were readily admitted by the Conquerors, eager to find some pretext for their bloody reprisals." (27)
            Not only did Felipillo intentionally mistranslate the explorers, he also did not sufficiently explain their notions. Below are the documented descriptions of Felipillo's incorrect, insufficient explanations of Trinity, a basic concept of Christianity :
            "It is certain, however, that he must have bad very incorrect notions of the Trinity, if, as Garcilasso states, the interpreter Felipillo explained it by saying that 'the Christians believed in three Gods and one God, and that made four.'" (28)
            Clearly, 'three Gods and one God' do not fit the basic principles of Christianity and Trinity. Felipillo was not only incorrect or biased, but also insufficient in details. Unlike other translators who worked for European explorers, Felipillo was explicitly and blatantly inaccurate in his translations, a feat that happened because of his emotions towards the Incas.

IV.2.3 Results of Communication

IV.2.3.1 Evangelism
            Francisco Pizarro in his conquest of the Incas worked to spread Christianity among the natives who already had a traditional religious custom; human sacrifice. Perhaps because of the intensity of the traditional religion, Pizarro's missionary works were met with some retaliations and rejections, some of which involved violence. Such case of violent rebuttals to Pizarro's propagation is revealed in the letter of Hernando Pizarro, Francisco Pizarro's brother, directed to the nobles in San Domingo :
            "In the morning he sent messengers to put off his visit until the afternoon; and these messengers, in conversing with some Indian girls in the service of the Christians, who were their relations, told them to run away because Atahualpa was coming that afternoon to attack the Christians and kill them. Among the messengers there came that captain who had already met the Governor on the road. He told the Governor that his lord Atahualpa said that, as the Christians had come armed to his camp, he also would come armed. The Governor replied that he might come as he liked. Atahualpa set out from his camp at noon, and when he came to a place which was about half a quarter of a league from Cajamarca he stopped until late in the afternoon. There he pitched his tents, and formed his men in three divisions. The whole road was full of men, and they had not yet left off marching out of the camp." (29)
            Atahualpa seems to be just one of the many traditional leaders who were opposed to Christianity. As shown in the letter, the Christians coming armed to his land, South America, must have looked like invasion to the indigenous chiefs who were not in favor of Europeans; Atahualpa thus reacted violently, arguing that 'as the Christians had come armed to his camp, he also would come armed' - a mutual violence. Yet, in almost all occasions, Pizarro was victorious, as he held advanced weapons. Pizarro's victory over Atahualpa is also mentioned in the letter :
            "Atahualpa asked for the book, and threw it on the ground, saying: 'I will not leave this place until you have restored all that you have taken in my land. I know well who you are and what you have come for.' Then he rose up in his litter and addressed his men, and there were murmurs among them and calls to those who were armed ... The Governor sent to me; and I had arranged with the captain of the artillery that, when a sign was given, he should discharge his pieces, and that, on hearing the reports, all the troops should come forth at once. This was done, and as the Indians were unarmed they were defeated without danger to any Christian. Those who carried the litter and the chiefs who surrounded Atahualpa were all killed, falling round him.
            As aforementioned, the native 'Indians' were powerless against the Europeans, as widespread artillery among the Pizarro troops vanquished the natives even before they could get in their attacking range. Atahualpa might have been a prophet here, saying 'I know well who you are and what you have come for;' Atahualpa could have foreseen the colonization of his land by the foreigners that suddenly came with a power unknown and indefensible to the natives.

V. Conclusion
            European explores in the Age of Discovery traveled many places for many reasons; some, like Magellan, wished to open up a new trade route; some, like Pizarro, wished to find valuable resources; and some, like Columbus, wished to garner profit from the land itself.
            Regardless of their motives, all explorers sought out communications and interactions with the natives. To do that, however, they needed translators, as the native languages were foreign to the explorers. As a result, the explorers hired or subjugated translators : da Gama had Fernao Martins, Columbus had Luis de Torres, Magellan had Enrique of Malacca, Cortes had La Malinche, and Pizarro had Felipillo.
            Apparently, most of the explorers had a firm trust in the skills of their translators. Surprisingly little accounts of misunderstandings or miscommunications exist in the explorers' diaries or records. If miscommunications by translators' faults had happened, which most likely is the case, the explorers either weren't aware of the miscommunications or chose to omit them from the records.
            Perfect or not, the translators spurred communication between the natives and the explorers and thus created many interactions. The results of the communications would later manifest themselves in the form of subjugation and evangelism.
            Without the translators, the explorers would not have had sufficient communications with the natives, and thus, the various results of them wouldn't have been created. The impacts the translators had on both the explorers and the natives were immense, as without the translators, the series of events following the European exploration of various regions wouldn't and couldn't have happened.


Notes
           
(1)      Da Gama, The Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497-1499
(2)      ibid.
(3)      ibid.
(4)      ibid.
(5)      ibid.
(6)      Columbus, The Diario of Christopher Columbus' First Voyage to America: 1492-1493
(7)      ibid.
(8)      ibid.
(9)      ibid.
(10)      Columbus, Concerning the Islands Recently Discovered in the Indian Sea
(11)      Columbus, The Diario of Christopher Columbus' First Voyage to America: 1492-1493
(12)      Matsuda, Pacific Worlds: A History of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures
(13)      ibid.
(14)      Levinson, Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World
(15)      ibid.
(16)      ibid.
(17)      Pigafetta, The First Voyage around the World, 1519-1522: an account of Magellan's expedition
(18)      ibid.
(19)      ibid.
(20)      Levesque, La Malinche: The Mistress of Hernan Cortes, from Slave to Goddess : A True Story Based on Historical Documents with 88 Illustrations.
(22)      ibid.
(22)      ibid.
(23)      Cortes, The Fifth Letter of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor Charles V, Containing an Account of his Expedition to Honduras
(24)      ibid.
(25)      ibid.
(26)      Prescott, History of the Conquest of Peru
(27)      ibid.
(28)      ibid.
(29)      Pizarro, Letter from Hernando Pizarro to the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo
(30)      ibid.


Bibliography

Encyclopedic Sources
1.      Wikipedia Article Ferdinand Magellan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan
2.      Wikipedia Article Christopher Columbus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus
3.      Wikipedia Article Hernan Cortes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hern%C3%A1n_Cort%C3%A9s
4.      Wikipedia Article Francisco Pizarro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Pizarro
5.      Wikipedia Article Vasco da Gama
6.      BBC History : Historic Figures : Ferdinand Magellan http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/magellan_ferdinand.shtml
7.      About.com : Historical Geography : Ferdinand Magellan http://geography.about.com/od/historyofgeography/a/magellan.htm
8.      National Maritime Museum (UK) : Columbus http://www.rmg.co.uk/columbus / National Maritime Museum
9.      The Columbus Navigation http://www.columbusnavigation.com
10.      BBC History : Historic Figures : Hernan Cortes http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cortes_hernan.shtml
11.      Catholic Encyclopedia Article Francisco Pizarro http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12140a.htm
12.      BBC History : Historic Figures : Vasco da Gama, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/da_gama_vasco.shtml
13.      Elizabethan Era : Vasco da Gama http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/vasco-da-gama.htm
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Primary Sources
15.      The First Voyage around the World, 1519-1522: an account of Magellan's expedition / Antonio Pigafetta / English Translated by J. A. Robertson / Google Books
16.      The Diario of Christopher Columbusí» First Voyage to America: 1492-1493 / Christopher Columbus / English Translated by Oliver Dunn and J. E. Kelly, Jr. / Google Books
17.      The Columbus Letter / Christopher Columbus / English Translated Translator Unknown / http://usm.maine.edu/maps/web-document/1/4/sub-/4-translation
18.      Cartas y Relaciones de Hernan Cortes al Emperador Carlos V / Hernan Cortes / Spanish / Google Books
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21.      The Fifth Letter of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor Charles V, Containing an Account of His Expedition to Honduras / Hernan Cortes / Translated by Pascual de Gayangos / Google Books
22.      Cartas del Marques Don Francisco Pizarro / Francisco Pizarro / Spanish / http://kuprienko.info/cartas-del-marques-don-francisco-pizarro-1533-1541
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24.      A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco Da Gama, 1497-1499 / Vasco Da Gama / English Translated by E. G. Ravenstein / Internet Archive http://archive.org/details/worksissuedbyha00unkngoog
25.     
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26.      Implicit Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflecting on the Encounters Between Europeans and Other Peoples in the Early Modern Era / Stuart B. Schwartz / Cambridge University Press / 1994
27.      Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World / Nancy S. Levinson / Houghton Mifflin Harcourt / 2001 / Google Books
28.      History of the Conquest of Peru / William H. Prescott / Forgotten Books / 2010 / Google Books
29.      Pacific Worlds: A History of Seas, Peoples, and Cultures / Matt K. Matsuda / Cambridge University Press / 2012 / Google Books
30.      The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the first circumnavigation of the globe, 1480-1521 / F.H.H. Guillemard / George Philip & Son / 1890 / Brandeis University Internet Archive http://archive.org/details/lifeofferdinandm00guil
31.      Magellan: A General Account of the Life and Times and Remarkable Adventures by Land and by Sea of the Most Eminent and Renowned Navigator / Arthur Sturges Hildebrand / Kessinger Publishing / 2005 / Google Books
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33.      The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus / Washington Irving / J. Murray / 1831 / Google Books
34.      The Life of Christopher Columbus / Samuel Griswold Goodrich / T. Cowperthwait / 1838 / Google Books
35.      Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust / John Henrik Clarke / A&B Publishers Group / 1998
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37.      La Malinche: The Mistress of Hernan Cortes, from Slave to Goddess: A True Story Based on Historical Documents with 88 Illustrations / Rodrigo Levesque / Levesque Publications / 2008 / Google Books
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39.      Pizarro; or the conquest of Peru / Joachim Heinrich Campe / Publisher Unknown / 1811 / Google Books
40.      Francisco Pizarro and the Conquest of the Inca / Shane Mountjoy / Infobase Publishing / 2005 / Google Books
41.      The Career and Legend of Vasco Da Gama / Sanjay Subrahmanyam / Cambridge University Press / 1998

Bibliographical Sources 42.      Franciscan Archive : Columbus Bibliography
43.      Bibliography : The European Voyages of Exploration, Univ. of Calgary
44.      NNDB, Hernando Cortes, Bibliography
45.      NNDB, Ferdinand Magellan, Bibliography
46.      NNDB, Vasco da Gama, Bibliography
47.      NNDB, Christyopher Columbus, Bibliography
48.      NNDB, Francisco Pizarro, Bibliography
49.      WHKMLA : Biographies of Portuguese Discoverers




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