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A Comparative Historical Analysis of the Italian and Spanish Cuisine


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Cho, Naan
Term Paper, AP European History Class, June 2011



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Comparative Culinary Aspects
II.1 Ingredients
II.1.1 Ingredients extensively used in the Spanish cuisine
II.1.2 Ingredients extensively used in the Italian cuisine
II.1.3 A brief analysis of the differences and similarities that can be seen between both cuisines
II.2 Similar and Different Cooking Methods within the Spanish and Italian Cuisine
II.3 Meal Courses of Spain and Italy
III. Historical Analysis
III.1 Ancient Roman Times
III.1.1 Roman Italian Cuisine in comparison with Roman Spanish cuisine
III.1.2 Roman Spanish Cuisine in comparison with Roman Italian cuisine
III.2 Medieval Times
III.2.1 Ostrogothic Italy and Lombard Italy in comparison with the Germanic occupation of Hispania
III.2.2 Moorish Influence on the Spanish and Italian cuisine
III.2.3 Jewish Expulsion by the Spanish Crown and the consequent impact on the Italian and Spanish cuisine
III.3 Modern Times
III.3.1 Age of Discovery and the comparative impact it had on the Italian and Spanish cuisine
III.3.2 Emergence of a national cuisine in Italy in comparison with the early modern cuisine of Spain
III.3.3 Internationalization
IV. Other Areas of Study
IV.1 A comparison between Sicily and Andalusia
IV.2 Italian and Spanish sayings in relation with food
IV.3 Definition of various cooking methods in Spain and Italy
V. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            That food not only exists as an indispensable entity for the survival of human beings but also is an element that reflects the underlying social and historical values is, to a certain degree, self explanatory. However, the standing of food itself within a society, in other words, the importance it retains among the lives of the people, greatly differs depending on environmental, historical and social factors. In this context, the cuisines of Italy and Spain share uniqueness on the fact that food serves as an existence indispensable within the family sphere, the social atmosphere and even within the talk of the people (1). Despite these similarities that arise from the Mediterranean and Roman influence, Spanish and Italian cuisines display distinctive culinary aspects derived from both consequent external and internal influences that characterize each cuisine. Thus, a comparison of the culinary history of both cuisines becomes a study of merit since it goes deeper within the superficial culinary differences that appear in the usage of ingredients or cooking methods and reveal the underlying historical factors that brought about the formation of these distinctive characteristics. So the purpose of this paper is to describe the culinary differences between the Italian and Spanish cuisine within a historical context in various aspects. For this purpose, a brief explanation of the cursory differences that appear in the Spanish and Italian table in regard with the food itself-the usage of ingredients, cooking methods and meal courses- shall be firstly introduced. Then, a historical analysis that touches upon the matter of how Italian and Spanish cuisines responded and formulated its own distinctive characteristics that appear in the cursory differences explained above within the course of history since the ancient Roman times shall be given. Throughout this process, the development of other social aspects in regard with food, such as the consumption of food by different classes or the introduction of new cooking utensils, shall be spontaneously revealed. Finally, a comparison between Andalusia of Spain and Sicily of Italy, as it will provide a display of the culinary characteristics explained throughout the paper in relation with the historical context, shall be given along with entailing explanations of Spanish and Italian cooking terms and food-related sayings. The overall discussion in what follows shall follow this line of study and conclusively, reveal the significance of history within the culinary aspects of Italy and Spain.

II. Comparative Culinary Aspects

II.1 Ingredients

II.1.1 Ingredients extensively used in the Spanish cuisine
            Ingredients or food that is consumed heavily in Spain include bread, cheese, garlic, ham, olive oil, paprika, quince paste, rice and saffron. Bread is a staple in Spain and is usually eaten at every meal. Day-old bread is used to make crumbs for coating croquettes, to make stuffing, or adding to soups such as the famous gazpacho (2). As for cheese, there are many types of cheese produced in Spain including blue and soft cheeses, made from cow, sheep or goats milk. Additionally, garlic and olive oil are extensively used for cooking ingredients which reflects the Mediterranean influence on the Spanish cuisine. The consumption of rice reflects the Moorish influence on the peninsula during the medieval times and is used in a variety of dishes, most notably, paella. As for Saffron, it comes from the stigma of a crocus flower and was first introduced by the Moors. A small amount of Saffron is enough to impart a distinctive flavour, enticing aroma and a rich colour which makes it an important ingredient for a variety of dishes (3).

II.1.2 Ingredients extensively used in the Italian cuisine
            Essential ingredients used in Italian foods are balsamic vinegar, basil, bread, extra virgin olive oil, mozzarella, parmesan, olives, pasta and tomatoes. Originated from the Italian region of Modena, Balsamic Vinegar is dark, thick and syrupy with a complex, sweet taste and much more expensive than common vinegars. Basil (basilico) is an Italian herb used to flavour sauces, salads and added to pizza after cooking. Extra virgin olive oil is used for dipping bread into, drizzling over salads and cooked dishes as well as for cooking with. There are many types of olives available including Sicilian; a green olive with a citrusy flavour, giant green olives and Ligurians which are small black olives. Pasta, introduced by the Moors in Sicily (4) and consequently widely spread throughout the peninsula, is usually eaten in most Italian households every day. (5)
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II.1.3 A brief analysis of the differences and similarities that can be seen between both cuisines
            As it can be seen, the ingredients used in the Italian and Spanish cuisine, to a certain degree, are different despite their Mediterranean influence. The wide usage of olive oil, tomatoes, cheese and garlic can explicitly be seen as a similarity, some due to the Mediterranean climate, within both cuisines. Moreover, the popularity and wide usage of wine as an ingredient is also a common characteristic within the Spanish and Italian cuisine. However, while the Spanish tend to largely use meat and potatoes within their dishes, the Italians have a wider usage of seafood including fish. The most widely eaten meat in Spain is pork; since the Moorish conquest, the people of Spain, most of who were Christians, enjoyed eating pork and cooking it frequently in their dishes partially as an act of defiance against the Moors. Moreover, Spanish food tends to be spicier than Italian food because of the usage of spices which were, during the Moorish conquest, imported from Asia and widely used within Spanish dishes. Thus, it can be interpreted that the culinary differences that are seen within the Spanish and Italian cuisine can be better understood by understanding the historical influence. The underlying roots where these differences stem from shall be further explored and elaborated through a historical analysis in the next chapter.
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II.2 Similar and Different Cooking Methods within the Spanish and Italian Cuisine (6)
            The different cooking methods used in Italy and Spain naturally stem from their different usage of ingredients and other inherent social or historical factors. A categorization of certain cooking methods that bear an importance in revealing the culinary aspects of both cuisines and consequently observing the dominance of a certain category within each cuisine will reveal the significant culinary differences and similarities.
            Cooking methods related to seafood are found in a larger abundance in Italy than Spain since the usage of seafood within the Italian cuisine is more extensive due to historical and social factors as it shall be seen in the next chapter. Notable ones are A beccafico, A scapece, Escabece, and Arracato in Italy. Although in a smaller abundance compared to Italy, certain cooking methods related to seafood in Spain can be seen-most notably Cebiche .
            Cooking methods related to grilling meat appear frequently in both cuisines, although it is more in abundance in Spain because of the wide consumption of pork - Grigliato in Italy, A la parilla in Spain. Also, cooking methods including wine are common in both Spain and Italy. A la marinera is a common style of cooking in Spain while Alla Vaccinar and In civet are common styles of cooking in Italy.
            Cooking methods relating to the usage of fresh fruits and vegetables appear frequently in both cuisines-this reflects the Mediterranean influence on both cuisines. All'uccelletto, Alla cacciatore, and Alla romagnola are renowned Italian cooking methods; Anadir azafrancillo ditaxis heterantha, hervir and Cebollitas de cambray are famous Spanish cooking methods.
            Additionally, there are a variety of cooking methods within the Spanish and Italian cuisine that reflects the usage of cheese-it would not be an exaggeration to say that this product is one of the most important staples of both cuisines. Gratinato is the famous Italian style of cooking cheese while Queso asadero is one of the representative cooking methods of Spain.

II.3 Meal Courses
            Since food retains such an important value within the society, traditional meal courses of Spain and Italy are complex since it incorporates the various culinary characteristics as seen above. The traditional Italian meal begins with the Aperitivo which is an appetizer before the main meal. Antipasto, which is a 'hot or cold appetizer, follows; the basic meal starts with the Primo, the "first course" which usually consists of a hot dish like pasta, risotto, gnocchi, or soup. The Secondo - "the second course" - the main dish, is usually fish or meat although diversity exists within regions. Contorno is a side dish which may be a salad or cooked vegetables-a traditional menu features salad along with the main course. Formaggio e frutta is the first desert which is traditionally cheese and fruits. Finally, Dolce - sweets or pastries - and Caffe end the traditional Italian meal (7). On the contrary, the Spanish have a different method of enjoying their meals. Instead of having designated multiple meal courses during dinner, the Spanish have a big lunch and enjoy a variety of snacks before and after meals. Lunch is usually eaten during the late afternoon when the heat has cooled down and contains a variety of courses which starts with vegetable or seafood soup. Then fresh fish or meat is served typically with salads containing a diversity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Desert is usually ice cream, pastries or fresh fruits with a cup of coffee. Aforementioned, the Spanish enjoy eating a variety of snacks before or after meals such as the famous churros eaten during late night with hot chocolate. Therefore, a comparison of the meal courses of Spain and Italy reveal their different lifestyles; the Spanish tend to have a larger lunch and eat until late night while the Italians enjoy a big dinner with its diverse meal courses.

III. Historical Analysis

III.1 Ancient Roman Times
            The Italian and Spanish cuisine could not avoid deviating from the culture and norms of the Roman cuisine; both inevitably shared a variety of similarities. Despite these similarities, certain elements were adopted differently with regard to certain environmental or social factors. However, the Roman cuisine, which had been heavily influenced by Greek culture, later on developed into one that retained many differences between social classes; the characteristics that shall be explained reflect the general culinary aspects of Roman cuisine that could be seen within the society. A comparison shall be given; the first section will focus more on the Roman Italian Cuisine while the second will focus more on the other.

III.1.1 Roman Italian Cuisine in comparison with Roman Spanish Cuisine
            Bread was the single most often eaten food and was sometimes sweetened with honey or cheese and eaten along with sausage, domestic fowl, game, eggs, cheese, fish, or shellfish. Fish and oysters were especially popular - the popularity exists until today where the consumption of seafood in Italy is extremely high compared with other countries. Wine, like in Spain, was very popular and the Romans watered it down, spiced it, and heated it before drinking; undiluted wine was considered to be barbaric. Pasca, a drink made from watering down acetum, low quality wine similar to vinegar, was popular among the lower classes; since Rome was the center of the Roman Empire, the social hierarchy was more pronounced in Italy than in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, the distinctive culinary differences between social classes emerged in a more pronounced and rapid manner within the history of the Italian Cuisine. For the poor, meals consisted of porridge or bread with meat and vegetables. For the wealthy, the meal was divided into three courses. The first was an appetizer made of simply eggs, fish, shellfish, and raw vegetables known as gustatio or promulsis. The main course, prima mensa, consisted of cooked vegetables and meats, based on what the family could afford, and was followed by a desert, secunda mensa, of fruit or sweet pastries. The Romans sat upright to eat, but the wealthy often reclined on couches at dinner parties, or ate outside in gardens, with the weather permitting; this aspect of the wealthy aristocrats could be seen throughout the Roman Empire including the Iberian Peninsula (8). The spoons that were used, unlike those of the Roman Spanish Cuisine, had pointed handles that could be used to extract shellfish and snails from their shells.

III.1.2 Roman Spanish Cuisine in comparison with Roman Italian Cuisine
            As early as Roman times it can be said that, with the exception of products later imported from the Americas, many modern foods were consumed, although mostly by the aristocracy. Nonetheless, and especially in the Celtic areas, consumption of animal products such as lamb or beef was more common than that of vegetables. In Roman Spain the hams of Pompeiopolis had great prestige. Moreover, the export of pork products became the basis of a strong local economy. This aspect exists until today where pork products such as the famous jamon have become a representative Spanish dish while constituting a large portion of the country¡¯s exports, quite different from that of Italy. Already in that era, cabbages were well known and appreciated, and considered as a panacea. Other popular vegetables of that time were thistles (such as artichokes) onions and mushrooms; lentils formed a staple food for the army and since they are easy to preserve and transport. Fava beans were known from antiquity and were considered sacred by the Romans. In the Saturnalia, the later December festival in honor of Saturn, fava beans were used to choose the king of the festival. This custom is believed to be the source of the present day custom of hiding an object in the roscon de reyes (similar to the sixpence traditional in a Christmas pudding); until quite recently, that object was a fava bean. Moreover, the production of wine, with differing flavours from region to region, flourished and became most popular in the Empire (9).

III.2 Medieval Times

III.2.1 Ostrogothic Italy and Lombard Italy in comparison with the Germanic Occupation of Hispania
            The purpose of this section would be to analyze the foreign influence on the Spanish and Italian cuisine by means of invasions and conquests after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Under the domination of the Roman Empire, there was not much disparity between the Italian and Spanish cuisine. However, the domination of certain Germanic tribes and the consequent posture that the Italians and Spanish undertook contributed to the distinctive characteristics that can be seen within the cuisine of both countries. The significance of the impact of these foreign powers differed on the method of assimilation that the invaders favoured and the consequent measures that the Italians and Spanish adopted. Thus studying the process and impact of the conquests on the culture of Italy and Spain and comparing them would reveal an important aspect of the culinary history of both countries.
            After the collapse of the Hunnic Empire in 455 the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great began to move again, first to Moesia and then to Italy. Here, the Ostrogoths established the Kingdom of Italy, a relatively short-lived successor state of the Western Roman Empire. Ostrogothic power reached its zenith under the Romanised king Theodoric the Great, who patronized such late Roman figures as Boethius and Cassiodorus. It is generally evaluated that Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government and in doing so, profited the Italian people (10). Thus the Ancient Roman cuisine continued to flourish with certain Germanic elements being implicitly assimilated-perhaps the reason why northern Italian cuisine retains Germanic and Roman influence while southern Italian cuisine retains more of an Arab influence. A deeper analysis of the Ostrogothic influence can be gained by scrutinizing the historical situation of this era, it can be interpreted that the impact of the Ostrogothic influence on the Italian cuisine came from a rather indirect route. The slowly crumbling Roman Empire had heavily taxed the peasants and middle class workers within the empire for an increase in its revenue; thus, the life of these peasants was harsh and most had no choice but to lead a life where grains were harvested and plants were grown to merely sustain life. However, the invasion of the Ostrogoths resulted in a substantial decrease in taxation which greatly introduced flexibility into the lives of the peasants. Thus, it can be correctly predicted and interpreted that the leisure time available for peasants resulted in a gradual development of the Roman dishes. In fact, many historical documents reveal that this was the period when regional distinctions began to become more pronounced and led on to the development of regional dishes that can be seen today.
            Similarly, the Lombards conquered the Italian peninsula; they established a Kingdom of Italy which lasted until 774, when it was conquered by the Franks (11). Their influence on Italian political geography is plainly visible in the regional appellation Lombardy, a region where diverse culinary aspects from various ethnic or political groups can be seen. The culinary influence that the Lombards had on the Italian cuisine was similar to that of the Ostrogoths; it was not a direct influence but rather an indirect influence where the Lombards greatly decreased taxation rates than the conquerors from Byzantium which resulted in flexibility and creativity within the lives of the common peasants.
            During the same period, Spain had also been invaded and dominated by the Visigoths for a lengthy period which spans from the 5th century until the 8th century. The Visigoths, having sacked Rome two years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian Peninsula. The Visigothic Kingdom shifted its capital to Toledo and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild. The Visigoths tended to maintain the old Roman institutions, like the Ostrogoths and Lombards of Italy, and tended to rule as a mild entity which was uninterested in the events of the nation and economy. They did not even merge with the Spanish population until the Muslims conquered the peninsula. In other words, they distanced themselves from Spanish culture or the Spanish way of living which resulted in hardly any interaction existing between the two populations. However the Visigoths did have an indirect impact on the culinary history of Italy in a similar manner to that of the Ostrogoths and Lombards, The sudden swarming of Visigoths within the Iberian Peninsula, especially in its cities, resulted in the Spanish population, some willing some forcibly, moving outward to the countryside. Once establishing their new homes in the countryside, the peasants began striking up individual lifestyles apt for the regional characteristics which they had to adjust. Thus, like Ostrogoth Italy or Lombard Italy, the Visigoths of Spain led out the path for regional distinctions to formulate and become more pronounced.
            Therefore, it can be analyzed that the consequences which were brought about by foreign invaders within the Iberian and Italian Peninsula were similar; probably because the cuisine of either country had its roots in the Ancient Roman cuisine and that the invading 'barbarians' had succumbed to the legacy of the Roman Empire.

III.2.2 Moorish Influence on the Spanish and Italian Cuisine
            In 711, Muslim forces invaded and easily defeated the Visigoths of the Iberian Peninsula and in seven years, conquered the Iberian Peninsula. It created a blooming Muslim civilisation which reached its summit with the Umayyad caliphate of Cordova in the tenth century. Muslim rule declined gradually declined until the fall of the Granada in 1492; despite their fall, Moorish culture left its traits on the culture, politics and importantly, on the cuisine of Spain where the penetration can be still seen today (12). Rice, oranges, almonds, saffron, paprika, peppers, asparagus and sweets for pastries were among the many ingredients and spices associated with the cuisine of Muslim Spain. The wide usage of saffron explicitly reflects the Moorish influence on the Spanish cuisine. Called azafran in Spanish, it is a spice that has a special place in history, always being considered very valuable; in fact, at one point it was even used as currency. The Moors brought saffron or "az-zafaran" as they called it, to Spain in the VIII or IX century and consequently, the spice was widely cultivated and used within the dishes; currently, three quarters of the world's saffron production comes from Spain (13). Although saffron is used within certain Italian dishes such as the Milanese Risotto, the significance of the amount of saffron produced and its versatility within dishes implicitly show the different standing of the spice within the Spanish and Italian cuisine. Moreover, the Christians within the peninsula during this period of conquest by the Moors ate pork as an act of defiance; pork remains as the meat with the highest consumption rate within the peninsula. Apart from this, the Moors also introduced reforms in the way meals were served including the three-course meal, the use of crystal rather than metal goblets for drinks at table and other table arts and food presentation from Persia. Thus it can be seen that the Moorish influence on the Spanish cuisine was extensive and thorough.
            Moorish influence on the Italian cuisine can mostly be seen in Southern Italy, especially in Sicily. The whole island was conquered by the Islam in the year of 965 and continued to exist until the 11th century when the Normans led by Roger Guiscard established the Kingdom of Sicily. Agricultural items such as oranges, lemons, pistachio and sugar cane were brought to Sicily (14). Moreover, the introduction of ice cream into the island by the Arabs created an excellent combination of pistachio and ice cream-a flavour renown in Sicily until this day. Ice cream seems to have spread though the island, then to Toscana and consequently, throughout the entire Italian peninsula. Most importantly, the Arabs introduced pasta which has become the representative Italian dish (15).
            Thus, it can be seen that the impact of Moorish culture on the cuisine of Spain and Italy had differing routes. Since the Iberian Peninsula, as a whole, had been conquered by the Moors, Moorish influence could be seen in a wide range of aspects. However, in Italy, Moorish influence rather gradually spread out through the peninsula by the influence of the Sicilians in other regions of the peninsula. Therefore, while the Arab influence remains significant and profound in Sicily, other regions of Italy, especially in the north, have a very faint influence of Moorish culture or none. Thus, a comparison between the differing Moorish influence on Spain and Italy becomes a study of merit by revealing certain historical and culinary aspects of both countries.

III.2.3 Jewish Expulsion by the Spanish Crown and the consequent impact on the Italian and Spanish cuisine
            The latter half of the 15th century ushered in an era of sweeping change for Spain that would have a substantial impact not only on the culinary history of Spain but also on that of Italy. Fearing that the remaining Jews would influence the conversos, those who had already converted to Christianity, the Inquisition had forced the deportation of millions of Jews from the Iberian Peninsula. Sicily, which was under the domination of the Spanish crown, also had to expel every single Jew from Sicily which resulted in a mingling of the culinary characteristics of the Jews of Sicily with those of Italy. Especially, dishes using melanzane, a staple for the Jewish for its nutrients and accessibility, were newly introduced and consequently, had an impact on the local cuisines of the Italian Peninsula. Moreover, the spread of the pumpkin flower as a dredge-the Jewish had accessibility to this plant as it was normally regarded as trash and thus, sent to the markets within the ghettos-resulted in a variety of fried dishes such as the fritto misto. The traditional fritto misto has a variety of vegetables sliced and fried together by the flour of the pumpkin flower while retaining a Jewish taste. Similarly, the Jewish pizza that consequently developed became popular among pilgrims as a representative dish during Easter. While these culinary and cultural developments were on their way in Italy, the religious and ethnic homogeneity that the imperial empire strived to establish and maintain resulted in a stagnation of diversity as the Moorish, Jewish and other non-Christian values were forcibly suppressed within the empire. Therefore, the differing composures that the people of Spain and Italy posed when encountering certain historical events along with their consequent impact on the culinary aspects of both countries can be perceived.

III.3 Modern Times

III.3.1 Age of Discovery and the comparative impact it had on Italian and Spanish cuisine
            Amongst the various impacts that the discovery of the new world had, the impact of the newly introduced food from the continent had a thorough and lasting impact on both Italian and Spanish cuisines-it is hard to imagine a Spanish or Italian cuisine without tomatoes or potatoes. The Americas introduced corn, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkins, squash, pineapples, cacao beans and sweet potatoes-ingredients frequently used in Italian and Spanish dishes. Especially, tomatoes became a staple within the Italian and Spanish cuisine and a comparison of how it developed within both cuisines is a study of merit since it illustrates the different composures that the Italians and Spanish took; the initial reception of tomatoes was positive in both countries unlike others such as the potato which was forcibly harvested under the command of the local administrations. However, the usage of tomatoes within sophisticated dishes occurred after a certain period of time when the upper class began to acknowledge the utility of this plant despite the fact that it grew mostly on peasant farms. At the middle of the 19th century, the red coloured pasta or the pasta al pomodoro that we visualize as a representative Italian dish derived its colour from these newly introduced tomatoes. The impact of the tomato and the colour it created within the Italian table was such that the renowned chef Gianfranco Vissani and Alberto Caputi wrote 'Pomi d¡¯oro: immagini del pomodoro nella storia del gusto' in the year 2006 . The same fact applies to the Spanish dishes such as Gazpacho or Tortilla de patatas. The Spanish managed to cultivate tomatoes in tons since the climate was apt for their growth and they enjoyed fresh tomatoes many ways - in salads, sliced on French bread or cut in half and eaten like an apple, but with a pinch of salt. As far as cooked tomatoes, they appeared in casseroles, sauces or stuffed with meat or fish (16). However, how the Spanish and Italians further undertook developments in regard with the tomatoes differed; the Italians focused on how to facilitate their method of eating the plant. In 1700, Gennaro Spadaccini was the first to add a fourth tine to the fork and round its sharp points, under the order of king Ferdinand II to adapt it for the eating of spaghetti with tomato sauce. The additional tines made diners less likely to drop the tomato sauce while eating spaghetti. (17) While the Italians were striving to devise more efficient ways to eat tomatoes, the Spanish focused on the mass production of tomatoes which continue until this day where three million tons of tomatoes are produced in which certain festivals such as the La Tomatina has gained popularity. The poverty that the Spanish peasants experienced and the abundant nutrients that tomatoes provided with their adaptability led it retain a value and meaning slightly different from those of Italy.

III.3.2 Emergence of a national cuisine in Italy in comparison with fragmented and regional Spain
            In the beginning of the era, the courts of Florence, Rome, Venice and Ferrara were an integral component to the creation of fine cooking in Italy with the court of Estes in Ferrara a central figure to the creation of a national cuisine. A number of chefs wrote cookbooks which served an important role of amassing the accumulated knowledge of the past and developing them further. Christoforo Messisbugo published Banchetti Composizioni di Vivande in 1549 which detailed banquets in the first half of the book, while the second half of the book featured a multitude of recipes for items such as pies and tarts. In 1570, Opera was written by Bartolomeo Scappi, personal chef to Pope Pius V, a five-volume work which to that date encompassed the most comprehensive example of Italian cooking; the work contained over 1,000 recipes, with information on banquets including displays and menus as well as illustrations of kitchen and table utensils (18). As time progressed, regional differences which reflected the regional pride of the chef, became more pronounced within the Italian cookbooks. Thus, a general Italian cuisine that retained the distinct and unique characteristics of each region emerged and developed. However, the development of the modern Spanish cuisine walked a different route compared to the Italian cuisine. Because the peninsula was more regionally, politically and socially fragmented than Italy during the early modern era, there were not many attempts to amass the distinct recipes of each region and construct a general picture of a Spanish cuisine. Cookbooks accumulating the culinary history of the different regions were not extensively published nor did nationally renowned chefs strive to construct a typical Spanish meal. These regional disparities not only lie within the culinary history of Spain but also within its political and social conflicts that exist until today. Therefore, it can be seen that the modern cuisine of Spain and Italy developed under different routes in consistency with their national and social circumstances.

III.3.3 Internationalization
            While the impact of internationalization had resulted in an ¡®Americanization¡¯ of the many local and traditional foods of each region or nation, Spanish and Italian cuisine developed in a similar way in the context that they rejected the American influence penetrating their culinary traditions and instead incorporated the characteristics of their own cuisines into the cuisines of other countries. Most notably would be the development of the Italian-American cuisine which was made possible by the swarming of immigrants into America in the late 19th and 20th century. These immigrants, instead of adapting their culinary traditions in accordance with the American culture, rather strived for the adaption of the American culture in relation with their Italian culinary aspects-the most notable example would be the popularity of pizza within the American continent. However, within the Italian peninsula itself, American food and culture was not embraced; since the early 20th century, many political and social factions such as the communists or neo-fascists rejected American products such as the Coca Cola. Even today MacDonald's, Pizza Hut, Burger King and a lot other fast food restaurants cannot be frequently seen in Italy since the Italians view them as an hindrance towards tourists traveling around the peninsula to enjoy the genuine Italian taste; the small number of these restaurants that exist within the country today have adapted their logo and products to the tastes of the Italians. The Spanish cuisine developed both similarly and differently compared to the Italian cuisine; it had a more profound impact on the cuisines of South America due to colonization. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the Spanish influence can be seen in nearly every aspect of Latin American life - especially food. Due to the abundance of seafood, the seafood dishes of South America are similar to those of Spain while the usage of spices such as saffron can be widely seen within the continent. Therefore, it can be seen that the waves of colonization and internationalization further expanded the influence of the Spanish cuisine like that of Italy. However, the situation within the Iberian Peninsula itself is quite different; because of the rapid and spontaneous exchange of cultures with South America, the introduction of American products into the nation happened more naturally without much confrontation. Thus, fast food restaurants can be seen with more frequency within Spain and the influence of American culture can be felt more easily. Thus, it can be seen that the impacts of internationalization on the Spanish and Italian cuisines were similar in certain aspects but different in others due to external social factors.

IV. Other Areas of Study

IV.1 Sicily and Andalusia
            As an island that had been ruled by the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Normans, Angevins, Habsburgs and Bourbons, Sicily has amassed a variety of cultures which is reflected within its food. Nonetheless, the Arab influence was the most profound within the culinary history of Sicily like in that of Andalusia of Spain. Therefore, an analysis shall be introduced comparing the Arab influence on these two regions of Italy and Spain.
            The Moorish penetrated many aspects of the Sicilian cuisine. They introduced sophisticated methods of irrigation that made vegetable farming possible-the omnipresent eggplant, oranges and lemons could be grown with more ease. Moreover, they imported pasta, Asian spices and dried fruit, in particular raisins, which left an indelible mark on Sicilian cooking. They also brought couscous which are made of tiny balls of flour and water which are left to dry in the sun, then steamed over a boiling pan of water. While, the Arabs would use lamb, possibly chicken, to accompany the couscous, the Sicilians developed a classic Sicilian dish in the province of Trapani-a couscous cooked with the broth of the local fish to give it a seafood flavor. Additionally, during the Greek and Roman reign, honey had been the sweetener, but the Arabs had brought sugar cane and the first rudimentary sugar refinery was established in Trappeto. The Sicilians took to this sweet marvel, and their pastries are today famous throughout Italy. However, the most famous gift from the Arabs was sarbat which became sorbetto to the Italians and sherbet to the English. Mt. Etna provided ice in which the sarbat became granita a version made by partially freezing the flavored water. This gradually led to the infamous gelato (19). Thus, it can be seen that the many distinctions that make Sicilian cuisine unique among others had their roots in the Arab influence.
            Similarly, the medieval Al-Andalus cuisine is melted within contemporary Andalusia cuisine, although many elements have become devoid of their religious meaning. The Moorish influence is not only seen within the introduction of spices or other types of food but also in the culinary culture. Communal sharing from the same dish is a major example of Moorish cultural influence in Andalusia cuisine. Examples of such shared dishes are paella, migas, gachas and papas. Moreover, the predominance of yellow, green and white colors within the Andalusian cuisine also has its roots in Moorish culture. Yellow is common in most rice dishes, in fish stews with rice or noodles, and in some chickenpea stews. White is typical of some sweet rice puddings, some porridges, and some soups such as ajo blanco, the original gazpacho, and various almond soups. Apart from this, Moorish influence can be felt in many aspects including the extensive usage of saffron, cumin and coriander-spices introduced by the Moorish-within the dishes of Andalusia. Also the Morroco style mint tea is popular within the region which also reflects Moorish culinary influence.
            Thus, it can be seen that both regions were heavily influenced by the Moors. However, the significance of the Moorish influence in comparison with other regions is different; since the Moors had conquered the Iberian Peninsula as a whole, the Moorish influence in the Andalusia region can also be seen within other regions. However, since the Arabic influence of Sicily was exclusively heavy compared to other regions within the Italian peninsula, the Moors left more distinct and significant impacts on the Sicilian cuisine.

IV.2 Italian and Spanish sayings in relation with food
            Italian expressions and proverbs related to food
            Cacio sui maccheroni: translated, cheese on maccoroni, indicates a person who is most apt at a certain situation
            Bueno come il pane: translated, like bread, indicates a person who is amiable
            Rendere pan per foccaccia: translated, give bread instead of foccaccia, indicates revenge on a person
            Aggiungere troppa carne sul fuoco: translated, put too much meat on fire, indicates a situation where too many things happen too much
            Mangiare il porro dalla coda: translated, eating , indicates a situation where people start the unimportant things first
            Spanish expressions and proverbs related to food
            Quien se pica ajos come: everyone gets upset for a reason
            Contigo pan y cebolla: good times and bad times
            Ser harina de ostro costal: to be of a different kind or colour
            No solo de pan vive el hombre: man does not live on bread alone
            A falta de pan buenas son tortas: Half a loaf is better than none
            Hacendado en olivos, un ano en terciopelo y cinco en cueros vivos: Life in the country depends on the harvest, sometimes it's good, sometimes bad.
            Entre col y col, lechuga.: It is good to vary things so as not to get bored

IV.3 Definition of various cooking methods in Spain and Italy
            (in order of reference)
            A beccafico: cut the head and intestines of a fish and cook it in the oven with bread crumbs and cheese


            A scapece: Fry fish and eat it with oil, garlic and bread crumbs sprinkled over. Cool it down before eating it
            Escabece: same as A scapece
            Arracanto: there are varieties of Arracanto such as the anchovies Arracanto or the mussel Arracanto. Add olive oil, tomatoes, white wine, garlic and parsley into a pot with the anchovies or mussels and heat it
            Cebiche: fish that is "cooked" by the chemical action of lime juice in which it is soaked, and is then mixed with other ingredients and served, usually as an appetizer
            All¡¯uccelletto: cut garlic and rosemary into pieces and fry
            Alla cacciatora: cook rosemary, garlic and pepper with oil and wine
            Alla tartara: cook with peas and tomato sauce
            Anadir azafrancillo ditaxis heterantha: add plants with bulbs, a type of cooking method extensively used in the making of spices such as saffron
            Grigliato: grilled
            A la parilla: charcoal grilled, for example, Cordero a la parilla is barbequed or charcoal-Grilled Rabbit
            A la marinera: cooked with white wine, onions and sometimes tomatoes.
            Alla vaccinara: white wine, tomato sauce, celery, pieces of pork, onions and carrots are cooked together and boiled for short time.
            In civet: boil with red wine for a sufficient amount of time with onions added for flavor
            hervir cebollitas de cambray: boil with green onions for a certain amount of time with garlic and olive oil
            Gratinato: sprinkle cheese on top of the food and cook it in the oven, recommended to add cream for a flavour
            Queso asadero: add stringy cheese with the texture of low fat mozzarella that is made from part fresh milk and part milk that has been allowed to ripen over night

V. Conclusion
            Throughout this paper, a historical interpretation of the culinary similarities and differences that can be seen within the cuisine of Italy and Spain has been elaborated. Firstly, a brief analysis of the culinary similarities and differences perceivable on the Italian and Spanish table has been given. The matter of how historical circumstances and the consequent adoptions that were undertaken touched upon these culinary aspects has been elaborated within the next chapter. Throughout this historical analysis, the significance of the Roman and Mediterranean influence can be perceived along with the subsequent external and internal historical situations that led to different culinary adoptions and developments within both countries. Within this context, a regional comparison between Sicily and Andalusia that reflects the introduced differences stemming from historical circumstances has been given. Thus, a genuine comparison between the culinary history of Italy and Spain has been accomplished by not merely introducing a cursory glance on the external culinary aspects but going further into the historical and social values that led to the development of those distinctive characteristics. Throughout this line of study, an exploration of history and culture through food has yielded not only the fulfillment of the paper¡¯s purpose of interpreting the historical value of culinary differences that can be perceived but also a revaluation of the meaning of food. It is a meaningful finding for the present writer that a deeper meaning of food does not simply lie in making one's tongues enjoy, but to realize the fact that almost all food has its own historical, cultural, economical, political and social backgrounds. Hence, it can be said that food is culture, society and most of all, history.


Notes
           
(1)      See IV-ii. Italian and Spanish sayings in relation with food
(2)      Paragon 2009 p.98
(3)      Article: Italian Key Ingredients from SBS Food
(4)      For further information see III-ii-2. Moorish Influence on the Spanish and Italian cuisine
(5)      Article: Italian Key Ingredients from SBS Food
(6)      For the explanation of the cooking methods described below, see IV-iii. Definition of various cooking methods in Spain and Italy
(7)      Conte 2011 p.23
(8)      Gamsey and Saller 1987 p.68
(9)      Roman Cuisine in Spain from Iberianature
(10)      Article: Ostrogoths from Wikipedia
(11)      Article: History of Italy from Wikipedia
(12)      Article: History of Spain from Wikipedia
(13)      Article: Spanish Saffron from About Spanish Food
(14)      For further information see IV-i. Sicily and Andalusia
(15)      Periman 2007 p.13
(16)      Periman 2007 p.45
(17)      Article: History of the Fork from Life Stories from History
(18)      Italian Cuisine from USA TODAY
(19)      Sicilian Food and Cooking, History and Development from KitchenLife


Bibliography The following websites were visited in June 2011

1.      Article: Ostrogoths from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrogoths
2.      Article: History of Italy from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Italy
3.      Article: History of Spain from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Spain
4.      Italian Cuisine from USATODAY http://www.usatoday.com/life/books/reviews/2011-03-22-marianirev22_ST_N.htm
5.      Roman Cuisine in Spain from Iberianature http://www.iberianature.com/spainblog/a-guide-to-food-in-spain-r/roman-cuisine-in-spain/
6.      Spanish Key Ingredients from SBS Food http://www.sbs.com.au/food/cuisine/Key_Ingredients/21/13
7.      Sicilian Food and Cooking, History and Development from KitchenLife, http://www.inmamaskitchen.com/FOOD_IS_ART/sicilian_food_cooking.html
8.      Tim Jepson, Traveler: Italy, National Geographic, 2007
9.      Peter Garnsey, Richard Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture, University of California Press, 1987
10.      Paragon Incorporation,40 Traditional Spanish Recipes, Paragon Publishers, 2009
11.      Ana Conte, Classical Italian Recipes, Hamyln Classic Recipes, 2011
12.      Periman, Spanish Food and Wine Dictionary, Saltshaker Publishers, 2007




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