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Management of Nuclear Power in History

The Influence of social factors on nuclear power management in selected countries

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Joo Won
Term Paper, AP World History Class, October 2012

presented in the form of a poster presentation at the First IHPST Asian Regional Conference, Seoul, 2012

            Since it became apparent that the resources of fossil fuel rapidly near depletion, nuclear power has become a crucial source of energy. Its efficiency and capacity attracted many energy superpowers of Europe and America. This paper comparatively analyzes nuclear power management of several important nuclear powers in Western Europe and East Asia, as well as of the U.S.A. and Russia. It aims to study social factors such as public awareness, energy reliance, ethics, and government policies that contributed to the respective nation's nuclear power management.
            In countries such as Germany, UK, and U.S. where public awareness is acute, the citizens' response to the nuclear accidents is immediate, influencing the government policies of radioactive facilities. Even if the public awareness is high, however, the lack of freedom of the media prevents public awareness to refrain the Russian nuclear industry from continuing present operations and planning new ones. Emerging powers of nuclear technology in East Asia, South Korea and Japan, used to be very pro-nuclear until recent Fukushima incident and expanded the power plants in short period of time. Nevertheless, the transparency of nuclear management has been compromised by immoral executives.

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
I.1 Facts about Nuclear Management
I.2 Definition : Nuclear Accident
II. Nuclear Power Management in Western Europe
II.1 Germany
II.1.1 Nuclear Power in Germany
II.1.2 Anti-Nuclear Movement and Phase-out
II.1.3 Mismanagement
II.1.4 Analysis
II.2 France
II.2.1 Nuclear Power in France
II.2.2 Mismanagement
II.2.3 Analysis
II.3 United Kingdom
II.3.1 Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom
II.3.2 Decommissioning
II.3.3 Mismanagement
II.3.4 Analysis
III. Nuclear Power Management in Russia and the United States
III.1 Russia
III.1.1 Nuclear Power in Russia
III.1.2 Mismanagement
III.1.3 Public Opinion
III.1.4 Analysis
III.2 United States
III.2.1 Nuclear Power in the United States
III.2.2 Mismanagement
III.2.3 Anti-Nuclear Movement and Government Policy
III.2.4 Analysis
IV. Nuclear Power Management in East Asia
IV.1 Japan
IV.1.1 Nuclear Power in Japan
IV.1.2 Mismanagement
IV.1.3 Analysis
IV.2 South Korea
IV.2.1 Nuclear Power in South Korea
IV.2.2 Public Awareness
IV.2.3 Mismanagement
IV.2.4 Analysis
V. Conclusion : Social Factors Involved in Nuclear Management

I. Introduction
            As the supply of fossil fuel energy is rapidly depleting, nuclear power is an energy source of increasing importance. (1) While the search for alternative energy became imperative, efficient and emission-free nuclear power has grabbed the world's attention; however it turned out that nuclear power entails severe safety and environmental concerns that distinguish it from those traditional energy sources. Although the nuclear industry began not even a century ago, there have been many notable accidents and issues in the industry, including malfunction of reactors, accidental fuel leakage, and the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste. As the consensus calls on the impact of nuclear byproduct to human health and the environment be minimized, management of radioactive industry is crucial.
            This paper comparatively analyzes examples of national nuclear management in history, from the mid 20th century to current days, mainly focusing on major accidents related to the disposal of radioactive leftovers: it discusses the cases of nuclear accidents in various areas - Western Europe, the U.S.A., Russia, and East Asia - and examines the social factors that influenced/continue to influence nuclear power management.

I.1 Facts about Nuclear Management
            The nuclear power is derived from nuclear power plants, supported by several nuclear reactors that generate electricity. One of the noticeable features of nuclear energy is that it can produce a vast amount of energy from little input of raw materials. It also produces a relatively smaller amount of waste compared to fossil fuel; yet, the radioactive product that results from nuclear fission is very hazardous to human health and environment, so the management and disposal of nuclear product is crucial.
            There are various methods to treat different types of radioactive waste with different half-lives. (2) The failure to control the byproducts of nuclear industry can lead to disastrous accidents, of which the paper will further analyze their causes. Thus, the nuclear power plants must safely manage the nuclear products for the sake of human safety and environment. However, cases in history suggest social factors on this issue are related to nuclear mismanagement.

I.2 Definition : Nuclear Accident
            This paper will study the relationship between social factors and mismanagement of nuclear energy. Thus, it is important to recognize important nuclear accidents. Accidents vary in their type and degree, so the exact definition for accident might be controversial. For this particular piece of paper, it will mostly limit the nuclear accident to major disasters in history that caused substantial/noticeable human live loss, financial loss, or environmental loss.

II. Nuclear Waste Management in Western Europe

II.1 Germany

II.1.1 Nuclear Power in Germany
            Germany is one of the earliest nations to begin nuclear research. Especially during the Second World War, Germany actively developed nuclear technology for military purpose. During 1939-1945, Germany proceeded on a program called 'German Nuclear Energy Program', which involved several renowned scientists, to build atomic weapons. (4) After the war, Germany continued the development of nuclear power for the sake of energy source - until the 1970s, the West German government promoted the use of nuclear energy. (5) However, the problems roused from nuclear disasters in other parts of the world stirred public awareness and led to growing support for the anti-nuclear movement, which exerts great influence affecting the current German nuclear industry and government policies. The public's growing opposition to the nuclear power and the inclination toward a nuclear-free state among the political parties reached their peak after the catastrophic Fukushima incident.
            Until 2011, quarter of electricity production depended on nuclear power in Germany with its seventeen reactors. (6) Despite the fact that nuclear energy supports a large portion of German electricity production, the strength of criticism is severe. Anti-nuclear movement has continued since 1970s (7), and energy policies in Germany stress the usage of renewable energy rather than encouraging nuclear power. (8) The most recent and important protest after Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 contributed Germany to decide nuclear power shutdown - by 2022, it would close all the nuclear reactors. (9)

II.1.2 Anti-Nuclear Movement and Phase-out
            Voice against nuclear power has been particularly conspicuous in Germany. German citizens gathered to demonstrate against nuclear power plant construction; specifically, the protest against construction of new plant in Wyhl was the first big-scale demonstration. The movement was also agitated by serious nuclear disasters from other countries: Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl catastrophe (1986), and Fukushima incident (2011). (10) In 2011, soon after the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Germany became one of the phasing-out countries - that is, it announced discontinuation of nuclear power usage within certain period of time. (11)

II.1.3 Mismanagement
            There have been small and big nuclear accidents, and identifying each and every one of them is impossible. However, it is easily studied that Germany is responsible only for relatively small portion of world nuclear accidents, considering that Germany is one of the top ten countries of nuclear power capacity and operating nuclear reactors. (12) The following is the table of German nuclear accidents and their costs from Wikipedia. (13).

Country Date Location Fatalities Costs (in millions 2006 USD)
East Germany 07 Dec 1975 Greifswald 0
East Germany 24 Nov 1989 Greifswald 0 443
West Germany 4 May 1986 Hamm-Uentrop 0 267
West Germany 17 Dec 1987 Biblis 0 13

            Compared to other nuclear-active nations such as United States, France, or Japan (the top three nations of nuclear capacity), Germany has fewer accidents involving nuclear mismanagement: United States experienced terrible nuclear disasters such as Three mile Island: France, as a country most dependent on nuclear power for energy production, is also responsible for many nuclear accidents: Japan is the country that suffered the worst nuclear disasters, the one in Fukushima, 2011. (14)

II.1.4 Analysis
            As the early appearance of an anti-nuclear movement in Germany suggests, disagreements toward nuclear power have been quite significant. In general, Germany aims for lesser usage of nuclear energy and development of more sustainable and safer energy from sun, wind, etc. The opinions about the continual usage of nuclear power have been polarized - despite the fact that the nuclear energy is an important part of German energy production, a large group of people strongly holds against it. (15)
            Such public awareness about the nuclear industry seems to have contributed to the relatively low number of radioactive accidents. The frequent demonstration against nuclear development, which climaxed during the 70s, established social atmosphere that emphasizes safety and sustainability. As a result, the public awareness contributed to the prevention of nuclear accidents that stem from careless mismanagement.

II.2 France

II.2.1 Nuclear Power in France
            France is a country that developed nuclear technology since long, especially after 1974 when oil shock drove French government to expand nuclear industry rapidly. France has one of the world¡¯s largest nuclear industries. The reason for heavy investment in nuclear industry is due to the lack of natural mineral resources, such as coal, fossil fuel, or natural gases. (16) France is the world's most nuclear-dependent country ? almost 80 % of electricity production is produced by nuclear reactors. (17) France's reliance on nuclear energy led the country to build many nuclear reactors ? there are 58 reactors nationwide, according to International Atomic Energy Agency (July 2011). (18) This is the second largest number in the world following the United States.
            The nuclear industry is the biggest part of the nation¡¯s energy, and one of the biggest benefits it brought was significantly less amount of CO2 emission, compared to other neighboring nations such as Germany. Also, nuclear power let France to be the leading electricity exporter in world. Despite such economic and environmental advantages, dispute exists against the industry because of possible safety concerns and radioactive accidents reported from time to time.
            Public opinion opposed to nuclear power is noticeable. Despite the fact that the energy production is heavily influenced by nuclear power, the citizens are aware of safety and environmental hazards. The French government, in response, enforces safety policies regarding nuclear power since the mid 2000s. (19)

II.2.2 Mismanagement
            With a number of nuclear reactors actively operating, France had inevitably faced accidents and mismanagement regarding radioactive materials and waste for decades. The following table from Wikipedia shows the major nuclear accidents in France (20) :

Date Description Cost (in million 2006 USD)
17 Oct 1969 50 kg of uranium dioxide melted inside of the A1 nuclear reactor of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux, during a refueling operation unknown
25 Jul 1979 Radioactive fluids escape into drains designed for ordinary waste, seeping into the local watershed at the Saclay BL3 Reactor 5
13 Mar 1980 A malfunctioning cooling system fuses fuel elements together at the Saint Laurent A2 reactor, ruining the fuel assembly and forcing an extended shutdown 22
14 Apr 1984 Electrical cables fail at the command center of the Bugey Nuclear Power Plant and force a complete shutdown of one reactor 2
22 May 1986 A reprocessing plant at Le Hague malfunctions and exposes workers to unsafe levels of radiation and forces five to be hospitalized 5
12 Apr 1987 Tricastin fast breeder reactor leaks coolant, sodium and uranium hexachloride, injuring seven workers and contaminating water supplies 50
27 Dec 1999 An unexpectedly strong storm floods the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant, forcing an emergency shutdown after injection pumps and containment safety systems fail from water damage 55
21 Jan 2002 Control systems and safety valves fail after improper installation of condensers, forcing a two-month shutdown. (Manche, France) 102
16 May 2004 Sub-standard electrical cables at the Cattenom-2 nuclear reactor cause a fire in an electricity funnel, damaging safety systems 12
13 Jul 2008 Dozens of liters of wastewater contaminated with uranium are accidentally poured on the ground and runoff into a nearby river. (Tricastin, France) 7
9 Aug 2009 Assembly system fails to properly eject spent fuel rods from the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, causing the fuel rods to jam and the defueling operation to be suspended 2

            Since the 60s, France went through accidents of various degree and forms. Most of the accidents are caused by malfunction in the nuclear reactor ? Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (1969), Saint Laurent A2 reactor (1980), Bugey Nuclear Power Plant (1984), Le Hague (1986), Manche (2002), Cattenom-2 nuclear reactor (2004), Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant (2009) ? while some other accidents involve radioactive leakage ? Saclay BL3 Reactor (1979), Tricastin fast breeder (1987), Tricastin (2008). Among the three most nuclear-active countries (Germany, France, and United Kingdom), France has a substantially larger number of radioactive accidents.
            another perspective, however, France has relatively less number of accidents in the sense that it has the second most nuclear reactors in the world. Among three largest producer of nuclear capacity ? U.S (28 %), France (18 %), Japan (12 %) (20) ? the severity of nuclear mismanagement is significantly less than that of the other two countries. During the half century, United States had about 8600 million U.S dollars loss from all nuclear accidents, whereas the statistics were a lot less for Germany (about 260 million dollars, but this estimate is not accurate) (22) This is the degree lot less than Japan as well. (Partly because of the recent Fukushima catastrophe that left tremendous loss)

II.2.3 Analysis
            France is the core of the nuclear industry in Europe and the most nuclear-reliant nation. The lack of natural resources makes France vulnerable, and it inevitably has to depend on the power followed by hazardous risks. As a result, France had to bear most number of major accidents in Europe.
            Anti-nuclear movement does exist in France; in fact, there have been continuous protest against the use of nuclear power, and the trend is growing since the major nuclear catastrophes such as Chernobyl or Fukushima disasters. It seems like a contradiction that a country of most dependency on nuclear energy has as much opposition against it as Germany does. (See Appendix 1) Nevertheless, France is to continue the exploitation of nuclear power in order to support the energy demand. This dilemma ? the awareness for accidents of the public and imperative need for energy production ? resulted in continuous development in nuclear technology yet enforcement of safety policy regarding nuclear management.

II.3 The United Kingdom

II.3.1 Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom
            United Kingdom is another leading nuclear power in Europe with its long history of nuclear energy development. In fact, the British engineers began to develop the technology as early as the 40s. (23) As one of the oldest nation with nuclear history, United Kingdom actively invested in the technology. As a result, it became the world's first to own commercial nuclear power reactor in 1956. (24) Also, United Kingdom possesses nuclear weapon, and is one of the five nuclear-weapon states that are under the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, which aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and ultimate disarmament. (25)
            Due to the long period of nuclear development and diverse technology invested, including nuclear weapons, United Kingdom has to deal with different levels of radioactive waste. The potential danger from radioactive waste drew caution from the public?the general opinion from the citizens is that renewable energy is more desirable than nuclear energy. (26)

II.3.2 Decommissioning
            Nuclear decommissioning is closure of a nuclear power plant and clearing up radioactive contamination that threats the public. Decommissioning is financially and technically burdensome ? yet, it is an important process for the sake of public security.
            In the United Kingdom, there is an agency called 'Nuclear Decommissioning Authority'. It is founded after United Kingdom's Energy Act 2004 to clean up nuclear plants in a safe and efficient way. The agency works to clean the power plants including the major old buildings, such as Magnox power plants and facilities at Windscale (after the accident renamed Sellafield) where radioactive waste is temporarily stored.

II.3.3 Mismanagement
            Being one of the earliest nations to develop nuclear technology and owning weapons of mass destruction, United Kingdom have experienced many radioactive accidents. However, the major accidents are actually less in number compared to other top nuclear countries. In Wikipedia, only three cases are listed : 1957 accident in Windscale, the world's first nuclear accident in history; 1967 in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, the degree of which was relatively small; 2005 in Windscale, a leakage incident that resulted in substantial cost. (26a)
            Despite the fewer number of major accidents than that of other countries, it is important to notice the frequent accidents in nuclear plants, especially involving the nuclear weapon development. Appendix 2-a) includes seven accidents that occurred since 1966 presented by Secretary of State by Defense On 2011; Appendix 2-b) includes about twenty incidents presented by Sir Ronald Oxburgh (then Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defense) in 1992. (27)

II.3.4 Analysis
            The last European nation of advanced nuclear industry discussed in this paper, United Kingdom manages its nuclear energy that resulted in significantly less number of major accidents. Along its long history of nuclear power, United Kingdom has been wary of safety issues since the deadly accident of Windscale in 1957 ? the government portion a great deal of budget in decommissioning, and new policies of nuclear safety is discussed.
            Unlike France, United Kingdom is not forced to rely on nuclear ? in fact, it has the most energy sources in the European Nation. (28) This let United Kingdom to keep the balance between energy production and public security. Not only nuclear power, the United Kingdom has more options of energy such as fossil fuel and renewable sources. On the other aspect, unlike Germany, United Kingdom is nevertheless still getting the use from nuclear power. Although the recent Fukushima incident held back the process, it plans to build twelve more nuclear reactors and increase the use. (29)
            United Kingdom is a country of good example of controlling the safety concerns and exploiting the energy in fair balance. As a result, United Kingdom didn't suffer severe radioactive disasters (except one in the Windscale), prevent potential nuclear hazards through decommissioning, and continue generating electricity from it.

III. Nuclear Power Management in Russia and the United States

III.1 Russia

III.1.1 Nuclear Power in Russia
            During the cold war in the 1950s, the Soviet Union invested heavily in nuclear technology as response to American nuclear projects (Manhattan Project). This earned the country an advanced nuclear technology. Now in 2012, Russia ranks at the 3rd place for the number of operating nuclear reactors and at 4th place for nuclear power capacity according to a source from International Atomic Energy Agency. (Appendix 3) (30) Because much of the Russia's rich resources are discovered in unpopulated area, nuclear power is an important power source that supports the demand for energy. (31)
            The Russia remains to continue its development for nuclear power plants, now producing 5.4 % of global nuclear production (32); despite the general trend to minimize the nuclear power dependency in the global society, Russia plans to build more reactors and increase nuclear capacity. (33)

III.1.2 Mismanagement
            Nuclear accident history of Soviet Union includes several severe accidents including the notorious Chernobyl incident in 1986. However, it seems that there are as many unreported nuclear accidents as there are reported ones; some known nuclear disasters include Mayak incident (1957) and Soviet Submarine K 431 Accident (1985).
            The Russian Government is clandestine about its management in nuclear industry. Mayak is one of the examples - its foundation in total secrecy during the 40s, it has practiced number of unnoticed experiments and gone through several accidents. (34) According to Greenpeace, Mayak was omitted from every map by Russia until recently. (35) There are other many uncovered radioactive dumps in illegal sites, and each year more places are spotted for radiation. (36) Hundreds of sites around Moscow are discovered contaminated, and Russia recently reported 25000 undersea nuclear waste dumpsites. (37)

III.1.3 Public Opinion
            Since the Chernobyl disaster, anti-nuclear movement has been active in Russia along the global trend. Some demonstrations have been successful : During the 80s and 90s when the protests were most active, the activists influenced the nuclear power plant construction, preventing several reactors from being built. (38)
            The voice against the nuclear power in Russia is strong, as reflected from a survey held in 2007 by the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland : 69 % of Russians agrees on eliminating all nuclear weapons, 59 % on removing all nuclear weapons from high alert, and 53 percent on cutting the Russian and U.S. nuclear arsenals to 400 nuclear weapons each. (39)

III.1.4 Analysis
            Despite the fact that the citizens feel uneasy with nuclear power, the Russian government enforces pro-nuclear policies, planning to build more reactors than other countries do. Even after the Fukushima disaster, while most of the other countries considered the construction of additional reactors, some even deciding a phase out, Russia merely announced that it would check the current facilities and stick to its original plan to build more plants. Also, the nuclear policies are influenced little by the demonstrations; for example, Russian national media ignored one of the biggest protest against nuclear energy in Murom, 2009, a situation rare in other countries. (40)
            The exclusive management in nuclear industry accounts for the political and social characteristic that Russia has - Russia is a country where media are censored and freedom of speech is repressed. It ranked 142th of 178 in the Press Freedom Index by Reporters without borders. (41) In a society where truth is not always told to the citizens, Russia clandestinely manages its nuclear industry, frequently hiding nuclear accidents and dumping the radioactive disposals.

III.2 The United States

III.2.1 Nuclear Power in the United States
            United States' nuclear history starts with the World War 2, and its nuclear technology played a big role in it. Its impact on nuclear industry has been huge, and America is currently the world's largest nuclear generating nation that owns 104 nuclear reactors, which is almost the double of nuclear reactors in France, the nation to own second most nuclear reactors. (42)
            Nuclear-active US has been responsible for many accidents, degree ranging from small malfunction in reactors to deadly Three Mile Island incident in 1979, which cost 2,400 million dollars (in 2006 US dollars). (43) In the 80s and 90s, especially after Three Mile Island accident, anti-nuclear movement became very active in US.
            US government has funded heavily for the industry, especially from the 90s, and the Obama administration continues the long-term nuclear energy production. The government is aware of safety and storage issues and fosters effective safety policies for the nuclear power plants - following Fukushima disaster, the executives put safety as primary concern. (44)

III.2.2 Mismanagement
            The old nuclear history in the United States covers many maltreated waste disposals and nuclear accidents. During the war, US held Manhattan project that developed nuclear technology for the sake of atomic bomb production. In the Cold War, it competed against another nuclear power, USSR, to establish more advanced nuclear technology and position in the industry. During the decades, it had to face many accidents. A complete statistics on America's nuclear accidents is not available, but according to Wikipedia there have been about forty nuclear-related accidents of noticeable costs in five decades. (45) This number is bigger than that of any other country (although the reporting of nuclear accidents is not guaranteed complete for all countries).

III.2.3 Mismanagement
            Protest against nuclear power is one of the top countries in the world. There are more than 80 anti-nuclear groups that includes diverse group of people, including scientists (Physicians for Social Responsibility, for example). (46) Other well-known figures like Al Gore, the former vice president, stress the possible dangers of nuclear power to aware the public. From time to time, a bunch of people would gather to protest against nuclear plant construction or nuclear war loads, and such nuclear activism had prevented or delayed the construction of several nuclear power plants, for example Calvert Cliff plant, or pressured the government to enforce safety rules.
            The United States are recognized for maintaining efficient industrial safety records of accidents. (47) The government involves in the industry to work together on construction or designs of new nuclear power plants. It enforces various safety and environmental regulations regarding the disposal of harmful radioactive waste.
            According to the World Association of Nuclear Operators, the United States has improved in its management in nuclear accidents for years. Nuclear industry in US achieved excellent level of safety performances that protects workers from radiation in unexpected reactor shutdowns. (48)

III.2.4 Analysis
            The world's biggest nuclear-powered country, the United States, had to deal with nuclear-related issues - construction of power plants, safety accidents, leakage, radioactive waste disposal, and so on. Although it is true that the US is responsible for many nuclear accidents including the most deadly Three Mile Island disaster, the current management in American nuclear industry should be appreciated.
            Together with France and Japan, the US produce about half of the world's nuclear energy. (49) A country with over hundred reactors and most capacity of nuclear power, it is not surprising to expect nuclear disasters in United States. Yet, due to acute public awareness towards the issue and safety regulations set by the nuclear administration, US is able to maintain effective management in the industry today.

IV. Nuclear Power Management in East Asia

IV.1 Japan

IV.1.1 Nuclear Power in Japan
            Nuclear energy is closely related to Japan since the atomic bomb was launched in Nagasaki and Hiroshima during the Second World War. Like France, Japan was desperate to develop nuclear technology because it didn¡¯t have many natural resources. After the war in 1950s, Japan began to fund for nuclear energy production and continued its investment until it became one of the most powerful nuclear industry in the world, producing over half of the nuclear energy in the world with France and United States.
            Unlike other countries, the public opinion was not affected as much by the most disastrous nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents. (50) It did not halt to develop its nuclear technology and constructed more nuclear plants, ending up with 55 nuclear reactors that ranked 3rd place after United States (104 reactors) and France (58 reactors) until the catastrophic Fukushima accident in 2011. This incident had set fire on the anti-nuclear movement in Japan, gathering several large-scale protests - the long undamaged public's trust on nuclear power was finally questioned. Currently, only one of the reactors is operating to support electricity demand. (50a)

IV.1.2 Mismanagement
            Japan has experienced the worst nuclear disasters in history, including the bombings during the war and accidents of nuclear power plants. Japan, a country highly dependent on nuclear power as much as 30 %, had gone through various degrees of nuclear accidents.
            One of the features of Japan is its geological characteristic - for long, Japan had suffered from earthquakes, volcanic activities, and tsunamis. Such natural phenomena made Japan particularly vulnerable to unexpected accidents in facilities. During years, some Japanese and organizations were aware of the potential danger that seismic activity poses on nuclear industry. In fact, few cases of Japanese nuclear accidents were due to these factors : Kashiwazaki in 2007, Fukushima in 2011.
            The recent incident in Fukushima in 2011 is by far the biggest event that happened in the whole nuclear history. Fukushima accident brought the global community the attention to nuclear power plant security and checkups for facilities. After the incident, the way officials manages the situation has been criticized: they were denying facts about the damage derived from the nuclear disasters and reporting that the reactors are 'stable'. (51)

IV.1.3 Analysis
            While we can easily associate Japan with nuclear power, Japan was not the most favorable case in nuclear management. Now suffering the third radioactive disaster, Japan should examine the policies and management regarding the nuclear power. Mismanagement in Japanese nuclear industry seems to be affected by few important factors: public awareness, seismic action, dependency on energy source and reaction from the government.
            Before the Fukushima incident, the public awareness regarding nuclear power was not alert: according to appendix 1, over 80 % of Japanese agreed on continuing the use of nuclear energy in 2005. These citizens were quite unmoved by the accidents of other countries until the real damage was put in their own country. Earthquakes and tsunamis had also played their roles in the malfunction in the reactors, and the dependency on the power prevented Japan to slow down its development. What's more, the lack of responsibility that government officials show fails transparent management in the nuclear industry after accidents. (52)

IV.2 South Korea

IV.2.1 Nuclear Power in South Korea
            South Korea is an important rising nuclear power in current days. Despite the small size of the country itself, it owns fourth most nuclear reactors in the world and fifth most capacity of nuclear power. One third of the nation's electricity demand is fulfilled by nuclear power, so the nuclear energy plays a big role in Korea's energy production. Because Korea lacks other sources of energy like fossil fuel energy, it has to depend heavily on the nuclear energy.
            The history of nuclear industry in Korea has not been so long; only after 1962 did South Korea had the small research unit facility for nuclear power. (52a) Now, there are four active power plants in Korea : Uljin, Wolseong, Kori (also spelled 'Gori'), Yeongwang. The Korean government is expecting to increase the number substantially by 2030. The technology adapted in the power plants is one of the most advanced in the world - the South Korean nuclear power plants' operating rates are higher than that of other nuclear superpowers like the United States and France.

IV.2.2 Public Awareness
            The public awareness on the subject in Korea is very interesting. South Korea is the country where the public is most open minded to nuclear power : 52 % believe that nuclear is safe and agrees on building more plants, 34 % believe nuclear power is beneficial yet disagrees on building more plants, and 12 % believe the nuclear power to be dangerous. (Appendix 1) South Koreans are the most pro-nuclear public in the world.
            The protests against nuclear power are not very active in South Korea, compared to other nuclear developed countries in Western. The anti-nuclear movement in South Korea has become more active since the Fukushima incident in 2011. Being the neighboring country closest to Fukushima's effect, efforts have been made by groups of protesters who became aware of the potential dangers that nuclear power involves. (54) In October 2011, with support from international organizations such as IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), KONEPA (Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency) held a seminar to raise public concerns on nuclear hazards and the possible outcomes. (55)

IV.2.3 Mismanagement
            Korean nuclear history is relatively shorter than other nuclear superpowers, and the nuclear industry was not active in the early years. However, since 2000 the first commercial scale reactor was built in Kori and since then Korea began to expand its nuclear capacity. Now, the Korean nuclear technology is at an exceptional level, and highly standardized design and operating process account for the lowest rate of emergency shutdowns in the world. (56)
            Nevertheless, there are many reported and unreported nuclear accidents in the short history of Korean nuclear energy. According to Korean Institute of Nuclear safety, there have been about 650 reports on nuclear accidents. (57) This number, however, is not complete because there have been many cases that the government did not report nuclear mismanagement instantly : The cool water leak in Wolseong wasn't reported until 4 year later in 1988; The 1995 Wolseong radioactive leakage was reported an year after; 3 kilograms of radioactive product was released in Daejeon research center in 2007, but the news was broadcasted three months after the real event (and the released product is still not found). (58) Most recently in 2012, news reported that the executives had covered up a blackout in Kori power plant in the facility. To avoid the responsibility of an accident, five of the workers decided to hide the accident and did not report the malfunction. (59)

IV.2.4 Analysis
            South Korea, the emerging country of nuclear power, is starting its way through expansion. Thus, nuclear safety should be in more consideration to prevent awful consequences that neighboring Japan had gone through. In reality, the Korean public is less aware of the nuclear dangers than citizens of other nuclear-developed countries, and the transparency in nuclear management seems to be questioned due to the recent reports. Despite the country's state-of-the-art nuclear technology, the international society is keeping an eye to the country for the possible mismanagements and encourages to mature awareness and ethical management in the subject.

V. Conclusion: social factors involved in nuclear management
            Through examples of European nations, Russia, US, and Asian countries, this paper examined the social factors that influenced nuclear management. Among the factors, the most noticeable ones were public awareness, reliance on nuclear power, freedom of press, government policies, and ethics of nuclear power executives. In Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States where public awareness is acute, the response against the nuclear news is immediate and influences the government policies of radioactive facilities. However, even if the public awareness is high, the repression of media in Russia made the country's nuclear management exclusive. The two Asian countries discussed are emerging powers of nuclear technology, which used to be very pro-nuclear until the recent Fukushima incident. They both expanded the power plants in great scale in short period of time. Nevertheless, Japanese official's evasive attitude after Fukushima incident and Korean executives' concealment of their responsibilities arise doubts on transparent management in nuclear industry from the public.

Appendix 1. Table: Public Opinion on Nuclear power (60)

Appendix 2.

Appendix 2.a Accidents that occurred in UK since 1966 presented by Secretary of State by Defense (2011) (61)
Date Location Results of any enquiry and subsequent action
April 1973 Near the Royal Naval Armament Depot (RNAD) Coulport. No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. The weapons were not damaged.
February 1974 Off Malta. Investigation of the incident concluded that the torpedo handling equipment was incorrectly rigged and modifications were made to the equipment as a result.
1974 At sea No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. But see below on the similar occurrence at serial 5. There was no damage to missiles or warheads.
August 1977 RNAD Coulport After and enquiry, improvements in relevant documentation, test procedures, inspection and working practices were implemented. There was no damage to missiles or warheads
1981 At sea An enquiry determined that the incident was due to procedural error. A modification to the design of the missile tube pressurisation was made to prevent a recurrence of the problem. There was no damage to missiles or warheads
August 1983 M8 near Glasgow No blame was apportioned to the load carrier driver. No information is now available on any other action that may have been taken in response to this occurrence. There was no damage to warheads.
January 1987 Wiltshire A Board of Inquiry found that all relevant orders, instructions and operating procedures were compiled with and all personnel concerned showed adequate care. No person was held blameworthy.

Appendix 2.b Nuclear incidents in UK presented by Sir Ronald Oxburgh (1992) (62)
Date Location Results of any enquiry and subsequent action
1960 Lincolnshire No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
1963 RAF base, Lincolnshire No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
1963 Lincolnshire/South Yorkshire No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
March 1974 Cyprus Modification was necessary to the pre-use check procedure of the monitor.
November 1974 Base in Germany No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
1982 at sea In the light of these occurrences, CINCFLEET made a number of recommendations regarding weapon transfers.
May 1984 Base in Germany As a result of this occurrence, the toolbox was removed from all WE177 weapon containers.
June 1985 Near Glasgow No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
Dec. 1987 Royal Navy Armament Depot Coulport After an enquiry, substantial changes in management responsibilities, training, command and control and consultation with the Royal Navy were implemented. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
Aug. 1988 off Hong Kong No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
Sept. 1988 Somerset No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.
Dec. 1991 M 25 in Hertfordshire No specific record is now available of any enquiry or follow-up action. There was no damage to any nuclear weapon.

Appendix 3 : Chart: Number of nuclear reactors by country (63)

(1)      Article : Fossil Fuel, Wikipedia
(2)      Article : Radioactive Waste - Management of Waste, Wikipedia; Waste management, World Nuclear Association
(4)      Article : German Nuclear Energy Project, Wikipedia
(5)      Nuclear power in Germany : a Chronology, Deutsche Welle
(6)      Nuclear Power in Germany, World Nuclear Association
(7)      Article : Anti-nuclear movement in Germany, Wikipedia
(8)      Article : Energy in Germany, Wikipedia
(9)      Article : Germany, in Reversal, Will Close Nuclear Plants by 2022, NYT 2011-05-30.
(10)      Nuclear power in Germany: a chronology, Deutsche Welle
(11)      Article : Nuclear power Phase-out, Wikipedia
(12)      Article : Nuclear power by country, Wikipedia
(13)      Table : Nuclear power accidents in Germany, Wikipedia
(14)      Article : List of nuclear power accidents by country, Wikipedia
(15)      Nuclear Energy in Germany : Status and Perspectives, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake
(16)      Land and Resources, Natural Resources, Countries Quest
(17)      Article : Nuclear Power in France, Wikipedia
(18)      Article : Nuclear Power by Country, Wikipedia
(19)      Nuclear Power in France, World Nuclear Association
(20)      Table : Nuclear power accidents in France, Wikipedia
(21)      Article : Nuclear Energy Policy, Wikipedia
(22)      Article : List of nuclear power accidents by country, Wikipedia
(23)      Nuclear Development in the United Kingdom, World Nuclear association
(24)      ibid.
(25)      Article : United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction, Wikipedia
Article : Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Wikipedia
(26)      Article : Nuclear Power in United Kingdom, Wikipedia
(27)      Accidents : UK Nuclear Weapon Safety, Nuke Watch
(27a)      Article : List of Nuclear Power Accidents by Country, Wikipedia
(28)      Natural Resources, Energy Resources, Countries Quest
(29)      Article : Energy in the United Kingdom, Wikipedia
(30)      Article : Nuclear Power by Country, Wikipedia
(31)      Land and Resources, Natural Resources, Countries Quest
(32)      Article : Energy policy of Russia, Wikipedia
(33)      ibid.
(34)      Article : Mayak, Wikipedia
(35)      Russia, Greenpeace
(36)      Moscow's Secret Nuclear Waste Nightmare, Andrei Ivanov
(37)      Article : Russia reports 25000 undersea radioactive waste sites, Novosti 2011-12-26
(38)      Article : Anti-nuclear movement in Russia, Wikipedia
(39)      Article : Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues, Wikipedia
(40)      Anti-nuclear rally in Russian city of Murom on September 1, 2009, Anti atom
(41)      Article : Freedom of the Press in the Russian Federation, Wikipedia
(42)      Nuclear Power in the USA, World Nuclear Association
(43)      Article : List of Nuclear Power Accidents by Country, Wikipedia
(44)      Article : Nuclear safety in the United States, Wikipedia
(45)      Article : List of Nuclear Power Accidents by Country, Wikipedia
(46)      Article : Anti-nuclear movement in the United States, Wikipedia
(47)      Article : Nuclear Power in the United States, Wikipedia
(48)      Nuclear Industry's Safety, Operating Performance Remained Top-Notch in '08, WANO Indicators Show, Nuclear Energy Institute
(49)      Article : Nuclear Power, Wikipedia
(50)      Article : Nuclear Power in Japan, Wikipedia
(50a)      ibid.
(51)      Article : Japan, 2012-6-8, The New York Times,
(52)      Article : Japanese Officials ignored or concealed dangers, The New York Times
(53)      Nuclear Power in South Korea, World Nuclear Association
(54)      Article : Anti-nuclear movement in South Korea, Wikipedia
(55)      Korea reconfirms strong support for nuclear power, Junotane
(56)      Article : Nuclear Power in South Korea, Wikipedia
(57)      Statistics : Yearly nuclear accidents, Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety
(58)      Nuclear power, no more !, Naver blog
(59)      Kori-1 blackout concealed ... safety issues arisen, News Chunji
(60)      GlobeScan, Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA, IAEA, October 2005
(61)      Nuke watch
(62)      ibid.
(63)      based on IAEA, and List of nuclear reactors by country, Wikipedia

Bibliography The following websites were visited in November 2011

1.      Nuclear Waste and Nuclear Ethics: Social and ethical aspects of the retrievable storage of nuclear waste, Herman Damveld and Robert Jan van den Berg, January 2000,
2.      Ethics of Nuclear Energy Technology, Glen Kurokawa, Darryl Macer, Jothi Rajan and Suman Rao, 2009-8-18,
3.      Managing nuclear safety and waste : the role of the EU, House of Lords, 2006, European Union Committee
4.      Nuclear Power Plant Life Management and Longer-term Operation, OECD, 2006, Nuclear Energy Agency
5.      Nuclear Waste Management in Canada, Genevieve Fuji Johnson and Darrin Durant, 2009, UBC Press
6.      Nuclear Energy in Germany : Status and Perspectives, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake, Wolfgang Fischer, Jürgen Kupitz and Diana Schumann, 2010-6-16, Institute of Energy Research,
7.      The Accidental Century - Prominent Energy Accidents in the Last 100 Years, Benjamin K Sovacool, 2009, Touch Briefings,
8.      Nuclear Power in France - Beyond the Myth, Mycle Schneider, December 2008, Greens-EFA,
9.      Nuclear Power in the Soviet Union, B.A. Semenov, IAEA Publication,
10.      Nuclear Waste Management in the United States, John E. Cantlon, June 1996,
11.      Key World Energy Statistics , 2007, International Energy Agency,

Wikipedia Articles
12.      Radioactive waste, Wikipedia,
13.      Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Wikipedia,
14.      Hanford Site, Wikipedia,
15.      Nuclear and radiation accidents, Wikipedia,
16.      Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Wikipedia,
17.      Three Mile Island accident, Wikipedia,
18.      Chernobyl disaster, Wikipedia,
19.      Nuclear Power in South Korea, Wikipedia,
20.      Soviet atomic bomb project, Wikipedia,
21.      Soviet submarine K-19, Wikipedia,
22.      Mayak, Wikipedia,
23.      Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets, Wikipedia,

24.      Energy development, Wikipedia,
25.      Fossil Fuel, Wikipedia,
26.      Nuclear Energy Policy, Wikipedia,
16.      List of Nuclear Power Accidents by Country, Wikipedia,
17.      Nuclear Power in Germany, Wikipedia,
18.      German Nuclear Energy Project, Wikipedia,
19.      Gorleben, Wikipedia,
20.      Energy in Germany, Wikipedia,
21.      Nuclear Power Phase-out, Wikipedia,
22.      Nuclear Power by country, Wikipedia,
23.      Nuclear Power in France, Wikipedia,
24.      France, Wikipedia,
25.      Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom, Wikipedia,
26.      Nuclear Decommissioning, Wikipedia,
27.      United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction, Wikipedia,
28.      Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Wikipedia,
29.      Energy in the United Kingdom, Wikipedia,
30.      Energy policy of Russia, Wikipedia,
31.      Anti-nuclear Movement in Russia, Wikipedia,
32.      Public opinion on Nuclear issues, Wikipedia,
33.      Freedom of the Press in the Russian Federation, Wikipedia,
34.      Nuclear safety in the United States, Wikipedia,
35.      Nuclear Power in the United States, Wikipedia,
36.      Anti-nuclear movement in the United States, Wikipedia,
37.      Nuclear Power in Japan, Wikipedia,
38.      Anti-nuclear movement in South Korea, Wikipedia,
39.      Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Wikipedia,

40.      Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom, 2012-5-31, World Nuclear Association,
41.      Article : Japan - Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Crisis (2011), 2012-3-29, The New York Times,
42.      Article : Japan Nuclear Plant May Be Worse Off Than Thought, Hiroko Tabuchi, 2012-3-29, The New York Times ,
43.      Article : 2011 Japan Nuclear Crisis: Overview, 2012-3-9, The New York Times,
44.      Article : Japanese Officials Ignored or Concealed Dangers, Norimitsu Onishi and Martin Fackler, 2011-5-16, The New York Times,
45.      Article : Germany, in Reversal, Will Close Nuclear Plants by 2022, Judy Dempsey, 2011-5-30, The New York Times,
46.      Article : Fukushima : As bad as Chernobyl ?, Richard Black, 2011-4-12, BBC News,
47.      Article : Nuclear waste poses Arctic threat, Jorn Madslien, 2006-10-19, BBC News,
48.      Article : Problems plague cleanup at Hanford nuclear waste site, Peter Eisler, 2012-1-18, USA Today,
49.      Radioactive Waste Management: An Environmental History Lesson for Engineers (and Others), M. Joshua Silverman, 2003-07-22, Department of History, Carnegie Mellon University,
50.      10 worst nuclear accidents/disasters in history, Smashing Lists,
51.      Half Life : The Lethal Legacy of America's Nuclear waste, Michael E. Long, National Geographic,
52.      Reactor Spent Fuel Radioactive Waste, Australian Nuclear Forum, 2005-8-12,
53.      An Overview of Hanford and Radiation Health Effects , Hanford Health Information Network, 2004-7-16, Washington State Department of Health,
54.      An Ethic of Nuclear Guardianship?Values to Guide Decision-Making on the Management of Radioactive Materials, Nuclear Guardianship Project,
55.      What Dangers Lurk in WWII-Era Nuclear Dumps ?, Eliza Strickland, 2009-10-26, Discover Magazine,
56.      Is Nuclear Waste From Nazi Era stocked in an abandoned German Salt Mine ?, Sven Felix Kellerhoff, 2011-7-13, WorldCrunch (in partnership with Die Welt),
57.      Nazi nuclear waste from Hitler's secret A-bomb programme found in mine, Allan Hall, 2011-7-13, Mail Online,
58.      Ethics of Nuclear Power, Nuclear News,
59.      South Korea urged to close Gori nuclear reactor, and to 'leapfrog' to safe renewable energy, Christina MacPherson, 2011-6-20, Nuclear News,
61.      Nuclear Power in South Korea, March 2012, World Nuclear Association,
62.      Article : Korea halts operation of Gori-1 reactor for inspection, 2012-3-13, The Korea Times,
63.      Kazakhstan, IAEA,
64.      Russia, 2006-6-27, Greenpeace International,
65.      Article : Russia reports 25,000 undersea radioactive waste sites, 2011-12-26, RIA Novosti news,
66.      Moscow's Secret Nuclear Waste Nightmare, Andrei Ivanov, 1996-5-27, Albion Monitor,
67.      Waste Management, May 2012, World Nuclear Association,
68.      Risks of Nuclear Power, Bernard L. Cohen, University of Pittsburgh,
69.      Dangers of Nuclear Energy, Edwin Thomas,
70.      Nuclear Power in Germany: a Chronology, 2009-10-9, Deutsche Welle,,,2306337,00.html
71.      Nuclear Power in Germany, April 2012, World Nuclear Association,
72.      The German Uranium Project, July 2000, Hans. A. Bethe, Physics Today,
73.      Nuclear power plant accidents: listed and ranked since 1952, Simon Rogers, 2011-12-7, The Guardian,
74.      The Database on Nuclear Power Reactors, 2012-6-5, IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency),
75.      Calendar of Nuclear Accidents, Greenpeace,
76.      Land and Resources, Natural Resources, Countries Quest,
77.      Nuclear Power in France, May 2012, World Nuclear Association,
78.      Timeline: Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom, Jessica Aldred and Katy Stoddard, 2008-5-27, The Guardian,
79.      Nuclear development in the United Kingdom, March 2012, World Nuclear Association,
80.      Natural Resources, Energy Resources, Countries Quest,
81.      Accidents: UK Nuclear Power Safety, Nuke Watch UK,
82.      Anti-nuclear rally in Russian city of Morum on September 1, 2009, Anti atom,
83.      Nuclear Power in the USA, 2012-6-6, World Nuclear Association,
84.      Nuclear Industry's Safety, Operating Performance Remained Top-Notch in '08, WANO Indicators Show, Market Wire, 2009-5-27, Nuclear Energy Institute,
85.      Nuclear Power in Japan, World Nuclear Association, June 2012,
86.      Korea reconfirms strong support for nuclear power, 2011-10-23, Junotane,
87.      Article : Abu Dhabi power plant will have higher safety standards, Chris Santon, 2010-1-25, The National,
88.      Article : Why is the U.A.E. nuclear plant deal so important ? , Lee Ho Jeong, 2010-1-9, Korea JoongAng Daily,
89.      Statistics: Yearly nuclear accidents, Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety, 2012,
90.      Nuclear power, no more !, 2012-3-4, Naver blog,
91.      Article : Kori-1 blackout concealed¡¦safety issues arisen, Baek Ha na, 2012-5-31, News Chunji,

Movie 92.      Ende der Unschuld, Frank Beyer, Germany, 1991, Norbert Schneider,Lilo Pleimes Production

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