The Assimilation Policy of Imperial Japan

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

First Draft , Oct. 29 2013

First Draft . . Go to SJY's Log

(1) First, I am impressed by the depth and quality of this incomplete draft, and I really want you to complete this paper.
(2) Please understand, converting your draft into an html-file has a few consequences :
(2a) As the html-file has no pagination, you need to convert the footnotes of your paper draft into endnotes. For this first draft I simply skip them.
(2b) Korean and Chinese character strings will appear garbled on most monitors of viewers trying to read their paper. Write them into paintbrush, as gif files; if I upload them as images, readers in Patagonia or on Mars can read see them as Korean respectively Chinese character strings.
(2c) Also extra large Roman numerals, apostrophes, m-dashes, quotation marks may be garbled during the conversion to html.
(3) Definitions : add notes in which you refer to the specific Wikipedia articles.
(4) "Hosaka Yuugi¡¯s Assimilation Policy of Japanese Imperialism and Colonialism and Language by Junsik Son"
Use Italics consistently, also for the title by Son Junsik. Also add the years of publication, in brackets.
(5) Oriental names please in the order : family name first, personal name second. If I would write Tse Tung Mao, that would be weird.
(6) "whereas this research includes Taiwan and Korea, few of the accessible studies included Ryukyu kingdom."
Here you for the first time list the three Japanese colonies you compare. It would be better if you would give the year of acquisition or the duration of colonial rule, in brackets.
(7) ¡°Colonialism is a dominant-subordinate relationship between groups in which the fundamental decision on the lives of the subordinate is set by a minority of colonizers who are culturally heterogeneous and have no will to adapt. Such colonizers decide based on outside interests and carry through the decision. Furthermore, modern colonialism in general is associated with missionary ideological justification based on colonizers¡¯ conviction on their cultural superiority.¡±
Direct quotes in Italics. If you want to have the book titles you refer to stand out in a different way - underline.
(8) "Manchu, Mongol, and Central Asia."
Manchuria, Mongolia.
In regard to Japanese ambitions on Central Asia, provide evidence. Be careful, the so-called Tanaka Memorial was a Chinese forgery.
(9) "In mid-19th century Japan, the transitional period from Tokugawa Shogunate to Meiji Era, there was a strong desire to invade Joseon . Due to the social turmoil in which social hierarchy was reconstructed, the former Samurais, the respected semi-aristocratic class, fell to disgrace. A strong centralist government was established, which forcibly mobilized people to work in factories. To mitigate the hostility towards the new government and instill loyalty, the Japanese government looked to Chosun, the nearest country, to let the anger outpour and attest to outcome of industrialization. In the renewed sense of superiority, the Japanese government looked for pretexts to invade Chosun."
Joseon, Chosun. You are confusing your readers. Use Joseon; in other cases : use the spelling the Wikipedia article uses.
(10) "One point they made was Korean Delegation, Joseon Tongshinsa in Korean. In 1404, after forming a relationship between Tae-jong and Shogun , " for Tae-jong, give ruling dates in brackets in the text. Your juxtaposition may cause your reader to draw the following conclusion : Shogun is a title of an office holder; Tae-jong must be a similar Korean title.
(11) "In 1404, after forming a relationship between Tae-jong and Shogun , Joseon sent the Korean Delegation, and Japan sent Japanese Kings Envoy in return. The communication meant that the two countries interchange upon faith. From the first delegation in 1492, it usually requested prohibition of Japanese raiders,"
replace raiders by pirates.
If the first delegations were exchanged in 1492, how did the two countries establish a relation in 1404 ?
One matter you do not discuss here : Confucian diplomacy, there were no two equals, the elder brother principle.
(12) "When Toyotomi Hideyoshi, shogun and commander-in-chief, died from an illness," give date
(13) "Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Edo Shogunate. " dates from to of Edo Shogunate in brackets.
(14) "After several decades, some Japanese government officials and intellects claimed that they" intellectuals
(15) "Yoshida Showin was one of such intellects. " Life dates in brackets. Expect your reader not to know any of the historical Korean, Japanese, Taiweanese and Ryukyuan persons.
(16) your note 12 "Written by Chinese scholar Chen Shou (233-297) who lived in the Three Kingdoms period and early Western Jin Dynasty. "
There is a Three Kingdom Period in Chinese history and one in Korean history. So clarify which one you refer to.
(17) "According to the Japanese government, there is another evidence of that theory: the GwangetowangBi." Life dates in brackets.
(18) "In 1879, the General Staff sent spies to China, one of whom returned with the epitaph." with a copy of the text of the epitaph.
Perhaps you want to replace epitaph by inscription.
(19) "After Shilla united Goguryeo and Baekje and the Three Kingdoms Period ended in 668, the Korean Peninsula remained largely unified. The upper boundary line altered from time to time, " you skip a short period of partition. and : the northern border.
So the border at sea does not merit discussion ? Tsushima once was Korean, Jejudo once was independent.
(20) "This vague sense of unity developed into a substance in the process of modernization. After opening the port, first to America in 1871, missionaries were allowed to come to Korea if their objective is either medicine or education."
No. Only in 1876 did Korea open up to Japan; the U.S. treaty came after that - double check the date.
(21) "Missionary schools were established, most notably Baejae Hakdang and Iwha Hakdang." give year and location (or present name)
(22) "With important events such as 1876 force open-door, agrarian revolt, " give date for agrarian revolt; is there a Wikipedia article; how does it call the event ?
(23) "Donghak, the new native religion mentioned above, was founded in this chaos of ideologies as a way to protect our own. " year
(24) "Korea Subject State Theory (mid 19th century~1910)"
As a chapter title in your paper it implies this to be a Japanese policy. But the Japanese only took control of Korea in 1905.
Basically the chapter describes the situation in Korea prior to the Japanese takeover. Title and content do not match.
(25) "¥°. 1. 3. Response" sorry, not much of a response.
And 1905 as a turning point does not really appear in this chapter.
(26) "China (Xing), " Qing
(27) "A political upheaval (1884), an army rebellion (1882) and a peasants movement (1894) happened and failed, entangled with interests of foreign powers."
Chronological order, please.
(28) "To soothe the social chaos and drive the foreign powers out of Joseon, Gojong, the king of Joseon, established the Korean Empire in 1897 ."
better : he proclaimed Korea now to be an Empire. Otherwise your reader may think he conquered some countries.
(29) "Overall, Joseon failed to handle the newly established order of East Asia when China lost to Japan, and this left Joseon even more vulnerable to the pressure of Japan." not handle, adjust to. Give date of China's defeat by Japan.
(30) "Fukujawa Yukichi, most renowned scholar of Imperial Japan, culturally divided countries into three cateigories: "
life dates in brackets
(31) "Fukuda Tokujo was a Japanese researcher and historian who studied Joseon. " life dates in brackets.
(32) "many scholars advocated the Joseon Stagnantism, " stagnation
(33) "The above perception of stagnancy of Joseon society was a view that many Joseon researchers had. "
'Joseon researchers' can be read two ways : scholars from Joseon, or scholars who study Joseon
(34) "According to Imperial Japan, if Joseon society is indeed stagnant, it should be rescued and given the grace of enlightenment so that it can be progressive again. " present tense inappropriate. According to Imperial Japan ? was it a view adopted by the Japanese government, or the view prevailing among Japanese Joseon scholars ?
(35) "Japan called for public peace and welfare of the people. " when ?
(36) "over, because Korean Empire (country Gojong established in 1897) had always been the cause of trouble. " first, always does not make sense as it had been so very young. Second : I believe you refer to a point in time between 1905 and 1910, when Korea no longer was an Empire. You mostly refer to Joseon (kingdom), not to Taehan (empire).
(37) "The March First Independence Movement" be so nice to tell yourt reader that this movement formed in Korea in 1919.
(38) "So Terauchi Masatake, then the third Resident-General of Joseon" then - when ?
(39) "He renewed the Kyungsung orphanage in 1911" = Seoul (brackets)
(40) "In 1904, Song Byeongjun, a Japanese army translator " tell your reader he was a Korean exile
(41) "social Darwinism " capitalized
(42) "Pan-Asianists viewed the world situation as a competition between the White race and the Yellow race. " 'White Race'; use apostrophes for sensitive terms.
(43) "South America, and especially Ching, many Joseon people " Qing
(44) "When the Imperial Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, " 1904-1905
(45) "But that traditional order of rank was smashed into pieces when crushingly defeated by England in the Opium Wars. "
Not really. Korea only stressed independence from China in 1897. The turning point when China lost its central position was the Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895.
(46) "According to Mark Peattie, Japanese assimilation policy was based on the belief that" add note
(47) only one system of notes, not a combination of foot- and endnotes
(48) "Pan-Asianism was a different form of racism that, by calling different races as one, forced different people to unitarily assimilate into Japanese culture. " is force the right term for this historical stage ?
(49) "The Treaty of Portsmouth and the Katsura-Taft Agreement " two dates please
(50) "Carried away in triumph, the Japanese army massacred more than 300,000 people of Nanjing. " are you trying to find an excuse for that massacre ? An emotional overreaction ?
(51) "As Japan was carrying a self-devouring war, " rephrase, confusing
(52) "For example, in the ancient Shilla, there was a premier name Hogong, " years
(53) "By this time, the relationship between Koreans and Japanese was the worst. " evidence ? There were Korean collaborators. How many Koreans were patriots ?
(54) "They demanded shrine worship, " Shinto shrine worship
(55) "and distorted history. " and learn/read ? distorted history
(56) references : "The Korean Daily News" add if in English or Korean, add first and last year of publication