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Russian/Soviet Central Asia in Political Transition, 1800-1945
a Collage of Biographies of Persons

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Hye Jin
Term Paper, AP World History Class, December 2012

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
I.1 Defining Central Asia
I.2 Overview of Central Asian History from 1880 to 1945
I.3 Goal of Study
I.4 Method of Study
II. Central Asia during the Expansion of Tsarist Russia (1800-1917)
II.1 Kenesary Kasymov (1802-1847)
II.2 Konstantin von Kaufman (1818-1882)
II.3 Khudayar Khan (r. 1845-1858 & 1865-1875)
II.4 Chapter Analysis
III. Central Asia under early Soviet Russian rule (1917-1924)
III.1 Abdurauf Fitrat (1884-1938)
III.2 Alikhan Bokeikhanov (1866-1937)
III.3 Zeki Velidi Togan (1890-1970)
III.4 Chapter Analysis
IV. Central Asia under Stalin (1924-1945)
IV.1 Zayzulla Khodzhayev (1896-1938)
IV.2 an unidentified interviewee
IV.3 Chapter Analysis
V. Conclusion
V.1 Trend of political transition in Central Asia
V.2 Other transitions

I. Introduction

I.1 Defining Central Asia
            In 19th century, James Hutton gave a geographical definition of Central Asia as following : "bounded on the west by the Caspian; on the south-west by the Persian Province of Khorassan; on the south by Afghanistan, Kashmeer, and Little Tibet; on the east by the Chinese Empire; on the north by the rivier Irtish; and on the north-west by the Ural river ...." (1)
            Nonetheless, there still lacks a universally accepted definition of Central Asia. In terms of the composition of modern nation states, most of modern definitions of Central Asia include the five republics of the former Soviet Union: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Some definitions also include: Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet and Siberia.
            For the purpose of this paper, Central Asia in this paper is defined as the area covering Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

I.2 Overview of central Asian History from 1800 to 1945
            At the dawn of the 19th century, Central Asia was divided among several Khanates, mainly including the Kazakh Hordes and the Khanates of Bukhara, Khiva, Kokand, Kazakh, etc., all which had been under foreign threats since the last century : Central China stretched its domain into the heart of Central Asia and forced the Khanate of Kokand to pay tribute to Peking, and Persia under the superb military leadership of Nadir Shah invaded and dominated Transoxiana. However, none of these invasions had had a more threatening and powerful impact in this area than that of the Russians.
            The Russians set foot in Central Asia as early as 1715 when Peter the Great sent the first Russian military expedition to the Kazakh Steppe. However, the real effort to conquer the region started in the early 19th century. Russia abolished the Khanate of the Kazakh Middle and Lesser Horde in 1822 and 1824, respectively. In reaction to this, the Kazakhs of the Middle Horde, led by Kenesary Kasimov, rose in a war resisting Russian advance.
            In 1865, the Russians fully captured Tashkent, an event which was quickly followed by the conquests of Khodjend, Djizak and Samarkand. Two years later, the Governor-Generalship of Russian Turkestan was established under Konstantin von Kaufman. Russian expansion was halted in 1887 when the British and the Russians disputed upon the border between Afghanistan and Russian Turkestan. In 1909, the Young Bukharans was founded in Bukhara in 1909 and the Alash Orda party among the Kazakhs in 1912. During the First World War, Central Asian Revolt of 1916 broke out in protest over conscription into labor unites of the Russian army.
            In 1917, the "February" Revolution broke out in Russia, resulting in the establishment of the Tashkent Committee of the Provisional Government and the Tashkent Soviet of Worker's and Peasant's Deputies. On the other hand, a provisional government of Jadid reformers met in Kokand and declared Turkestan's autonomy. However, this new government was quickly crushed by the force of the Tashkent Soviet, and the semi-autonomous states of Bukhara and Khiva were also invaded. The main independence forces were rapidly crushed, though guerrillas known as Basmachi continued to fight the Communist until 1924.
            The death of Lenin in 1924 was followed by rise of Joseph Stalin to full power in the Soviet Union. Under his reign, the National Delimitation of Soviet Central Asia resulted in the abolition of the Turkestan ASSR, the Bukharan SSR, and the Khorezmian SSR and the establishment of the Turkmen SSR, the Uzbek SSR, the Kazakh SSR, the Kirghiz SSR and the Tajik ASSR. Moreover, Stalinist Soviet launched an anti-Islamic campaign and forced collectivization of Soviet Central Asians. In the process, Stalin purged numbers of Muslim Communist leaders and at least a million persons died, mostly in the Kazakh SSR.

I.3 Goal of the Study
            Central Asia went through significant political transitions under Russian domination in 1800-1945 over the course of several stages. At the beginning of the era, Central Asia began to be influenced by the expanding Russian power. At the end of the era, Central Asia was completely under Russian control which ruled with strict Stalinist regime.
            This paper aims to analyze different perspectives, movements and reactions of each party and group involved in the clashes between Central Asian nations and Russia and also to examine the characteristics and trends of political situations in different phases of development in history. The paper as a whole should provide an integrated overview of Central Asian history between 1800 and 1945.

I.4 Method of Study
            This paper is largely composed of biographies of important persons of the pertaining region and period. Most of the persons are influential figures active in politics and military of the time. Their views and stances are different from each other and are the representatives of the main movements or events in each stage of the era. Each biography section includes an explanation for and/or evaluation of each person's political outlook, along with explanation of its impacts on the relationship between Central Asia and Russia. Not only that, biographies of common men are also included to reveal the impact of major political trend on the public of different ethnicity and nationality as well as the public opinion and/or reaction to such political trend. A collage of biographies in each phase is followed by an analysis of their importance of and interrelation with history of Central Asia.

II. Central Asia during the Expansion of Tsarist Russia (1800-1917)

II.1 Kenesary Kasymov (1802-1847)
            Kenesary Kasymov was born in 1802 in Kokchetav as grandson of Ablai Khan of the Middle Horde in Kazakhstan. His family had been in constant fighting against the Russians since his early ages. When his brother, Sarzhan, was killed in action near Tashkent in 1836, Kenesary became the leader of the campaign to resist both Russia and Kokand from conquering the Kazak steppe. In the struggle against the Russians, he rallied the Middle Horde, repeatedly outwitting and outfighting the Russians in daring raids on settlements and fortifications. (2) In 1844, after seven years of sustained fights, the Russian government offered Kenesary an amnesty in exchange for the Khan's formal submission to the Tsar. Kenesary accepted, but he departed and continued his fight while assisting the Kyrgyz in their own struggle for independence from Kokand. In 1847, he died on the battlefield. Three local rebellions occurred after his death which proved to be the end of Kazakh resistance.
            Kenesary Kasymov's resistance and rebellion have often been depicted as a national-liberation movement, the last 'great' revolt by Kazaks against Russian colonization until the wide-spread unrest of 1916, and a symbol of Kazakh's national unity. However, on the other hand, some scholars assert that this movement is merely the desire of its leader to re-assert the traditional authority of khan that was denied him by Russian authorities, which is supported by the noted Kazak poet, Abai Kunanbaev's shrewd criticism : "Where lies the cause of the estrangement amongst the Kazaks, of their hostility and ill will towards one another ? ... The source of these vices is our people's preoccupation with one thing alone - to own as much livestock as possible and thus gain honor and respect. ... If there was unity amongst our people, they would never condone a thief who, making adroit use of the support of one group or another, continue his brazen robbery." (3)

II.2 Konstantin von Kaufman (1818-1882)
            Konstantin von Kaufman was born in a family of Austrian origin but in service of tsars for over a hundred years. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1838. In 1861, he became director-general of engineers at the War Office and in 1867, the Governor-General of Turkestan, a post which he held until his death. When he was appointed Governor-General, the Russian conquest of Central Asia was at its peak and was further carried out by Kaufman. For example, in 1868, he successfully conquered the Emirate of Bukhara and Samarkand and gradually subjugated the whole country. He attacked Khanate of Khiva in 1873 and Khanate of Kokand in 1875. The Khanate in the Ferghana Valley was also annexed. Under his term, the independence of the rest of Central Asia became merely nominal and Russia virtually gained full control of Central Asia.
            Kaufman's success in conquering and dominating Russian Central Asia was contributed by his excellent personal quality as both an officer and a military engineer. During his administration as Governor-General, he enjoyed a tremendous degree of autonomy. Initially he was allowed to carry out negotiations with neighboring states on his own account, to establish and oversee the expenditure of the budge, set taxes and establish the privileges of Russian subjects in the General-Gubernatorstvo. He also had the power to confirm and revoke death sentences passed in the Russian military courts. (4) His power and popularity were so great that he was often referred by the locals as Yarim Padishah, or "half-emperor." (5)

II.3 Khudayar Khan (r. 1845-1858 & 1865-1875)
            Khudayar ascended to the throne of Khokand by help of Musulman Kul, the chief of the Kaplcak. In 1852, he overthrew Musulman Kul and sentenced him to death. After Khudayar was in full power, he kept on the dismal policies of his predecessors, oppressing the people and totally disregarding their needs. During his reign, a special region ruled by a Governor-General was established in the northern provinces of the Khanate. Khudayar Khan entrusted its management to Mirza Akhmad whose ruthless rule stirred the nomads¡¯ indignation. In 1858, the entire northern part of the khanate was filled with rebels, which temporarily halted Khudayar's reign. In 1865, the Russians captured Tashkent, while the Khan of Bukhara marched on Kokand, occupying Khudjand and Kokand and forced Khudayar of Kokand to acknowledge the suzerainty of Bukhara. In 1866, as part of the operations against both Kokand and Bukhara, General Romanovski advanced up the Syr Darya, thereby driving a wedge between the two khanates. After the fall of Khudjand, Khudayar came to terms and agreed to become a Russian vassal and to pay an indemnity to the Russians. (6)
            Khudayar was a typical khan who willingly cooperated with the invading Russian force and ruthlessly suppressed his own people. One observer commented about his tyrannical rule, "He unleashed a ten-year robbery of his own people, replete with all kinds of plundering and murder." (7) Between 1866 and 1871, he secretly had 3000 persons executed because of the power struggle within khanate. (8) A tsarist-era historian, M.A. Terentev put it, "new taxes were imposed on all newly planted trees except fruit trees, ... These levies, along with earlier taxes on metals and pack animals, were an inexhaustible source of wealth for the greedy khan." (9)

II.4 Chapter Analysis
            The Russian expansion in Central Asia started out slowly in the early 19th century, but was accelerated after 1870s and 1880s after the capture of Tashkent. While Russia expanded with the leadership of von Kaufman. Von Kaufman was the representative of a ruthless and powerful Russia expansionist in Central Asia. There was also resistance against such rulers, in fact even before von Kaufman rose into power. Kenesary Kasymov is an example. Though his motive for a national liberation movement became a subject of doubts, the movement is considered either as a national liberation movement, or as re-asserting of the traditional authority of khan that was denied him by Russian authorities. People of both attitudes existed in history and there were even those cooperated with Russian and resisted their own peoples, exemplified by Khudayar Khan.

III. Central Asia under early Soviet Russian rule (1917-1924)

III.1 Abdurauf Fitrat (1884-1938)
            Abdurau Fitrat was born in Bukhara in 1884 and studied in Istanbul. He became a writer, journalist, politician and scholars in Russian Central Asia. In 1910 to 1920, he was active as a leading theorist of the Jadid movement. In many of his early literary works, he examined the reasons for the spiritual and temporal decay of the Muslim world in Central Asia and proposed methods to reform the status quo. Later, he became the minister of economics and minister of education in the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, which enabled him to carry out some of his reformist ideas into reality. However, after the Bolsheviks gained supremacy in Bukhara, Fitrat was removed from his post and soon the short-lived Bukharan republic was integrated into the Soviet Union as a part of the Uzbek SSR. When the power was shifted from nationalist to communist and the nation's status changed from independent to a satellite state, Fitrat also shifted his attention from politics to the academia. In his later years, he produced fruitful academic work. However, after several years he unfortunately became a victim of the national-wide Stalinist purges of the late 1930s, paying for his nonconformist views. (10)
            The Jadid movement led by Fitrat was a movement by Muslim modernist reformers claiming that Muslims in the Russian Empire had entered a period of decay which could only be saved by new kind of knowledge and new system of education. (11)

III.2 Alikhan Bokeikhanov (1866-1937)
            Bokeikhanov was born in 1866. His studied in a Russian-Kazakh school and later at the Imperial Forestry Institute in Saint Petersburg. During his youth, he is believed to have been influenced by socialists. (12) In 1896, he joined the Shcherbina Expedition, researching about every aspect of Russian-controlled Central Asia from the environment and resources to the culture and traditions of its inhabitants. In 1905, he joined the Constitutional Democratic party, thereby starting his political life. He was elected to the First Duma as a member of that party in 1906 and signed the Vyborg Manifesto to protest the dissolution of the Duma by the Russian tsar, which resulted in his exile. Later, he was deeply involved with the Alash Orda - a political movement which sought to create an autonomous Kazakhstan. After the October revolution, he was elected in 1917 as president of the Alash Order government. The same year he was a member of the Turkestan Committee and commissar of the Provisional Government in Torghai Oblast. In 1920, he joined the Bolshevik party and returned to scientific research. However, he was arrested several times for his earlier political activities.
            Bokeikhanov is renowned as a Kazakh writer, political activist and environmental scientist, advocating the idea that Kazakhs should learn Russian culture and simultaneously preserve Kazakh customs and law. (13) After the February Revolution, Bokeikhanov, along with several other Kazakh intellectuals, convened congresses and demanded a high degree of autonomy within a Russian federal republic. At the Second All-Kazakh Congress, they set up the Alash Orda autonomous government. At first, leaders of the Alash movement tried to closely collaborate with the movements of other nations and regions but they quickly realized it was impossible to cooperate with anti-Bolshevik Russians. So they gradually joined the Soviets and their aim became to establish Kazakh autonomy within the framework of the Soviet regime.

III.3 Zeki Velidi Togan (1890-1970)
            Zeki Velidi Togan was born as a Bashkurt Turk. He became chairman of the Bashkir Congress at Orenburg which declared Bashkortostan's Independence in 1917. From February 1919 to June 1920, he was chairman of Bashkir Revolutionary Committee. He attended the Congress of the Peoples of the East held in Baku in 1920, where he became involved in drawing up the statutes of ERK, a Muslim Socialist organization. However, feeling the Bolshheviks had broken their promise, he became more critical of them when he moved to Central Asia. In Turkistan, he became a leader of the National Liberation Movement, an anti-Soviet Basmachi Movement. From 1920 to 1923 he was chairman of the "National Union of Turkistan". Since 1925, he had worked as a scholar and a professor.
            The Basmachi rebellion that Velidi led was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslims, largely Turkic peoples of Central Asia. The movements were directly stirred by the 1916 violence erupted over conscription of Muslims by the Russian Empire for service in World War I. Right after October Revolution in 1917, the violence was renewed and developed into a major uprising centered in the Ferghana Valley, soon spread across all of Soviet Turkestan. The anti-Soviet and anti-Russian guerrilla and conventional warfare lasted for years in various regions. When it came to the mid 1920s, the military fortunes and popular support of the Basmachi declined as the Sovietization of Central Asia quickened. This was is a national liberation movement which sought to end foreign rule over the Central Asian territories. It was rooted on Islamic fundamentalism and was seen by the Western powers as potential enemies due to the Pan-Turkist and Pan-Islamist ideologies of some of their leaders.

III.4 Chapter Analysis
            When Central Asia completely fell under Russian domination and was deeply affected by Sovietization of Russia, the Tashkent Committee of the Provisional Government and the Tashkent Soviet of Worker's and Peasant's Deputies were established. People in Central Asia reacted in different ways including Jadid movement, Alash movement and armed movement such as Basmachi rebellion. All the above movements promoted the autonomy of Central Asian people but were carried out in different ways. Abdurauf Fitrat was the representative of those who participated in Jadid movement and emphasized the needs of acquisition of new knowledge and new system of education in order to seek Central Asian autonomy and development. Alikhan Bokeikhanov represented people who were in a political movement which sought to create an autonomous Kazakhstan through establishing an autonomic government by themselves. But when their hope was crushed by ruthless Russian suppression and political situations of the time, some turned away and joined the Bolsheviks just as Bokeikhanov did. Zeki Velidi Togan was a representative of those who were in Bashkir revolutionary and liberation movement, a militarily armed rebellion which was completely anti-Soviet and insisted on their way until the movement was totally shattered by the Russian force.

IV. Central Asia under Stalin (1924-1945)

IV.1 Zayzulla Khodzhayev (1896-1938)
            Zayzulla Khodzhayev was born in 1896 in a wealthy Uzbek trader's family. His father sent him to Moscow in 1907 where he realized the tremendous gap between contemporary European society and technology, and the ancient, tradition-bound ways of his homeland. He joined the Pan-Turkist Jadid movement in 1916 and took part in establishing the Young Bukharan Party, which opposed the Bukharan emir and succeeded in overthrowing this regime with the help of the Soviet troops in 1920. He joined the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1920 and was the head of Bukharan People's Soviet Republic until this nation was absorbed into the Uzbek SSR in 1924. He barely escaped assassination by rebels of Basmachi movement. With the reorganization of Central Asia and subsequent purge of suspected Uzbek nationals, he rose to become President of the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. However, he opposed Joseph Stalin's heavy-handed control and was proclaimed "people's enemy" by the Seventh Congress of the Uzbek Communist Party of Bolsheviks. He was dismissed from all party and posts in Uzbekistan and subsequently arrested and tried as a "Trotskyite and a Rightist". He was sentenced to death in 1938.
            One evaluation of Khodzhayev reads as following : "On the one hand, he is seen as a traitor who sold his country and people into Soviet servitude. On the other hand, he is seen as an idealist, who sought modernization and independence for Turkestan, but was caught up in forces beyond his control." (14) However, people in Bukhara still honor the memory of Khodzhayev who had made a significant contribution to his motherland. The splendid house of his family was turned into a museum and was named after Zayzulla Khodzhayev. The museum became an important historical site and attraction which people visited to learn and commemorate Khodzhayev's life. (15)

IV.2 an unidentified interviewee
            The following is an excerpt of interview of someone who lived through the period in which collectivization was implemented :
            "We are Crimean Tatars and our father with all of our family members were born in Crimea. Only I was born in Uzbekistan after we moved here. The reason for us to move to Uzbekistan was that our father was a military person. He committed some kind of mistake in his duty and was discharged from the active military service and directed to work in the Zangiota [area close to Tashkent] in the camp for criminals as officer. In 1936, he moved from Zangiota and in 1953 when the charges of misconduct were cleared from him, he left the service as the camp officer all together. We remained in Uzbekistan and never moved back [to Russia]. My father started working in kolkhoz becoming the tractor driver. After we became old enough one of our sisters went to Leningrad Aviation Institute which at that time was located in Tashkent [due to the fact that it was moved from Leningrad to Tashkent in the years of war] and graduated from it after the war. She then moved to Russia and lived there ever since. The younger sister went to study in Samarkand State University and after graduating from the history department returned to Crimea where she now lives. And I remained in Uzbekistan although now I have my family members in Uzbekistan, Russia and Ukraine. This seems a complicated destiny of our people." (18)
            The interviewee was one of the groups of forcefully deported and displaced ethnic minorities who were, along with the political exiles, considered by Soviet administration to be unreliable and in need to be relocated into the areas where they can both be of no harm to the Soviet interests and of help to economic development. Under the Soviet's force, they moved out of their original residence to the Siberia and the Soviet south, including Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asia states. They often suffered from mortality on the way of transit and the traumatic memories they had to endure in a foreign exiled land, while some of them resettled, though forcefully, and joined their own ethnic groups or others in the exiled land, as this interviewee.

IV.3 Chapter Analysis
            Stalin's reign was a severely oppressing period for people in Central Asia. People with unconformity views were ruthlessly purged by Stalinist government, either trialed to death or relocated. Both Russians and Central Asians were victims. Zayzulla Khodzhayev was an example of Central Asian who was victimized by Stalin when he was in office under the Soviet because of his Pan-Turkish political activism in his earlier years. An unidentified interviewee was not a celebrity like other persons in this paper but rather was a commoner whose family was a victim of Stalin's purges. Important persons like highly positioned government officials, reputable and renowned intellectuals, military powers and commoners like farmers and peasants all could be victims of Stalinist purges. Political rivalry, collectivization, and religious persecution, etc. were concurrent trends that worsened the situation of Central Asia. Sultan Galiyev was a Central Asian who proposed national communism in an attempt to combine Islam, nationalism and communism. However, he ran into severe conflict and arguments with Stalin who had trusted him in earlier years and disagreed with him in integrating communism with Islam and nationalism.

V. Conclusion

V.1 Trend of political transition in Central Asia
            During the Tsarist Russia's expansion from 1800 to 1917, Russia began the expansion at first slowly but gradually its expansion became quicker and deeper. Governor-General played an important role in establishing Russian domination. The Russians expanded their control both horizontally and vertically - horizontally into bigger geographical range and vertically into every aspect of Central Asia including politics, economy, culture and society, though this paper mainly deals with politics. On the other hand, there were attempts of the Central Asian who actively resisted such expansion, while there were some who cooperated with the Russians for their own benefits and maintenance of privileges. During the Soviet Russia's colonization from 1917 to 1924, there was a greater variety in ways of reactions to Russia's colonization such as the Jadid movement and Alash Orda party which were well equipped with specific ideologies and also Basmachi rebellion which was well organized military campaigns. Different groups of people came up with different alternatives and approaches to resist the Russian conquest and preserve Central Asian autonomy. Some stressed the importance of learning new knowledge. Some stressed the need to establish independence government. Some attempted to synthesize Russian communism and Islamic nationalism. Some displayed more cooperative view who sought more self-rule under Russian regime. They were much more developed than the reactions in the previous phase of period. Nonetheless, such reactions could not halt the Russian expansion. The Russians persecuted any and all nationalistic, pan-Turkish, and pan-Islamic movements. They rooted their communist regime in every unit and part in Central Asia. When Stalin rose in power in 1917, political activism in Central Asia was greatly suppressed and many, political activists and commoners alike, fell under the Stalin's purges. The Soviet influence, along with the forced collectivization, completely dominated the region since 1917 and many Central Asian attempts were helplessly crushed.

V.2 Other Transitions
            Central Asia did not only go through political transitions but also many other aspects of transition, such as economical and social transition. For example, introduction of American cotton into Turkestan in 1884 and completion of the Turkestan-Siberian Railroad brought great economical transition in Central Asia. The assimilation of Russian culture into Central Asia¡¯s brought cultural transition. Especially when a great number of Russians immigrated into Central Asia, culture transaction happened. The Russian intervention and persecution in Central Asian religious affairs also directly affected Central Asian people's lives. Though this paper mainly focuses on the political transition, but it is also deeply correlated with other aspects of transition as well.

(1)      Hutton 1875 p.2.
(2)      Fergus 2005 p.428.
(3)      Sabol 2003. The entire passage, including the quotation, is based on Steven Sabol's "Kazak resistance to Russian colonization: interpreting the Kenesary Kasymov revolt, 1837-1847."
(4)      Wikipedia. The entire passage is based on the following source: Wikipedia: Konstantin von Kaufman.
(5)      Ratliff 2010 p.48.
(6)      Gibb 1960 p.30.
(7)      Dubovitskii 2011 p.38.
(8)      ibid.
(9)      ibid.

(10)      Encyclopedia Iranica : fetrat-abd-al-rauf-bokari.
(11)      Wikipedia: Jadid.
(12)      "Alikhan Bokeikhanov, Nurmukhameduli" from Abyroi
(13)      Rottier n.d.
(14)      "Fayzulla Khodzhayev" from
(15)      "Fayzulla Khodjaev Museum" from
(18)      Dadabaev 2009 p.129.


Websites listed below were visited in April to June 2012

General Sources
1.      Encyclopedia Iranica,
2.      Academic Journal: Central Asian Survey
3.      Academic Journal: Caucasus and Central Asia Review
4.      Timeline : Major Events Relevant to Central Asia History P2 (since 1600), from

Wikipedia Articles
5.      Wikipedia Article : Central Asia.
6.      Wikipedia Article : History of Central Asia,
7.      Wikipedia Article : Soviet Central Asia,
8.      Wikipedia Article : Russian Turkestan,
9.      Wikipedia Article : Konstantin von Kaufman,
10.      Wikipedia Article : Khudayar Khan,
11.      Wikipedia Article (German edition) : Abdurauf Fitrat
12.      Wikipedia Article : Alikhan Bokeikhanov,
13.      Wikipedia Article : Zeki Velidi Togan.
14.      Wikipedia Article : Fayzulla Khodzhayev.
15.      Wikipedia Article : Kazakhs.
16.      Wikipedia Article : Turkmen people,
17.      Wikipedia Article : Transoxiana.
18.      Wikipedia Article : Khanate of Khiva.
19.      Wikipedia Article : Khanate of Kokand.
20.      Wikipedia Article (French edition) : Khanat Kazakh,
21.      Wikipedia Article : Khiva,
22.      Wikipedia Article : Bukhara,
23.      Wikipedia Article : Basmachi movement,
24.      Wikipedia Article : Jadid,
25.      Wikipedia Article : National communism,

Overview of Central Asia : Academic Sources
26.      Central Asia vii. In the 18th ? 19th centuries, from Encyclopedia Iranica.
27.      Adle, Chahryar & Irfan Habib. History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume V (16th-mid-19th century). UNESCO. 2003.
28.      Adle, Chahryar. History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume VI (mid-19th century-20th century). UNESCO. 2003.
29.      Soucek, Svat. A Short History of Inner Asia. Cambridge UP: 2000
30.      Allworth, Edward a. Central Asia: 130 Years of Russian Dominance, a Historical Overview. Duke UP: 1994.
31.      Pierce, Richard A. Russian Central Asia. California UP, 1960.
32.      Soucek, Svat. Article "Russian conquest and rule of Central Asia" from A History of Inner Asia. Chap15. P195-206. Cambridge UP: 2000
33.      Roudik, Peter. The History of the Central Asian Republics. Greenwood 2007
34.      Roy, Evelyn. "The Revolution in Central Asia?The Struggle for Power in Holy Bokhara, pt. II" from Labour Monthly, Vol. 6, September 1924, No.9, pp.557-565

35.      Dooley, Kathryn Amelia. Thesis: "Stalinist policies, indigenous agents, and peasant actors: negotiating collectivization in Uzbekistan, 1929-1932.
36.      Brower, Daniel. Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire. Routledge: 2003
37.      Crews, Robert D. For Prophet and Tsar: Islam and Empire in Russia and Central Asia. Harvard UP: 2009.
38.      Bacon, Elizabeth E. Central Asians Under Russian Rule : A Study in Culture Change. Cornell UP: 1967
39.      Rasuly-Paleczek, Gabriele. Central Asia on Display: Proceedings to the VIIth Conference of the European Society for Central Asia Studies. LIT Verlag Munster: 2005.
40.      Geiss, Paul Georg. Pre-Tsarist and Tsarist Central Asia: Communal Commitment and Political Order in Change. Psychology Press: 2003

Primary Sources :
41.      James Hutton. Central Asia: from the Aryan to the Cossack. Tinsley: 1875.
42.      Vambery, Armin. Travels in Central Asia: Being the Account of a Journey from Teheran Across the Turkoman Desert on the Eastern Shore of the Caspian to Khiva, Bokhara, and Samarcand Performed in the Year 1863. J. Murray: 1864.

Sources on Kenesary Kasymov
43.      Wikipedia Article, French edition : Kenesary Khan in Khanat kazakh,
44.      Fergus, Michael. Tsarist Kazakhstan, in Kazakhstan : Coming of Age. p. 427-428. Stacey International, 2005.
45.      Sabol, Steven. Kazak resistance to Russian colonization : interpreting the Kenesary Kaymov revolt, 1837-1847. From Central Asian Survey. 2003.
46.      Sabol, Steven. Identity through History : The Kenesary Kasymov Revolt and the Shaping of Kazak National Identity

Sources on Konstantin von Kaufman
47.      Wikipedia Article : Konstantin von Kaufman,
48.      Ratliff, Walter R., "The Fall of Khiva" from Pilgrims on the Silk Road : A Muslim-Christian Encounter. Chap3. 2010.

Sources on Khudayar Khan
49.      Dubovitskii, Victor. "The Rise and Fall of the Kokand Khanate." Chap. 2 in Ferghana Valley : The Heart of Central Asia. edited by S. Frederick Starr. M. E. Sharpe, 2011.
50.      Khokand, in E.J. Brills First Encyclopedia of Islam, 1913-1936. p.964. Edited by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, M. Th. Ioutsma. Brill, 1993.
51.      Khokand, in Encyclopedie de l'Islam. Vol.10. p.39. edited by Gibb, H.A.R. Brill Archive, 1960.

Sources on Abdurau Fitrat
52.      Wikipedia Article (German edition) : Abdurauf Fitrat
53.      Encyclopedia Iranica: fetrat-abd-al-rauf-bokari, 54.      Lyon, Shawn T. Article: Abdurauf Fitrat's Modern Bukharan Tragedy from International Journal of Central Asian Studies. Vol.5.
55.      Allworth, Edward. Evading Reality : The Devices of 'Abdalrauf Fitrat, Modern Central Asian Reformist: Poety and Prose of 'Abdul Auadir Bedil. Brill: 2002.
56.      Kurzman, Charles. Article: "Abdurrauf Fitrat" from Modernist Islam, 1840-1940 : A Sourcebook. Oxford UP: 2002.

Sources on Alikhan Bokeikhanov
57.      Wikipedia Article : Alikhan Bokeikhanov,
58.      Alikhan Bokeikhanov, Nurmukhameduli, Abyroi.
59.      Rottier, Pete. Kazak Intellectuals' perceptions of Russians in Late Imperial Russia., Miami UP, n.d.,

Sources on Zeki Velidi Togan
60.      Wikipedia Article : Zeki Velidi Togan.
61.      Wikipedia Article : Basmachi movement,
62.      Paksoy, Hasan. Basmachi Movement from Within : Account of Zeki Velidi Togan, Nationalities Papers, vol.23, No.2. 1995.

Sources on Fayzulla Khodzhayev
63.      Wikipedia Article : Fayzulla Khodzhayev.
64.      Archontology, Hodzaev, Fajzulla,
65.      Fayzulla Khodzhayev,
66.      Fayzulla Khodjaev Museum,

Sources on an unidentified interviewee
67.      Dadabaev, Timur. "Trauma and Public Memory in Central Asia: Public responses to political violence of the state policies in Stalinist Era in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan." from Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies.3-1 (July 2009), pp.108-138.
68.      Dooley, Kathryn Amelia. Thesis: "Stalinist policies, indigenous agents, and peasant actors: negotiating collectivization in Uzbekistan, 1929-1932.

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