The Treatment of Dictators in 20th Century History Books : Republic of Korea


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
KHR



Table of Contents


Second Draft, November 12 2013
First Draft, June 30 2013



Second Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
a) Definition
b) Approach of Study
II. Rhee Syngman (1948-1960)
a) Biography
b) Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident (1948)
c) April 19 Revolution (1960)
III. Park Chung-hee (1963-1979)
a) Biography
b) May 16 coup (1961)
c) Five-Year Plans (1962-1979) and New Community Movement (1970)
d) October Yushin (1972)
IV. Chun, Doo-hwan (1979-1988)
a) Biography
b) Coup d'etat of December Twelfth (1979)
c) Gwangju Democratization Movement (1980)
V. Conclusion
VI. Appendix
a) A Timeline of Education Curriculum of Republic of Korea, 1948-2006
b) A Selective Timeline of Republic of Korea, 1945-2010
Notes
VII. Annotated Bibliography


I. Introduction
            After the liberation from Japanese occupation, for few decades, Koreans suffered from the dramatic socio-political chaos due to the series of events: the establishment of divided temporary governments, including a democratic government of Republic of Korea and a socialist state of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Korean War, the partition of Korean peninsula, and an political instability wavered between a democracy and dictatorship in South Korea, or Republic of Korea.

a) Definition
            This paper sets the definition of dictatorship based on that of Britannica Encyclopedia. The Britannica Encyclopedia defines dictatorship as "a form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations." In this sense, dictator is a person who "possesses absolute power without any effective constitutional limitations."
            In addition, considering the geographical and temporal scope, this paper sets the definition of South Korean dictatorship as "a form of government, in which a person possessed an absolute power without any constitutional limitation, of South Korea which was created due to the partition of Korean peninsula." Similarly, the South Korean dictator is "a person who kept long term by using military force and who possessed an absolute power without any effective constitutional limitations in South Korea, after the partition of Korean peninsula."

b) Approach of Study
            This paper mainly aims an analysis of its primary sources, some South Korean high school history texts books that were published from 1970 to 2006. These are Kooksa, or National History, published in 1970, 1977, 1978, 1990, 1996 by MiraeN (1) and another one published in 2006 by Gyohaksa (2) : each editions, due to its change of national educational curriculum, goal of education and national perception of certain events, contains different attitudes in narrating history. Thanks to the Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI), the copies of original textbooks (3) since late 1950s are attainable; yet, textbooks that published in 1954 and 1956 are not used because they do not have comments on their contemporary dictator, Syngman Rhee, or his policies (4). Therefore, this paper is based on textbooks that published in 1970, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1990, 1996, and 2007.
            Since Korean textbooks - especially textbooks of national history - need governmental approval and examination to be published, the influence of political ideologies of contemporary government on their narration of history is either directly or indirectly inevitable. Until 1997, when Daehan Textbooks privatized the Gookjeong Textbook Corporation, or Governmental Administration Textbook Corporation (5), the Ministry of Culture and Education (6) (now Ministry of Education) directed the whole process of publication of every history textbook. Since 2001, although many private publishing companies are now legally permitted to publish history textbooks, their publications first need the approval and examination of Ministry of Education to be published and released.
            High school textbooks, especially, provide detailed narrative of history, compared to those of elementary schools and middle schools. This paper, considering the possible influence of governmental censorship or propaganda on history textbooks, focuses and analyzes the treatments and their changes in attitudes toward dictators based on the tone, diction, omit or exaggeration of information in comments on dictators and their achievement and failures. Commentary on dictators or their policies may be related to the goal of the contemporary government of when the textbooks were published: for example, a dictator would have tried to emphasize his own achievements in order to strengthen his power through public education, an indirect means of indoctrination. Anything impertinent or imperfect to the propaganda, such as drawbacks, would have been omitted. Moreover, due to the changes in perception of specific events, the official names of the events could have changed, differences that might have reflected the national perception or governmental evaluation on certain events.
            Therefore, this paper aims to reveal the relationship between political ideology and history education. The geographical scope is South Korea, in other words, Republic of Korea. The temporal scope is the period of dictatorship in Republic of Korea, from 1948 to 1988, in which three dictators tried to maintain their authority and power by even replacing or pretending to be a head of democratic government. These include Syngman Rhee, who led the 1st republic, Park Chung-hee, who ruled for sixteen years, and Chun Doo-hwan, the leader of the 5th republic, which is the last apparently dictatorial government. The era of an official dictatorship ended in 1988, with the appointment of president Roh Tae-woo through the democratic direct election, although the election was a failure of transition from dictatorship to a real democratic government (7). However, at least, Roh's the 6th republic didn't forcefully continued like its predecessors.

II. Syngman Rhee (1948-1960)
            a) Biography
            Syngman Rhee was born to a poor gentleman's family, yet had a very high-quality education (8). He participated in Korean independence movements, involving himself in the Independence Committee (9), provisional government of Seoul (10), and Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (11) in Shanghai. He worked as a nationalist leader, and was elected as a president in 1948 through the indirect election in the National Assembly.
            His capacity and participation to the independence movement were highly regarded, and earned him the honor of being elected as a president of provisional government in Shanghai in 1919. However, as a politician, Rhee was authoritarian and dogmatic. He tended to seek his own power, forced his own opinion instead of making agreements to his opponents. Rhee tried to settle the chaos in Korea by introducing United State forces, and aimed to become a president even tolerating the establishment of two separate governments, a state of nation which most of the independent activists did not agree. He was extremely anti-Communistic, and irrationally punished the civilians who, by force, helped the Communist army during the Korean War, massacring more than 100,000 innocent people (12). Moreover, to lengthen his reign, Rhee compellingly amended constitution, changed the election system from indirect to direct (13), while directing his followers to instigate public demonstration against the National Assembly, which was against of him. Furthermore, Rhee employed unreasonable tactics, such as arresting the members of the National Assembly in order to interrupt their assembly, deterring other candidates' enrollments for the presidential election, fabricating the election results, executing his opponents (14), and etc.
            Rhee's dictatorship continued until 1960, when April 19 Revolution, the public demonstration that against him and led by students, occurred. Rhee's loyal vice-president committed suicide, and Rhee, abdicated from President, exiled to Hawaii in secret, and spent his life there his death.

b) Jeju 4.3 Incident and the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident (1948)
            Both the Jeju Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident were reactions against the governmental policy of radical anti-Communism.
            According to the "4.3 Special law," which was proclaimed in 2000, Jeju 4.3 Incident was "an incident in which the residents of Jeju island were victimized in the process of an armed conflict and its suppression from March 1st, 1947, in addition to the occurrence of disturbance in April 3rd, 1948, to September 21st, 1954." (15) The March 1st incident broke out when an armed police shoot against the public demonstration that commemorated the March 1st Movement of 1919 (16). The people of Jeju Island already had high dissatisfaction toward Rhee's government and the dominance of United States, and hold the overall strike, also known as the "3. 10 Great Strike." (17) To handle the situation, the U.S. Military government in Korea assigned new political and military leaders, who had no knowledge of political or social situation of Jeju islands. Defining most of the Jeju population as Communists, the armed policemen and the Northwest Young Men's Association (18) worked to arrest the participants of the Great Strike. They captured at least 2500 people, and tortured civilians until the residents falsely confessed their Communist activism.
            Against such physical suppression, the Workers Party of South Korea (19) in Jeju actively engaged itself in armed struggle, requesting the cease of violence to the Jeju residents and the establishment of unified government, instead of the separated, incomplete government based on the South Korean single-handed presidential election. Although there seemed some possibility of peaceful agreements between the Jeju residents and government, eventually, the U.S. army and South Korean government strengthened the armed repression in order to progress the presidential election in South Korea. Most near-costs residences of Jeju civilians were evacuated due to the great conflagration done by the army, and the Jeju people moved to interior regions, especially Mountain Halla, eventually involving themselves to the armed resistances in order to protect themselves.
            The subjugation of Jeju 4.3 Incident accompanied several massacres (20), not only during the incident but also after the uprising was settled. The guilt-by-association system extinguished the whole family if any member had involved to the armed demonstration or evacuated to the mountain. The notorious system remained still influential as the all family members of the involver - if they were not killed - were labeled as violent communists and suffered from the social prejudice and inequality.
            However, the incident was only recognized as a communist revolt until late 1990s. Nevertheless, efforts to reevaluate the event and reveal the hidden truth of the incident - the massacre of innocent victims under the ideology of radical anti-communism - continued, despites of fearful convictions under the National Security Law (21). At last, in 2000, in order to restore the honor of the innocent victims and their family, "the 4.3 Jeju special law" was proclaimed, and the national fact finding committee was organized, which later published A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident as a result of their investigation.
            The Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, happened in October 19th, 1948, was "an incident occurred by some soldiers of the 14th regiment of the National Guard in Yeosu" (22) against the governmental command to suppress the Jeju 4.3. Incident. Beforehand, there was a conflict between the 14th regiment of National Guard and the police, due to their political and social stances. Most of the soldiers of 14th regiment were leftists who were deliberately infiltrated by Workers Party of South Korea in order to secure themselves under the name of the army. On the other hand, most of the other policemen had worked as pro-Japanese police officers. Therefore, due to the difference in political inclination and organization, both the 14th regiment and the police despised each other: for the 14th regiment, the police was a group of pro-Japanese traitors, and for the police, the 14th regiment was a poorly trained temporal army. In addition, the U.S. Military government, noticing the commitment of Workers Party of South Korea were inside the army, started an investigation that looked for leftist soldiers, which brought leftists in the 14th regiment in anxiety. Eventually, when the leftist regimental commander of 14th regiment was arrested, and when the regiment itself was ordered to participate in the suppression strategy of Jeju 4.3. Incident, the rebellion occurred.
            The first sergeant, Jee Chang-soo, a member of the Workers' Party of South Korea, led the rebellion by commanding other major members of the Workers' Party in order to seize the armory and the dump, insisting the goals of the rebellion as: "to overthrow the police, to extremely oppose to the dispatch to Jeju, and to be against the establishment of separated governments." (23) The rebels occupied Yeosu, Suncheon, Goheung, Boseong, Gwangyang, Gurye, Gokseong, while confiscating properties of pro-Japanese group and executing the rightists and past pro-Japanese policemen. Nevertheless, the government, establishing the Headquarters of Subjugation of Rebellion in Gwangju in October 21st, re-occupied the regions on that day.
            The suppression accompanied the massacre of innocent residents in the process of searching out the participants of the rebellion. At least several thousands civilians were killed, in addition to the enormous damage of civilian properties. After the suppression was completely over, there was a broad-scaled purge campaign against the leftists among the soldiers, and the enactment of the National Security Law.
            In order to encourage the anti-Communism, both events were propagandized as barbaric Communists' acts to topple down the security of South Korea. Therefore, the massacre of innocent civilians by government was omitted from history textbooks for a long time. The Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident were not mentioned in the history textbook until 1976, during the 3rd Education Curriculum. However, it took another twenty years for the innocent victims to be referred (24).
            Although there was no evidence that communists in North Korea were involved in both events, and although the events were reactions against the oppressive government, the textbooks of 3rd Curriculum harshly blamed the northern communists that they "instigated communists in South Korea to riot in Jeju Island and rebel in Yeosu and Suncheon." The textbook of 4th Curriculum provided comparatively detailed explanation, yet it still defined both events as examples of harassing tactics of North Korean communists in order to "confuse the 5.10 general election of South Korea." (25) and "to confuse the newly established Republic of Korea." (26) It defined the Jeju 4. 3 Incident as "Jeju riot," and Yeosu-Suncheon incident as "Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion," whereas the textbook published during the 3rd Curriculum period even didn't name the events. The textbook of 5th Curriculum stated both events as "Jeju 4.3 Incident" and "Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion," while explaining the Jeju 4.3 Incident as an "armed rebellion" and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident as "a communists' harassing tactic".
            The high school history textbooks published during 4th and 5th Curriculum periods, especially, did their best to insert a list of "brutal acts" instigated by the "Northern communists." Such acts included "attacking the governmental offices, murdering, arson, pillage, and etc," (27) and "[the Communist party] destroyed the dump and warehouse, murdering police and civilian and attacking the governmental office and the police station," (28) obviously reflecting anti-Communism that the government tried to instill in students.
            Interestingly, these 4th and 5th curriculum high school history textbooks referred to the "earnest help of the citizens." (29) that helped to expel the communists and settle down the chaos. However, considering that both events accompanied huge-scaled massacres, mentioning the civil help was a mere propaganda and a fabrication of the fact in order to justify the governmental suppression, as if the government acted only based on the public will.
            The 1996 textbook, published during the 6th Curriculum period, was the first history textbook that ever suggested the presence of victimization of "innocent people during the process of suppression." It also entitled Yeosu-Suncheon Incident less harshly, as "Yeosu-Suncheon 10.19 Incident." However, it showed a limitation in three points: not mentioning the massacre of citizens during the governmental suppression of Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, devaluing the significance of Jeju 4.3 Incident as "to confuse the Southern 5. 10 general election" instead of a public demonstration against the government, and blaming the communists as "stirred up several bloodsheds." The anti-Communist atmosphere was, therefore, still prevalent during late 1990s, and in 1996, the infiltration of North Korean Army through submarine was found and subjugated, might have aroused the anti-Communist atmosphere.
            The 2006 textbook of 7th Curriculum most precisely narrated both Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident without prejudice and bias due to the anti-Communism. It stated the reason of two events as "the conflict between the left and the right," and juxtaposed glossaries, which explained Jeju 4.3 Incident as "an incident in which several ten thousands of human lives damaged in the process of suppressing the anti-single election demonstration in Jeju island," and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident as "an incident in which some soldiers of 14th regiment rebelled against the command of mobilization in order to suppress Jeju 4.3 Incident." Such impartial description and acknowledgement of governmental fault were possible because the Roh Moo-hyeon Government (2003-2008) - also known as Participation Government - was free from anti-Communist ideology and tried to improve relationship of South and North Korea based on the Sunshine policy (30) continued from the previous government - also known as the Peoples' Government - Kim Dae-joong Government. Moreover, the legislation of 4.3 Special Law regained the honor of victims of Jeju 4.3 Incident, and the national fact finding project of the Jeju 4.3 Incident enabled re-evaluation of the event itself in addition to the anti-Communist acts of the 1st Republic of Syngman Rhee.

c) April 19 Revolution (1960)
            The April 19 Revolution, occurred in 1960, was a public demonstration mainly by students, against the corruption and the electorate manipulation by Syngman Rhee and his Liberal party. The direct motivation of demonstration was the rigged presidential election in which the Liberals employed 9 tactics: creating the 40% of result before the election, organizing trios of voters in order to make the election semipublic, threatening voters by dispatching armed Liberals to the voting places, expelling the presiding officer of other parties from the polling place, encouraging proxy vote and abstention, establishing illicit voting booths, counterchanging ballot boxes, fabricating the voting results, and announcing the false results. When the result of presidential election was declared in March 17th, in which the president Syngman Rhee and the liberal vice-president Lee Gi-boong of the Liberal party earned almost 80% of the votes, no one believed it.
            In addition to the high dissatisfaction and distrust to the government, the students' reaction in the city of Daegu triggered the April revolution. In Daegu, the liberal government forced every student was to attend a school on Sunday, February 28th, when the electioneering of the opposition party was planned, in order to deter students from listening to the speeches of the opponent candidate. Enraged with such unjust tactics, students of Daegu started demonstration, demanding that students should not be taken advantage of for party political events.
            The demonstrations of high school students continued in Seoul, Daejeon, Suwon, and Busan, and later were joined by other citizens. On April 19, most university students in Seoul announced the proclamation of a general rally in order to "protect the justice and democracy of Republic of Korea." (31) As a reaction, Rhee and the Liberals tried to suppress the public demonstration by using military force, in order to keep their dictatorship. However, the national demonstration was too vehement, and even 259 university professors, having adopted the state of affairs declaration statement, participated to the public demonstration. Rhee, who tended to insist that his continuous reelection was for the sake of fulfilling the public sentiment, finally abdicated from his office and surreptitiously exiled to Hawaii.
            When dealing the April 19 Revolution, some early textbooks included three categories: the background of Revolution, its process, and its effect on the society. Generally, most of the early high school history textbooks praised the great activism by students that successfully secured democracy in Republic of Korea. The 2rd Curriculum textbook, published in 1970, named April 19 Revolution as "April 19 Righteous Movement" or "April Righteous Movement," narrating the process in passionate, glorious tone. The 1970 textbook also explained the event as the "explosion" of "purposeful action of young students who have brave tradition in rightfulness and accumulated dissatisfaction of citizen." "The April Righteous Movement," following to it, was "the first people's revolution in history" which "fought against the injustice and dictatorship with bare hands."
            On the other hand, the textbook avoided direct criticism on the corruption of Syngman Rhee. Although it stated that he "showed tendency to dictate" by reinforcing the ruling force and pushing the 1st amendment (32) through, the textbook first start the chapter, "Revolution and Improvement," mentioning his achievements in anti-Japanese Movements. In the next sentence, the target of criticism was changed to "some politicians," who "depended on president Syngman Rhee," and "ignored the constitutional order to set the permanent reign." Furthermore, the 1970 textbook focused more on the social chaos that April 19 Revolution brought. Most obviously, it blamed the ruling force of 2nd republic, which "did not fulfill the people's expectation," "did not gained the political peace," had "disordered political discipline," brought "inflation due to the failure in economic policy" and had "deterioration of rural economy." Simultaneously, it pointed out that "people who misinterpreted freedom and acted indulgently" "demonstrated for every cause" brought extreme social chaos. Considering that the textbook was published under the 3rd republic of Park Chung-hee, who became a president through a military coup d'etat against the 2nd republic, its reproach of 2nd republic was more than the fact, but rather a justification of Park Chug-hee's rising to the power.
            The textbooks published during the 3rd Curriculum entitled April 19 Revolution as "4. 19 Righteous Movement," and included more details. The 1977 textbook had basically identical description to that of 1970 textbook, yet a paragraph that listed the venal acts by "some politicians" was added. Moreover, in explaining the social effect of the event, a sentence that pointed out the "political chaos" was added. The 1978 textbook provided more detailed description, especially about the corrupted government of Syngman Rhee and himself. "During the war, as his had a bare chance to be re-elected from the 2nd presidential election, president Syngman Rhee passed the selected amendment bill to the Constitution by suppressing the National Assembly through stirring a political upheaval." It was the first history textbook that pointed out Syngman Rhee as a subject of political corruption. However, still, the textbook provided more information of unjust acts of the Liberal party, providing the list of such acts in two paragraphs. The 1980 textbook, providing a condensed description of that of 1978 textbook, also named the incident "The April Righteous Movement," but more directly accused Rhee as a subject of dictatorial activism than the 1978 did. In the 1980 textbook, the subject of a first sentence in which the political crisis was explained was "President Syngman Rhee," and certain sentences that focused on describing the Liberals' dictatorship were deleted, leaving Rhee's and the Liberal's corruption more equally explained. The 1986 textbook differed from 1980 textbook by two points: it pointed out Rhee's anti-communist policy ("During the war, President Syngman Rhee implemented radical anti-communist policies including interfering communist activism and releasing anticommunist prisoner of war") (33), and it restated the politically unjust background of the April Revolution, thereby emphasizing Rhee and the Liberal's "violation of fundamental principles of democracy in order to fulfill one party's desire to power, dictatorship, corruption and graft, and rigged elections."
            Unlike precedent textbooks, the 1990 textbook provided more detail in more objective perspective. It stated both achievement and failure of Rhee's the 1st republic, referring to both Rhee's diplomacy and dictatorial attempts in his pursuit of long-term in power. Moreover, the 1990 textbook even pointed out the Liberal government's violent and unjust attempt during the April Revolution. It stated; "The police killed many people by firing at the demonstrating public, whereas the liberal party tried to settle down the situation by announcing that the Communist was involved in the demonstration against of rigged election occurred in Masan." Furthermore, the 1990 textbook was first to mention "free and democratic atmosphere of era" as a result of the April Revolution, whereas the precedent textbooks either highly praised the democratic and civil spirit or pointed out the political and social chaos.
            The 1996 textbook, best in its detail, explained the April Revolution through three sub-categories: The Syngman Rhee government, The April Revolution, The Chang Myeon Cabinet (34). Because it was published after few decades and already had things well-settled and evaluated, the 1996 textbook provided most objective and comprehensive information in narrating historical event. It was first textbook to name the event as "The April Revolution" and to describe both Rhee's obsession to anti-communism and diplomatic polices, thereby providing readers more thorough understanding of the political situation in 1950s. In the first sub-category, it stated; "Rhee regarded national security as first-priority issue because he experienced communist invasion of South Korea; therefore, he emphasized anti-communism in order to secure liberal democratic system, and gave his best in diplomatic relationship with allied nations, such as United States." In the second category, "The April Revolution," it concisely summarized the events in fact-delivering tone, without any radical praise toward the civil spirit. However, still, it suggested the meaning of the event as "a democratic revolution in which students and citizens tore down dictatorial government and that worldly showed the Korean's democratic capacity," and "a chance that brought development of Korean democracy." The 2006 textbook, on the other hand, provided most condensed description due to its changed overall organization (35). Under the sub-category named "The Ordeal of Democracy and its Development," the April Revolution was extremely briefly mentioned, as a result of the Liberal's "blatant rigged election" and "violent suppression of angry citizen and students' demonstration."
            The narration of April Revolution in high school history textbooks reflected the change in social recognition of the event and the contemporary political ideology. As time passed, the tone of narration changed from praising to slightly admonishing, and later to objective. Whereas the early descriptions focused on praising the brave, righteous activism of students and citizens, the latter rather pointed out the social and political chaos - the incompetent Democratic Party's government and unceasing demonstration - that followed the April Revolution. More recent descriptions, however, rather tried to deliver information by giving either comprehensive detail or condensed explanation on cause-and-effect.
            The first praising tone (textbooks published in 1970 and 1977) reflected the social atmosphere, satisfaction toward civil achievement - the democratic victory. Also, praising the April Revolution was effective for Park Chung-hee's government, as his May 16 coup was regarded as the extension of the April Revolution; therefore, the more the April Movement was highly and dramatically praised, Park and his May 16 coup was more justified and respected. However, after Park turned into a repressive dictator and when his fame as a great leader degraded, rather than the democratic spirit of the April Revolution but the socio-political chaos that followed the event was emphasized, in order to give Park's May 16 coup more prominence and justification. This emphasis on chaos after the April Revolution and Park as a savior of a nation continued during the 5th republic led by Chun Doo-hwan, a persistent follower Park Chung-hee. By praising Park, the position of Chun, Park's follower, as a national leader could possibly strengthened in the matter of justification. However, the recent publications, much more free from the dictatorial ideology, could provide details in impartial tone and without any special emphasis or implications.

III. Park Chung-hee (1961-1981)
            a) Biography
            Born to a fallen gentlemen's family as a last child in 1917, Park Chung-hee suffered from his physical childhood dwarfishness and family's poverty. He had a longing for power, and aimed to be an officer since his childhood (36). He was educated in Daegu Normal School, one of the prestigious institutions during the early 20th century Korea. Later, despite of his age - which was above the age restriction - Park applied to Shingyeong Military School (37) and was admitted, after he sent a letter, written in his own blood, in which he swore his loyalty toward Japan. Later, he transferred to Imperial Japanese Army Academy and graduated in 1944. After his graduation, Park participated in the Japanese suppression of the Eighth Route Army, a Chinese anti-Japanese and communist army, in Northern China.
            After the Independence of Korea, Park returned to Korea and worked as a second lieutenant of National Security army, having had three-months-education at Korean Officer Training School (38). Later, when his older brother, Park Sang-hee died in the demonstration against anti-leftists policy in Daegu, Park joined the Workers Party of South Korea and secretly participated as its member. However, when the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident accidently led the Army to investigate the military officers' involvement to the leftist movement, Park's leftist activism was revealed and he was sentenced to death. Nevertheless, Park, with his past colleagues' help and in exchange of disclosing other members of Workers Party of South Korea in the army, saved his life but was expelled from the army. However, he regained his military career by participating the Korean War as a major, and eventually promoted to a deputy commander in chief for the 2nd army in 1960. In 1961, he led the May 16 coup against the Democratic party's 2nd republic that was established after the April Revolution, and practically served as a dictator for 16 years.
            In his early days in power, Park tried to modernize rural areas by introducing New Community Movement. Also, his success in early Five Year Plans solved the desperate poverty that Koreans had in mid-20th century. However, his economic policy - providing governmental aid to huge enterprises in order to reach fast economic development - exaggerated gaps between the rich and poor. Furthermore, his pursuit of prolonged one-man rule through the October Yushin (39) and its side effects eventually made the public be against of Park's dictatorship. In addition, in 1974, Park's first lady Yook Young-soo was assassinated by Moon Se-gwang, a killer from North Korea. Park Chung-hee, in 1979, forcefully reached his end of power as Kim Jae-gyu, the chief of the Central Intelligence Agency of Korea and one of his most entrusted men, assassinated him in 1979.
b) May 16 coup
            The May 16 coup, occurred in May 16th, 1961, was a military coup d'etat in which soldiers - alumnus of the Korea Military Academy - led by Park Chung-hee, violently overthrew the 2nd republic, a democratic party's government, led by Yoon Bo-sun, the first democratically elected president. The background of the May 16 coup was, as most of the textbooks explained, a socio-political chaos after the April Revolution and an internal corruption of the army. The Democratic party had internal crisis in taking the leadership of the party, while series of demonstrations continued in order to achieve more freedom and right, in an extension of the April Revolution. In addition, the internal corruption - including generals' bribery and low rate of promotion - of the Korean Army was so prevalent that the young officers planned coup d'etat against of their superiors.
            On May 16th, 1961, Park Chung-hee and some officers from Korea Military Academy (mostly class of 1956) occupied major institutions in Seoul. Soon, they organized Military Revolution Committee and announced pledge of revolution, which included 6 articles: 1) re-organization of anti-communist systems, 2) intensification of relationship with the allied nations, including United States, 3) elimination of the social corruption, 4) resolution of national poverty and establishment of the free economy, 5) military intensification for the sake of national unification, 6) transfer of power to honest politician after social settlement is done by the military power. However, the participants of the May 16 coup eventually prolonged their power by getting rid of their political and military opponents and by creating Democratic Republican party, led by Park Chung-hee. In 1963, Park Chung-hee was elected as a president, starting his long term of dictatorship that lasted for 16 years, until his death.
            The textbooks of 3rd Curriculum, published under Park Chung-hee's government, definitely praised the May 16 coup by naming it as the "5.16 Revolution." The 1970 textbook explained the purpose of the "5. 16 Revolution" as "in order to wipe out the struggle and chaos, and to save nation and the people from the communists' attack." Furthermore, it even increased the significance of the event by relating the "5.16 Revolution" to the April 19 Revolution (40).
            Both of the sub-categories of the "5.16 Revolution" and the "The Nowadays of the 3rd Republic" were included in the chapter named "Revolution and Improvements." The chapter had no negative comment on the Revolutionary Government, or the provisional military government under Park Chung-hee. The textbook stated that the 2 years of military administration brought great accomplishments in military reformation, rectification of corruption, establishment of administrational rules, and stabilization of social atmosphere. Moreover, the 1970 textbook delivered the list of achievements of Revolutionary Government in various fields, such as economy, culture, diplomacy, military, and etc.
            One specific example that the 1970 textbook had was Vietnam War: influenced by the contemporary anti-communistic idea, the overseas dispatch of armed force to Vietnam War was acclaimed as a contribution to the world peace that is successfully in progress. However, considering that the deployment of troops to Vietnam War was rather for the sake of the economic assistance from United States than for the sake of the world peace, the comment on the Vietnam War in the 1970 textbook was an absolute glorification. Also, since the textbook did not mention about the side effects of the policies of Park Chung-hee's Revolutionary Government, the 1970 textbook propagandized its contemporary dictatorship.
            The 1977 textbook, also published during the period under Park Chung-hee and during the 3rd curriculum, showed a favorable attitude toward the government, and reflected the overall anti-communist atmosphere in society in praising and dramatic tone. Whereas most contents were similar to that of 1970 textbook, the 1977 textbook appended the social conflict created by North Korean communists in explaining the background of the "5.16 Revolution." It also provided more organized information on Revolutionary Government, for example, the fundamental aim, campaigns, and its results. The 1978 textbook also features the coup d'etat as "The May Revolution," and started the chapter by emphasizing the national effort to increase capacity of operating a country. It provides a detailed background information of the May coup, in which it blames the pre-Park government by "The Liberal government lacked ability of maintaining the social order." Similar to the 1977 textbook, the 1978 textbook did its best in praising the Supreme Committee of National Restoration, a committee of major military leaders of the May 16 coup, by stating that it "reformed the national administration through highly motivated and original plans" through "preparing anti-communist combat, refreshed social atmosphere," "elimination of gangsters, banishment of smuggled goods, punishments of criminals of rigged election and illicit fortunes," and etc. Although these policies of Park could be regarded as revolutionary, such obvious praise toward a government would rather be deterred, especially in the case of a history textbook. Nevertheless, published under Park Chung-hee's rule, textbooks included such deliberate compliments toward governmental policies, although their drawbacks were already evident.
            The 1980 textbook, published under Chun Doo-hwan, Park's successor, provided more detailed attack of the 2nd republic, by emphasizing faults of the Democratic party's government by delivering information through several paragraphs. Distinctively, the 1980 textbook even related the social chaos that the 2nd republic failed to settle down to the danger of communist invasion in South Korea, thereby giving a sharp contrast between the "government that was losing capacity to maintain the social order" and "the revolutionary army" which "steadily carried out the revolutionary pledges." Furthermore, it was the first textbook that inserted a separate box in which all the six revolutionary pledges of Park Chung-hee were directly quoted. Although the 1986 textbook from the 4th curriculum did not provided the six revolutionary pledge words by words, it more focused on blaming the 2nd republic by giving accounts of socio-political chaos (41) and relating it to communists in North Korea (42). Furthermore, it was first to mention the "transfer of power to civil government," a narration which can be interpreted as a justification of Park Chung-hee, who was actually elected as a president through a "democratic election." (43)
            The 1990 textbook, published during Roh Tae-woo's the 6th republic and the 5th curriculum, explained the socio-political chaos in pre-coup era in a more concise manner, and did not praised Park Chung-hee's provisional military government. Nevertheless, the May 16 coup was still named as "the May 16 Military Revolution," and its positive side was emphasized, although the tone became less complimenting. This showed the transition from Military dictatorship - started from Park Chung-hee and continued to Chun Doo-hwan - to democratic government, as the description of the event was not obviously flattering of the policies of the provisional military government. Nevertheless, it still represented the limitation in focusing both achievement and failure, since the 1990 textbook omitted the dictatorial acts done by the Park's military provisional government and only delivered the bright side of it.
            The 1996 textbook of the 6th curriculum, however, explained the event in the most comprehensive perspective. It was the first textbook that euphemistically delivered the effort and failure of the Democratic party's government in dealing with the socio-political chaos. (44) It also mentioned "peaceful unification of Korea" as "people's long-cherished wish," implying the change in social atmosphere (45). Furthermore, first to title the May 16 coup, previously mentioned as "the May Revolution," as "the May 16 coup," the 1996 indirectly blamed Park and other "some military officers," who caused "military coup d'etat with an excuse of social disorder and chaos." Contrast to precedent textbook, the 1996 described the event in more negative tone, as it described the military provisional government "immediately ceased constitutional government," and "forbade the existing politicians' political activities." Moreover, it was first to point out the dictatorial purpose of creating the Democratic Republican party, stating that Park and his supporters "concentrated political powers that supported them," and Park's dogmatic policies, including violent suppression of students and citizens' demonstrations against of the Korean-Japanese Conference (46) by proclaiming a martial law and the Third Amendment in pursuit of long-term seizure of power.
            The 2006 textbook, published during the 7th curriculum period, although much more briefly written but still disillusioned from Park's ideology, provided information of almost identical events information in slightly negative tone. The most distinctive point was its denial of "transfer of power to civil government," stating that the military powers eventually maintained their power while undergoing an amendment of constitution, "ignoring the promise of restoration of a civil government."
            To summarize, the May 16 coup, a military coup d'etat by which Park Chung-hee rose to power and started his 13-year-dictatorship was first highly praised, but later criticized for its repressive rule that were against of the public will. However, the early glorification of the May 16 coup could not be only considered as a deliberate propaganda but also a reflection of the contemporary perception. It was true, that South Koreans suffered from national poverty and socio-political chaos that followed the April Revolution. It was also true that Park Chung-hee was highly respected as a national savior and the father of South Korea, for his economic development, and still considered as one of the best presidents in South Korea. Nevertheless, as time passed, and as the civic consciousness matured, the ignorance of civil right - a value that was not so highly regarded as it is right now - became a so significant that Park Chung-hee, who interrupted the development of democracy, comparatively lost his fame as a leader of "military revolution" and instead earned his evident disgrace of a dictator.

c) Five-Year Plans and New Community Movement
            The Five-Year Plans were plans of economic development programmed for every five years. First planned by the Democratic party's 2nd republic, it was operated from 1962, right after the May 16 coup, to 1986. The first (1962-1966), second (1967-1971), third (1972-1976) and fourth (1977-1981) Five-Year Plans were held under Park Chung-hee, while the last Five-Year Plans (1982-1988) were practiced under Park's successor, Chun Doo-hwan. This chapter analyzed the narration of Five-Year Plans, not only under Park Chung-hee but also under Chun Doo-hwan, since the plans held under Chun were regarded as continuation of Park's.
            The New Community Movement, in a similar vein, was a development movement that aimed the restoration and improvement of rural villages based on the self-help and self-reliance spirit. First proposed in 1970 by Park Chung-hee, the New Community Movement practically started by a governmental aid of 335 bags of cements for every villages (33267 villages in total), encouraging the autonomous construction project of villagers. The New Community Movement influenced not only rural areas but also the entire South Korea, as the spirit of New Community Movement, cooperation and collective efforts, became the motto of South Korean modernization under Park Chung-hee. On the other hand, the progress of New Community Movement was simultaneous with the October Yushin, a foundation of prolonged dictatorship of Park Chung-hee.
            Among the textbooks that were published during the 3rd Curriculum period, the 1970 textbook briefly dealt with the Five-Year Plans in the sub-category of "5.16 Revolution" and "The Days of the 3rd Republic," in which the achievements of Park Chung-hee's Revolutionary Government were listed. According to the 1970 textbook, the Five-Year Plans was proceed under the belief that the national improvement was only possible based on the economic stability. The accomplishment of the 1st Five-Year Plan was positively narrated: it was a "fundamental work for the improvement," which was "the mission of 20 years after the Independence."
            Although the Five-Year Plans brought economic development in Republic of Korea, it also had serious side effects. For example, the gap between the rich and the poor exacerbated, and due to the governmental supports to the major companies brought extremely unfair relations between the labor and the capital. However, as the textbook did not mention such weaknesses, the 1970 textbook just encouraged and instilled students to follow the governmental policy by reinforcing its positive side. On the other hand, since the New Community Movement was yet to be nationally promoted in 1970, the 1970 textbook did not contain explanation on the project.
            The 1977 textbook of the 3rd curriculum became more ideological in describing the Five-Year Plans. In the chapter "The Days of the 3rd Republic," the 1977 textbook offered only positive narration on the outcomes of governmental policies, reiterating "innovative accomplishments" for two times and repeatedly using other statements of praise. Also, the 1977 textbook did not avoid obviously glorification of the Five-Year Plans as they were "successfully carried out." It also mentioned the Five-Year Plans in a concluding chapter, "Our Mission," in which the fourth Five-Year Plans (1977-1981) were considered as boons that would include Republic of Korea in the developed countries. It concluded its sub-category, "Development of national territory and accomplishment of economic independence," by reinforcing that "We should progress, overcoming every difficulty, with persistence and efforts for sake of future hope." In a similar vein, the textbook stated the significance of "Saemaeul Movement (New Village Movement)," referring its effect on the modernization of farm villages and the nation itself. The 1978 textbook also regarded the first and second Five-Year Plans as successful achievements by describing them in the chapter "The Development of Republic of Korea." The New Community Movement, explained as an extension of success of the first, second, and third Five-Year Plans, had to "continue as a historical project," since "the self-help spirit of rural villages would eventually enable the right succession of traditional values and people's modern development." Similarly, the 1980 textbook praised the achievements of Five-Year Plans, and expected New Community Movement as a prospective "foundation of national restoration."
            Moreover, the 1986 textbook from the 4th curriculum emphasized the success of the fourth Five-Year Plans under both Park Chung-hee (1977-1979) and Chun Doo-hwan, which "improved the international status by achieving the goal earlier than the original plan and developing as an aid-giving country from an aid-receiving country." It also included the graph that represented the drastic increase of export during the five Five-Year Plans and names of highways that "supported the growth of industry." As usual, the New Community Movement was praised in the 1986 textbook as a creation of "spiritual foundation of national development," which not only influenced rural areas but also "provided motivation of awareness revolution in urban areas."
            Whereas its description of New Community Movement was identical to that of the 1986 textbook, The 1990 textbook from the 5th curriculum was first to refer to the problems of Five-Year Plans, not only achievements like "increase in GNP and export," "self-sufficiency through national land planning," "construction of several highways that enabled the travel from one side of the country to another within the same day," and "equalization of cultural level and incomes of those of rural villagers to those of urban residents," but also drawbacks like "gap of income among citizens, government-planned economic system, and etc" were mentioned, unlike the precedent textbooks. Moreover, it was first to mention the South Korean labor movement, which was in rise since 1970s but not described in precedent textbooks. Considering that the Five-Year Plans were major governmental projects that had to be represented as perfect, and the existence of labor movement was an obvious evidence of imperfect Five-Year Plans, narration of the labor movement in history textbooks was only possible after the end of Five-Year Plans in 1979. Free from the ideological obsession toward national ambition, the 1990 textbook from the 5th Curriculum could include anti-labor movement acts done by government, such as "illegalization of laborer's right of collective bargaining and labor disputes."
            In 1996 textbook, published under Kim Young-sam and during the 6th Curriculum, the first president elected through practically democratic election, also pointed out existing economic problems, including "income gaps among people, gap between urban and rural areas, imbalance of investment of infrastructure, disputes between management and union" for domestic problems, and "limitation of international trade, lack of labor force in the most advanced scientific technology" for outside problems when explaining the achievements and developments that Five-Year Plans brought, Furthermore, it also indicated the drawbacks of drastic industrialization and modernization, such as "housing problems, traffic problems, environmental problems, and etc" and "severance of traditional value" due to the "anonymity that urbanization brought." The 1996 textbook also spent a category for describing the labor movement, but addressed governmental efforts on improving the situation: "amendment of the National Labor Relations Act, and effort in order to establish a humane relationship between the capitalist and the laborers settle down the work ethics." The 2006 textbook, due to its conciseness and less space on narrating the modern accounts, almost had no explanation on Five-Year Plans and New Community Movement, except that Park Chung-hee forcefully operated the plan, ignoring other urgent issues (public demonstrations against the Korean-Japanese Committee).
            To summarize, although both Five-Year Plans and New Community Movement had certain advantages in the early modernization of Republic of Korea, their drawbacks from too drastic development were omitted for the sake of glorifying the achievement of contemporary government. Under dictatorial governments, such praise of governmental achievement was necessary, in order to control the public dissatisfaction toward dictatorship by representing their achievement - rescue of nation from poverty - and thereby justifying their monopoly of power. On the other hand, as the government became free from needs to glorify the achievement as time passed, textbooks came to include the disillusioned side effects.

d) October Yushin

IV. Chun, Doo-hwan (1979-1988)
a) Biography
b) Coup d'etat of December Twelfth
c) Gwangju Massacre

V. Conclusion
            The influence of contemporary political ideology on the narration of recent historical events in high school textbooks comparatively decreased, as time passed and political situation of South Korea changed from long-term dictatorships to democratic governments. Whereas history textbooks up to 1980s were used as means of indoctrination, especially in justifying the contemporary dictatorship, textbooks published since 1990s - the end of dictatorship and its violent continuation ended and stabilization of democratic election - textbooks have been relatively free from political propaganda. High school history textbook published in 1996, especially, delivered comprehensive details in objective manner that helped students' understanding of the historical background of certain events, without any implied disdain on certain party.
            However, due to several elements, such intimate explanations have become more briefly summarized than it used to be, and students have had less access to the accounts of recent historical events. First, the change in organization; the 2006 textbook, because of its new categorization of political, economical, social, and cultural history, allowed much less space on the narration of political events happened in modern South Korea. Second, the imbalance between the academic calendar and the progress of classwork; due to it huge amount of information, most of South Korean public school students could not learn modern history, especially after the establishment of separate government, which is the start of the modern dictatorship, unless they took extra after-school classes that dealt with mid and late 20th centuries. Third, revisions of history textbooks based on various political perspectives; the difference in political view and its reflection in history textbooks have been maximized, brining social controversy in the terminology, omission, exaggeration or implicit focus on certain facts. For example, in 2011, the Ministry of Education eliminated the reference of "Syngman Rhee's dictatorship," "the May 16 coup," and "Gwangju Massacre" from the core elements of middle school history textbook, and for the high school history textbook, the description of modern political history decreased from 80% to 50%, providing less information on recent controversial events. Such interference and controversy in delivering the exact information to students would seem to be continued, as president Park Geun-hye, a daughter of Park Chung-hee, was elected as a president, brining the national concern on education of modern history of South Korea.
            The education of recent historical events including dictatorship and anti-dictatorial demonstration has significant value as it ascertains students' complete understanding of the political situation of contemporary South Korea. Therefore, contemporary education curriculum that brings less emphasis on the modern history, should be revised.

VI. Appendix

a. A Timeline of Education Curriculum of Republic of Korea, 1948-2006
The 1st Curriculum: 1954-1963
The 2nd Curriculum: 1963-1973
The 3rd Curriculum: 1973-1981
The 4th Curriculum: 1981-1987
The 5th Curriculum: 1987-1992
The 6th Curriculum: 1992-1997
The 7th Curriculum: 1997-

b. A Selective Timeline of Republic of Korea, 1945-2010 (47)

1945 - After World War II, Japanese occupation ends with Soviet troops occupying area north of the 38th parallel, and US troops in the south.
1948 - Republic of Korea proclaimed.
1950 - South declares independence, sparking North Korean invasion.
1953 - Armistice ends Korean War, which has cost two million lives.
1950s - South sustained by crucial US military, economic and political support.
1960 - President Syngman Ree steps down after student protests against electoral fraud. New constitution forms Second Republic, but political freedom remains limited.
1961 - Military coup puts General Park Chung-hee in power.
1963 - General Park restores some political freedom and proclaims Third Republic. Major programme of industrial development begins.
1972 - Martial law. Park increases his powers with constitutional changes.
1979 - Park assassinated. General Chun Doo-hwan assumes power.
1980 - Martial law declared after student demonstrations. In the city of Gwangju (Kwangju) at least 200 killed by the army, causing resentment that has yet to fade. Fifth republic and new constitution.
1981 - Chun indirectly elected to a seven year term. Martial law ends, but government continues to have strong powers to prevent dissent. 1986 - Constitution is changed to allow direct election of the president.
1987 - President Chun pushed out of office by student unrest and international pressure in the build-up to the Sixth constitution. Roh Tae-woo succeeds Chun, grants greater degree of political liberalisation and launches anti-corruption drive.
1993 - Roh succeeded by Kim Young Sam, a former opponent of the regime and the first civilian president.
1995 - Corruption and treason charges against Roh Tae-woo and Chun Doo-hwan.
1996 - North Korean submarine runs aground in South, 11 crew found shot dead in apparent suicide and 13 killed by South Korean forces during massive search operation.
1998 - Kim Dae-jung sworn in as president and pursues "sunshine policy" of offering unconditional economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea.
2000 June - Summit in Pyongyang between Kim Jong-il and South Korean President Kim Dae-jung. North stops propaganda broadcasts against South.
2000 August - Border liaison offices re-open at truce village of Panmunjom. One hundred North Koreans meet their relatives in the South in a highly-charged, emotional reunion. Kim Dae-jung awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
2002 June - Battle between South Korean and North Korean naval vessels along their disputed sea border leaves four South Koreans dead and 19 wounded. Thirty North Koreans are thought to have been killed.
2002 December - Roh Moo-hyun, from governing Millennium Democratic Party, wins closely-fought presidential elections.
2004 March-May - President Roh Moo-hyun suspended after parliament votes to impeach him over breach of election rules and for incompetence. In May the Constitutional Court overturns the move and President Roh is reinstated.
2007 February - South and North Korea agree to restart high-level talks suspended since July 2006 in wake of North's nuclear test.
2007 April - South Korea and the US agree on a free-trade deal after 10 months of talks.
2007 October - The leaders of North and South Korea pledge at a summit to seek talks to formally end the Korean war.
2007 November - Prime ministers from North and South Korea meet for the first time in 15 years.
2007 December - Conservative Lee Myung-bak wins landslide victory in presidential election.
2008 April - North Korea hits out at new South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, warning that his tough stance could lead to "catastrophic consequences".
2009 January - North Korea says it is scrapping all military and political deals with the South over its "hostile intent", as ties worsen.
2009 February - South Korea's central bank cuts interest rates to a record low, amid forecasts that the economy is likely to suffer its first annual contraction for more than 10 years.
2009 May - Former president Roh Moo-hyun commits suicide over a bribery scandal.
2009 August - Former South Korean president Kim Dae-jung dies; North Korea sends a senior delegation to Seoul to pay its respects.
In a further sign of thaw in relations, North Korea announces easing of restrictions on cross-border traffic, and talks on family reunions - suspended since early 2008 - restart.
2009 October - North Korea expresses "regret" for unleashing dam water that drowned six campers downstream in South Korea in September. The two sides hold talks aimed at preventing flooding on the Imjin River which spans their militarised border.
2009 November - South and North Korean warships exchange fire across a disputed sea border.
2010 January - North Korea accepts an offer of food aid from South Korea, the first such aid in two years.
South Korea returns fire after the North fires artillery shells near their disputed sea border.
2010 May - South Korea breaks off all trade with the North after investigators say they have found proof the South Korean naval ship Cheonan was sunk by a North Korean torpedo in March. Pyongyang describes the findings as a "fabrication" and cuts all diplomatic ties with Seoul.
2010 November - Cross-border clash near disputed maritime border results in death of two South Korean marines. North Korea's military insists it did not open fire first and blames the South. South Korea places its military on highest non-wartime alert after shells land on Yeonpyeong island.
2011 July - Nuclear envoys from North and South Korea hold first talks since collapse of six-party talks in 2009.
2011 August - Further exchange of fire near Yeonpyeong island.
2011 October - US Congress approves long-stalled free trade agreement with South Korea. The deal is expected to increase US exports to South Korea.
2012 March - South Korea hosts a global conference on nuclear security, attended by the US and Russian leaders among others. Iran and North Korea do not attend.
2012 April - The governing conservative Saenuri (New Frontier) Party, formerly called the Grand National Party, wins parliamentary elections with a reduced majority.
2012 July - South Korea begins move of most ministries to "mini capital" at Sejong City, 120km south of Seoul. Key ministries will remain in Seoul.
2012 August - Lee Myung-bak becomes South Korea's first president to visit the Liancourt Rocks, which Japan also claims. Tokyo recalls its ambassador in protest.
2012 October - South Korea strikes deal with the US to almost triple the range of its ballistic missile system to 800km as a response to North Korea's test of a long-range rocket in April.
2012 December - South Korea elects its first female president, Park Geun-hye. She takes office in February.
2013 March - South warns North over unilateral abrogation of Korean War armistice and bellicose rhetoric. North also cut off a hotline and vowed to end non-aggressions pacts with South. A cyber-attack from an internet address in China temporarily shuts down the computer systems at South Korean banks and broadcasters.
2013 April - North Korea says it will restart all facilities at its main Yongbyon nuclear complex and withdraws its workers from the South-Korean-funded Kaesong joint industrial park. It also warns foreigners to leave both North and South Korea to avoid the threat of war.
2013 June - North and South Korea agree to hold talks on the possibility of reopening the Kaesong joint industrial complex, as well as to restore the Cross hotline.


Notes (1)      Previousl, it was Daehan Textbooks: its name has changed into MiraeN since 2008, commemorating the 60th anniversary.
(2)      However, since all history textbooks are written by the National History Compliation Committee and approved by the Ministry of Education, the difference of publishing company does not have critical impact on narration of history.
(3)      High school history textbooks that were published in 1956, 1957, 1970, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1990, and 1996 were available via KEDI.
(4)      Considering that the presidential term of Syngman Rhee, the first president of Republic of Korea, was started in 1948, and also considering that the idea of democratic government was possibly yet to be established, Rhee might not have been considered as a dictator in both 1954 and 1956. Another possibility might be an emphasis of delivering narrations of historical events happened before mid-20th century (especially in Chosun Dynasty), in order to restore the national spirit that was repressed during the Japanese colonial era.
(5)      Gookjeong Textbook Corporation, established by government in 1953, was the publishing company of nationally approved textbooks.
(6)      The Ministry of Education was first founded as the Ministry of Culture and Education in 1948. The name was changed in 1990, as the Ministry of Education, then the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development in 2001, reorganized into the Ministry of Education and Science in 2008, and finally changed the name into the Ministry of Education again in 2013.
(7)      In the presidential election of 1987, by which Roh was elected, there were three candidates: Chun doo-hwan, Kim Young-sam, and Kim Dae-jung. Roh, had taken similar path to that of Chun, was a candidate from the government party, whereas the others, representatives of the opposition party, were devoted activists of democratic movement. Had the opposition party unified its votes supporting only one candidate for presidential election, Roh, almost a successor of Chun, would not have elected. Three candidates, In the presidential election of 1987
(8)      Rhee Syngman was was educated by his father, a traditional scholar, and in Baejae academy , and earned his degree at George Washington University, Princeton University, and Harvard University. His style of writing his own name, "Syngman Rhee," like westerners, might have been influenced by such western education.
(9)      the Independence Committee is a socio-political organization established in 1896 by an independent activist, Seo Jae-pill, or Philip Jason. The Committee especially tried to enlighten the public by publishing Doklip Shinmun, or The Independence, the first privately published newspaper.
(10)      Hanseong Provisional Government is also known as Provisional government of Seoul. Influenced by Thomas Wilson's National Self-determination, it was established in 1919,by independent activists both in Korea peninsula and foreign countries. Leading the government, Rhee was appointed as a president consul, the highest position.
(11)      Also established in 1919, in Shanghai, the provisional government of Republic of Korea unified independent activists inside and outside of Korean peninsula.
(12)      Most of the civilians were massacred in 1948, when Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident happened and the national army, in the process of violent suppression, executed about 100,000 citizens in the name of anti-Communism.
(13)      In the early years of Republic of Korea, the members of National Assembly elected the president. However, Rhee, knowing that he would not be re-elected through the indirect election (since he was losing support from the national assembly by his dogmatic attitudes), tried to change the system to direct election by the public, who were too ignorant to be aware of his faults.
(14)      Cho Bong-am, one of Rhee's most influential opponents, was sentenced to death in 1958 and was executed in 1959: his innocence was proved in 2011 by the Supreme Court.
(15)      The Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 incident, A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident, The Committee of Fact Finding of Jeju 4.3 Incident and Regaining the Impaired Reputation of Victims, 2003
(16)      The March 1st Movement was a national Public demonstration against Japanese occupation.
(17)      95% of the workplaces in Jeju joined in the Great Strike, including 66 policemen. Such high rate of participation demonstrated the public dissatisfaction and antipathy toward government and United States were very high.
(18)      Northwest Young Men's Association was the association of young rightists who moved from North to South due to the Communist suppression. Established in 1946, the association actively participated to the anti-Communist activism, and was financially supported by Syngman Rhee, who as a radical anti-communist.
(19)      The Workers Party of South Korea was a communist party in South Korea that established in 1946.
(20)      Approximately 30,000 to 80,000 people were victimized, labeling the Jeju Uprising as the incident that had the largest number of victims except the Korean War.
(21)      "The National Security Law is a regulation of anti-government activities that endanger the national security in order to secure the national security, citizens' survival and freedom." Article, National Security Law, in: National Information Center of Legislation
(22)      Article, Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia
(23)      Ibid.
(24)      The high school history textbook first briefly mentioned about the innocent victims of the Jeju 4.3 Incident.
(25)      Ministry of Education, National History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1990
(26)      Ibid.
(27)      Ibid.
(28)      Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1986
(29)      Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1986
(30)      The Sunshine policy is a governmental policy of Kim Dae-joong Government that aimed for peaceful unification of Korea based on the cooperation with North Korea and providing support to North Korea.
(31)      Article, April 19 Revolution, in: Doosan Encyclopedia.
(32)      The 1st Amendment was the unconstitutional and illegal amendment that tried to reinforce the presidential power while keeping the parliamentary system. It was passed by force. Article, 1st Amendment of Korea, in; National Archives of Korea
(33)      Ministry of Culture and Education, National History, 1986
(34)      Since the last sub-category, The Chang Myeon Cabinet, provided a background for the May 16 coup, it was dealt in the next chapter, Park Chung-hee, and in the second category, May 16 coup.
(35)      Unlike precedent textbooks, it divided its categories basically political, economical, social, and cultural, thereby allowing excessively limited space for narration for certain political event happened in mid-20th century.
(36)      I. Chun, A Critical Biography of Park Chung-hee, Ehak Publishing Co., 2006
(37)      A military institution established by Manchuria army in order to train officers.
(38)      Korean Officer Training School was established in 1946, under US temporal administration, and offered military education to pre-officers, including pro-Japanese army.
(39)      Yushin, or reformation constitution, was a constitutional amendment by which Park Chung-hee's prolonged dictatorship was possible.
(40)      "This revolution was a succession and an improvement of April 19 Revolution." Ministry of Culture and Education, National History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1970
(41)      "Moreover, some unreasonable political parties, having aimed irresponsible liberty, continued various sizes of demonstrations. One day, a group of demonstrators even interrupted into the National Assembly. Like this, social chaos reached its height due to the every-day-demonstration." Ministry of Culture and Education, National History, 1986
(42)      "Nevertheless, the Democratic party's government could not demonstrate its political power in order to maintain the social order, and such domestic chaos brought a critical juncture of giving a chance of invasion to communists in North Korea."
(43)      Nevertheless, considering that Park eliminated his political and military opponents through Supreme Committee of National Restoration, a provisional military government, this election cannot be regarded as perfectly democratic.
(44)      "However, the Democratic party could not help but have limitation in handling these matters (socio-economic development and unification)¡¦Therefore, the democratic party's government had difficulty in displaying its political power" Ministry of Education, National History, 1996
(45)      Considering the anti-communist activism in 1970s and 1980s, a reference of "peaceful unification" showed drastic change in perception.
(46)      The Korean-Japanese Conference during Park Chung-hee's the 3rd republic was opposed by public and the opposition parties, because of its "humiliating" agreements, because Park wanted to take advantage of Japanese financial support in exchange of apologies and compensation for the Japanese deeds happened during the colonial era.
(47)      Original timeline is from Article, South Korea profile, in: BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15292674


VII. Annotated Bibliography

Books
A. C. Nahm, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Korea, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1993
C. Ham, A Study on the Changing History of Curriculum of Korea, Education & Science, 2003
This huge report is a result of a study of professor Ham Chong-gyu of Sookmyeong Women's Univeristy since 1970s, following to the request of Ministry of Education and Culture to thoroughly organize the information relative to the Korean Curriculums and their changes from the late Chosun dynasty up to the late 20th century. This is the most precise and detailed source for the history of Korean Curriculum that now exists.
C. Lee, Syngman Rhee; The Prison Years of a Young Radical, Younsei University Press, 2001
This book rather focuses on the early years of Rhee Syng-man as an activist of independence movement. In other words, the book emphasizes the favorable aspect of Rhee Syng-man.
D. K, The Birth of "the Reds", SeonIn, 2009
This book is a thorough analysis of the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, including the background, process, result, and the evaluation of the event. It also provided the table of the changed commentaries on the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident and the Jeju 4.3 Incident in the textbooks published from the 3nd Curriculum Era to the 7th Curriculum Era.
I. Chun, A Critical Biography of Park Chung-hee, Ehak Publishing Co., 2006
one of the best-written critical biography of Park Chung-hee, the book approaches Park's life, especially his aim for power, through additional psychological analysis
J. Seo, Story of Korean Election, History Critic Publishing, 2008
This book mainly focuses on the corrupted election of three dictators: Rhee Syng-man, Park Chung-hee, and Chun Doo- hwan. The writer, professor Joong-seok Suh of Sogang University, has a slightly leftist perspective and harshly criticizes the unfair elections that the dictators manipulated in order to lengthen their reign.
J. Seo, Modern History of Korea through Photo and Picture, Woongjin Knowledge House, 2005
This book is a brief narration of modern Korean history written by Professor Suh, who has a slight leftist tendency. In the narrating the history since late 1940s, he clearly revels the pro-Japanese rightists' faults and those of the dictators.
The Association of Korean History Teachers, Korean History for International Readers, Humanist Publishing, 2010
This book provides clear explanation for the international readers of Korean history. Although it contains very brief explanation on the modern history, it has better impartiality than any other source due to its conciseness.
The Association for Contemporary Korean History, Creating Republic of Korea, KeeParang, 2012
This book provides history of Korea in rather conservative perspective. Including this source is to neutralize the possible bias from slight leftist influence of "Modern History of Korea through Photo and Pictures" written by Professor Suh.
The Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 incident, A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident, The Committee of Fact Finding of Jeju 4.3 Incident and Reganing the Impaired Reputation of Victims, 2003
This report is the most detailed and through report of Jeju 4.3 Incident that includes background, process, result, evaluation, and records of several interviews of the victims written by the government-organized Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident. This also provides the original texts of Jeju 4.3 Special Law, which recovered the honor of the victims and their families.
Y. Cho, A Critical Biography of Chun Tae-il, Chun Tae-ill Commemoration Society [DolBaeGae] , 2009[2001]
This book thoroughly discovers life and ideas of Chun Tae-ill, the most well-known labor activist who burned oneself to death and whose death greatly influenced the development of Korean labor movement.

Encyclopedic Articles
Article, Aprial 19 Revolution, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000717453
Article, Chun Doo-hwan, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000900883
Article, Coup d'etat of December Twelfth, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000722646
Article, Dictatorship, in: Britannica Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/162240/dictatorship
Article, Five Year Plans, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000826533
Article, Jeju 4.3 Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000858888
Article, Park Chung-hee, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000843011
Article, Syngman Rhee, in: Britannica Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/501064/Syngman-Rhee
Article, The May 16 Coup, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000744241
Article, The October Yushin, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000709304
Article, Vietnam War, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000895565
Article, Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000741021

Newspaper Articles (in chronological order)
Article, Chaos Expected to the Privatization of Government-published Textbooks, Younhap News, 1994 http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=101&oid=001&aid=0003873218
Article, Crisis of MB government in Conservative Revision of History Textbooks, Kyunghyang Shinmun, 2013 http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201301220600035&code=940401
Article, Private Publishing Companies Publishing 1st Category Textbooks, Dong-A ilbo, 2001 http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=020&aid=0000075810
Article, The 'History War' of Park Geun-hye Government Has Started, in: Media Today, 2013 http://www.mediatoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=108190
Article, The Right Adjusts Dictators' Idol and Textbooks¡¦ A Rush of Nationalism Ideology, in: Kyunghyang Shinmun, 2011 http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201108260004255&code=940100

Online Articles
Article, Chronology of Mirae N Textbook, in: Mirae N Textbook Co. (Previously Daehan Textbook Co.) http://textbook.mirae-n.com/
Article, First Amendment of Korea, in: National Archives of Korea http://contents.archives.go.kr/next/content/listSubjectDescription.do?id=001431
Article, National Security Law, in: National Information Center of Legislation http://www.law.go.kr/lsInfoP.do?lsiSeq=116750&efYd=20120701#0000
Article, South Korea profile, in: BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15292674

Thesis
H. Kwon, A Study on Descriptions of Contemporary Korean History for the Korean High-school Textbook During the Thrid Curriculum Revision, Konkuk University, 2005 >BR> J. Kim, The Jeju Anti-Guerilla Campaign. The Red Hunt 1948-1950, 2006
Y. Kim, An Analysis on Dominant Ideology In History Textbooks Complied by the State, Ewha University, 1994



First Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
a) Definition
b) Approach of Study
II. Brief History of Korean Education Curriculum
III. Rhee Syng-man (1948-1960)
a) Biography
b) Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident (1948)
c) April 19 Revolution (1960)
IV. Park Chung-hee (1961-1981)
a) Biography
b) May 16 coup (1961)
c) Five-Year Plans (1962-1981) and New Community Movement (1970)
d) October Yushin (1972)
V. Chun, Doo-hwan (1979-1988)
a) Biography
b) Coup d'etat of December Twelfth (1979)
c) Gwangju Democratization Movement (1988)
VI. Conclusion
VII. Appendix
a) A Timeline of Changes in Korean Educational Curriculum
b) A Selective Timeline of Republic of Korea, 1945-2010
VIII. Bibliography

I. Introduction
            After the liberation from Japanese occupation, Koreans suffered from the chaotic stages due to the series of events: the establishment of divided temporary governments - a democratic government of Republic of Korea and a socialist state of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Korean War, and even the successive dictatorship from 1948 to 1988 in South Korea.

a) Definition
            This paper sets the definition of dictatorship and dictator based on that of Britannica Encyclopedia. According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, dictatorship is a "form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations." Therefore, dictator is a person who "possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations."
            However, considering the geographical and temporal scope, this paper defines dictatorship in Korea as "a form of Korean government in which a person possessed an absolute power without any constitutional limitation, after the partition of Korea." Also, the Korean dictator is a person who "kept long term by using military force and who possessed an absolute power without effective constitutional limitations, after the partition of Korea."

b) Approach of Study
            This paper is mainly based on the primary sources - high school texts books of Korean History published from 1970 to 1996 by MiraeN Publishing Company (1) and another high school history textbook published in 2006 by Gyohak Publishing Company (2). Thanks to the Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI), the copies of original textbooks (3) since late 1950s are attainable. However, textbook that published in 1954 and 1956 are not used because they lacked comments on the dictators or their policies. Therefore, this paper is based on textbooks that published in 1970, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1990, 1996, and 2007.
            Since Korean textbooks - especially history textbooks - need governmental approval to be published, the direct or indirect influence of political ideologies of those days on the their narration of history is inevitable. Until 1997, when Daehan Publishing Company privatized the Gookjeong Textbook Inc. (4), the Ministry of Culture and Education (5) (now Ministry of Education) directed the whole process of publishing history textbooks. Since 2001, although the publication of history textbooks by various private publishing companies was allowed, history textbooks have been needed the approval of Ministry of Education to be published.
            High school textbooks, especially, provide detailed narrative of history, compare to those of elementary schools and middle schools. This paper, considering the possible influence of governmental censorship on history textbooks, tries to focus and analyzes the attitudes and their change toward dictators in textbooks based on the comments on dictators, details, and the way of narration. Commentary on dictators or their policies may relative to the goal of the government of those days: for example, a dictator would have tried to propagandize his own achievements to strengthen his power through education. Anything impertinent to the propaganda would have been omitted. Moreover, due to the change in perception of specific events, the names of the events would be changed, reflected by the governmental propaganda.
            Therefore, this paper aims to reveal the relationship between political ideology and history education. The geographical scope is South Korea, in other words, Republic of Korea. The temporal scope is the period of dictatorship in Republic of Korea, which is from 1948 to 1988. This ranges from the start of 1st republic, the led by Rhee Syng-man, to the end of 5th republic, led by Chun Doo-hwan. The era of dictatorship ended in 1988, with the appointment of president Roh Tae-woo through the democratic direct election.

II. Brief History of Korean Education Curriculum

III. Rhee Syng-man (1948-1960)

a) Biography
            Rhee Syng-man was born to a poor gentleman's family, and had very high quality of education . He participated in the Korean independence movement, involving himself in the Independence Committee, provisional government of Seoul, and Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai. He worked as a nationalist leader, and was elected as a president in 1948 through the indirect election in the National Assembly.
            His capacity and participation to the independence movement were highly praised, and earned him the honor of being elected as a president of provisional government in Shanghai in 1919. However, as a politician, Rhee was authoritarian and dogmatic. He also sought for his own power, instead of making agreements to his opponents. Rhee tended to settle the chaos in Korea by intervening United States forces, and tried to become a president even tolerating the establishment of two separate governments, which neither of them recognized as complete by the activists of Independence Movements. He was an extreme anti-Communist, and irrationally punished the civilians who, by force, helped the Communist army during the Korean War, massacring more than 100,000 innocent people. Moreover, to lengthen his reign, he compellingly amended constitution, changed the election system from indirect to direct (7), and made his followers to instigate public demonstration against the National Assembly that defied him. Furthermore, Rhee employed unreasonable tactics, such as arresting the members of the National Assembly, deterring the enrollments of other candidates of the presidential election, fabricating the election results, executing his opponents, and other several dirty plays.
            Rhee's dictatorship continued until 1960, when April 19 Revolution, the public demonstration that against him and led by students, occurred. Rhee's loyal vice-president committed suicide, and Rhee, abdicated from President, exiled to Hawaii in secret, and stayed there until his death.

b) Jeju 4.3 Incident and the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident (1948)
            Both the Jeju Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident were reactions against the governmental policy of anti-Communism.
            According to the "4.3 Special law," Jeju 4.3 Incident was "an incident in which the residents of Jeju island were victimized in the process of an armed conflict and its suppression from March 1st, 1947, and the occurrence of disturbance in April 3rd, 1948, to September 21st, 1954." (8) The March 1st incident broke out when an armed police shoot against the public demonstration that commemorated the March 1st Movement of 1919 (9). The people of Jeju Island already had high dissatisfaction toward government and the dominance of United States, and hold the overall strike, also known as the "3. 10 Great Strike." (10) To handle the situation, the U.S. Military government in Korea assigned new political and military leaders, who were the outsiders to Jeju islands. Defining most of the Jeju population as leftists, the armed policemen and the Northwest Young Men's Association (11) worked to arrest the participants of the Great Strike. They captured at least 2500 people, and tortured civilians to falsely confess their Communist acts.
            Against such physical suppression, the Workers Party of South Korea (12) in Jeju engaged itself in armed struggle, requesting the cease of violence to the people of Jeju and the establishment of unified government, not the separate government based on the South Korean single-handed presidential election. Although there seemed some possibility of peaceful agreements, eventually, the U.S. army and South Korean government severed the armed repression in order to progress the presidential election in South Korea. Most civilians of Jeju evacuated and moved into Mountain Halla due to the great conflagration by the army, involving themselves to the armed resistances.
            The subjugation of Jeju 4.3 Incident accompanied several massacre (13), not only during the incident but also after the uprising was settled. The guilt-by-association system extinguished the whole family if any member of it had involved to the armed demonstration or evacuated to the mountain. After it was suppressed, by the guilt-by-association system, the whole family of the involver - if they were not killed - was labeled as violent communists, suffering from the social prejudice and inequality.
            However, the incident was only recognized as a communist revolt until late 1990s. An effort to reevaluate the event and reveal the hidden truth - the massacre of innocent victims under the ideology of anti-communism - continued, yet was deterred by the conviction under the National Security Law (14). At last, in 2003, in order to recover the honor of the innocent victims and their family, "the 4.3 Jeju special law" was proclaimed, and the national fact finding committee was organized, publishing "A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident" as a result.
            The Yeosu-Suncheon Incident that happened in October 19th, 1948, was "an incident occurred by some soldiers of the 14th regiment of the National Guard in Yeosu" (15) against the governmental command to suppress the Jeju 4.3. Incident. Beforehand, there was a conflict between the 14th regiment of National Guard and the police. Most of the soldiers of 14th regiment were leftists, who were injected by Workers Party of South Korea or leftist activists who tried to conceal themselves from the police, whereas most of the polices worked as pro-Japanese police officers. Both the 14th regiment and the police despised each other: for the 14th regiment, the police was a group of pro-Japanese traitors, and for the police, the 14th regiment was a poorly trained temporary army. In addition, the U.S. Military government, noticing the commitment of Workers Party of South Korea in the army, was in search of leftist soldiers, remaining the 14th regiment in anxiety. Eventually, when the leftist regimental commander of 14th regiment was arrested, and when the regiment was ordered to participate in the suppression strategy of Jeju 4.3. Incident, the rebellion was occurred.
            The first sergeant, Chang-soo Jee, the member of the Workers' Party of South Korea, led the rebellion by commanding other major members of the Workers' Party to seize the armory and the dump, and insisted the goal of the rebellion: "to overthrow the police, to extremely oppose to the dispatch to Jeju, and to be against the establishment of separated governments." (16) The rebels occupied Yeosu, Suncheon, Goheung, Boseong, Gwangyang, Gurye, Gokseong, while confiscating properties of pro-Japanese group and executing the rightists and the police. The government, establishing the Headquarters of Subjugation of Rebellion in Gwangju in October 21st, re-occupied the regions on that day.
            The suppression accompanied the massacre of innocent residents in the process of searching out the participants of the rebellion. At least several thousands civilians were victimized, in addition to the enormous damage of property. After the suppression was completely over, there was a broad-scaled purge campaign against the leftists among the soldiers, and the enactment of the National Security Law.
            In order to encourage the anti-Communism, both events were propagandized as barbaric Communists' acts to topple down the security of South Korea. Therefore, the massacre of innocent civilians by government was omitted from history textbooks. The Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident were not mentioned in the history textbook until 1976, during the 3rd Education Curriculum. However, it took another twenty years for the innocent victims to be referred (17).
            Although there was no evidence that communists in North Korea were involved in both events, and although the events were reactions against the oppressive government, the textbooks of 3rd Curriculum harshly blamed the northern communists that they "instigated communists in South Korea to riot in Jeju Island and rebel in Yeosu and Suncheon." The textbook of 4th Curriculum provided comparatively detailed explanation, yet it still defined both events as examples of harassing tactics of North Korean communists in order to "confuse the 5.10 general election of South Korea." (18) and "to confuse the newly established Republic of Korea." (19) It defined the Jeju 4. 3 Incident as "Jeju riot," and Yeosu-Suncheon incident as "Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion," whereas the textbook published during the 3rd Curriculum period even didn't name the events. The textbook of 5th Curriculum stated both events as "Jeju 4.3 Incident" and "Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion," while explaining the Jeju 4.3 Incident as an "armed rebellion" and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident as a communists' harassing tactic.
            The high school history textbooks published during 4th and 5th Curriculum periods, especially, did their best to insert a list of "brutal acts" instigated by the "Northern communists." Such acts included "attacking the governmental offices, murdering, arson, pillage, and etc," (20) and "[the Communist party] destroyed the dump and warehouse, murdering police and civilian, and attacking the governmental office and the police station," (21) obviously reflecting anti-Communism that the government tried to instill in students.
            Interestingly, these 4th and 5th curriculum high school history textbooks referred to the "earnest help of the citizens." that helped to expel the communists and settle the chaotic situations. However, considering that both events accompanied huge-scaled massacres, mentioning the civil help was a mere propaganda and a fabrication of the fact in order to justify the governmental suppression, as if they were obedient to the public will.
            The 1996 textbook, published during the 6th Curriculum period, was the first history textbook that ever suggested the presence of victimization of "innocent people during the process of suppression" and entitled Yeosu-Suncheon Incident less harshly, as "Yeosu-Suncheon 10.19 Incident." However, it showed a limitation in three points: not mentioning the massacre of citizens during the suppression of Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, devaluing the significance of Jeju 4.3 Incident as "to confuse the Southern 5. 10 general election" instead of a public demonstration against the government, and blaming the communists as "stirred up several bloodsheds." The anti-Communist atmosphere was, therefore, still prevalent during late 1990s, and in 1996, the infiltration of North Korean Army through submarine was found and subjugated, highly arousing the anti-Communist atmosphere.
            The 2006 textbook of 7th Curriculum most precisely narrated both Jeju 4.3 Incident and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident without prejudice and bias due to the anti-Communism. It stated the reason of two events as "the conflict between the left and the right," and juxtaposed glossaries, which explained Jeju 4.3 Incident as "an incident in which several ten thousands of human lives damaged in the process of suppressing the anti-single election demonstration in Jeju island" and Yeosu-Suncheon Incident as "an incident in which some soldiers of 14th regiment rebelled against the command of mobilization in order to suppress Jeju 4.3 Incident." Such impartial description and acknowledgement of governmental fault were possible because the Roh Moo-hyeon Government (2003-2008) - also known as Participation Government - was free from anti-Communism and tried to improve relationship of South and North Korea based on the Sunshine policy (23) of the previous government - also known as the Peoples' Government - Kim Dae-joong Government. Moreover, the legislation of 4.3 Special Law regained the honor of victims of Jeju 4.3 Incident, and the national fact finding project of the Jeju 4.3 Incident enabled re-evaluation of the event itself in addition to the anti-Communist acts of the 1st Republic of Rhee Syng-man.

c) April 19 Revolution (1960)
            The April 19 Revolution, occurred in 1960, was a public demonstration, which mainly consisted of students, against the corruption and the electorate manipulation by Rhee Syng-man and the Liberals. The direct motivation of demonstration was the rigged presidential election in which the Liberals employed 9 tactics: creating the 40% of result before the election, semipublic election by organizing trios of voters, threatening voters by dispatching armed Liberals to the voting places, expelling the presiding officer of other parties from the polling place, encouraging proxy vote and abstention, establishing illicit voting booths, counterchanging ballot boxes, fabricating the voting results, and announcing the false results. When the result of presidential election was declared in March 17th, in which the president Rhee Syng-man and the liberal vice-president Lee Gi-boong of the Liberal party earned almost 80% of the votes, no one believed it. In addition to the high dissatisfaction and distrust to the government, the students' reaction in the city of Daegu led to the outbreak of the revolution. In Daegu, every student was forced to attend a school on Sunday, February 28th, when the electioneering of the opposition party was planned. It was for the sake of the Liberals who tried to deter students from listening to the speeches of the candidate from their opposition party. As a reaction, students of Daegu started demonstration, claiming not to take advantage of students in politics.
            The demonstrations of high school students continued in Seoul, Daejeon, Suwon, and Busan, and later were joined by citizens. On April 19, most university students in Seoul announced the proclamation of a general rally, stating their rally was necessary in order to protect the justice and democracy of Republic of Korea. Rhee and the Liberals tried to suppress the public demonstration by using military force and keep their dictatorship. However, the national demonstration was vehement, and the 259 professors from several universities adopted the state of affairs declaration statement and participated to the public demonstration. Rhee, who tended to insist that his continuous reelection was based to the public sentiment, finally abdicated from his office and surreptitiously exiled to Hawaii.
            When dealing the April 19 Revolution, most textbooks included three categories: the background of Revolution, its process, and its effect on the society. Generally, most of the high school history textbooks praised the great activism by students that successfully secured democracy in Republic of Korea. The 2rd Curriculum textbook, published in 1970, named April 19 Revolution as "April 19 Righteous Movement" or "April Righteous Movement," narrating the process in passionate, glorious tone. The 1970 textbook also explained the event as the "explosion" of "purposeful action of young students who have brave tradition in rightfulness and accumulated dissatisfaction of citizen." "The April Righteous Movement," following to it, was "the first people's revolution in history" which "fought against the injustice and dictatorship with bare hands."
            On the other hand, the textbook avoided direct criticism on the corruption of Rhee Syng-man. Although it stated that he "showed tendency to dictate" by reinforcing the ruling force and pushing the 1st amendment (24) through, the textbook first start the chapter, "Revolution and Improvement," mentioning his achievements in anti-Japanese Movements. In the next sentence, the target of criticism was changed to "some politicians," who "depended on president Rhee Syng-man," and "ignored the constitutional order to set the permanent reign." Furthermore, the 1970 textbook focused more on the social chaos that April 19 Revolution brought. Most obviously, it blamed the ruling force of 2nd republic, which "did not fulfill the people's expectation," "did not gained the political peace," had "disordered political discipline," brought "inflation due to the failure in economic policy" and had "deterioration of rural economy." Simultaneously, it pointed out that "people who misinterpreted freedom and acted indulgently" "demonstrated for every cause" brought extreme social chaos. The textbook was published under the 3rd republic of Park Chung-hee, who became a president through a military coup d'etat against the 2nd republic. The reproach of 2nd republic was not only the fact, but also a justification of Park Chug-hee's rising to the power.
            The textbooks published during the 3rd Curriculum entitled April 19 Revolution as "4. 19 Righteous Movement," and added more details as time passed. The 1977 textbook had basically identical description to that of 1970 textbook, yet a paragraph that listed the venal acts by "some politicians" was added. Moreover, in explaining the social effect of the event, a sentence that pointed out the "political chaos" was added. The 1978 textbook provided more detailed description, especially about the corrupted government of Rhee Syng-man and himself. "During the war, as his had a bare chance to be re-elected from the 2nd presidential election, president Rhee Syng-man passed the selected amendment bill to the Constitution by suppressing the National Assembly through stirring a political upheaval." It was the first history textbook that pointed out Syng-man Rhee's own fault. However, still, the textbook provided more information of unjust acts of the Liberal party, providing the list of such acts in two paragraphs.

IV. Park Chung-hee (1961-1981)

a) Biography

b) May 16 coup
            The textbooks of 3rd Curriculum, published under Park Chung-hee government, definitely praised the May 16 coup by naming it as the "5.16 Revolution." The 1970 textbook explained the purpose of the "5. 16 Revolution" as "in order to wipe out the struggle and chaos, and to save nation and the people from the communists' attack." Furthermore, it even increased the significance of the event by relating the "5.16 Revolution" to the April 19 Revolution (25).
            Both of the sub-categories of the "5.16 Revolution" and the "The Days of the 3rd Republic" were included in the chapter named "Revolution and Improvements." The chapter had no negative comment on the Revolutionary Government, the provisional military government under Park Chung-hee. The textbook directly referred that the 2 years of military administration brought great accomplishments in military reformation, rectification of corruption, establishment of administrational rules, and settling the social atmosphere. Moreover, the 1970 textbook delivered the list of achievements of Revolutionary Government in various fields, such as economy, culture, diplomacy, military, and etc.
            One specific example that the 1970 textbook had was Vietnam War: influenced by the contemporary anti-communistic idea, the overseas dispatch of armed force to Vietnam War was acclaimed as a contribution to the world peace that is successfully in progress. However, considering that the deployment of troops to Vietnam War was rather for the sake of the economic assistance from United States than for the sake of the world peace, the comment on the Vietnam War in the 1970 textbook was an absolute glorification. Also, since the textbook did not mention about the side effects of the policies of Park Chung-hee's Revolutionary Government, the 1970 textbook propagandized its contemporary dictatorship.
            The 1977 textbook, also published during the period under Park Chung-hee, showed greatly favorable attitude toward the government, and reflected the overall anti-communist atmosphere in society in praising and passionate tone. Whereas most context was similar to that of 1970 textbook, the 1977 textbook appended the social conflict created by North Korean communists in explaining the background of the "5.16 Revolution." It also provided more organized information on Revolutionary Government, for example, the fundamental aim, campaigns, and its results.

c) Five-Year Plans and New Community Movement

The Five-Year Plans
            Among the textbooks that were published during the 3rd Curriculum period, the 1970 textbook briefly dealt with the Five-Year Plans in the sub-category of "5.16 Revolution" and "The Days of the 3rd Republic," in which the achievements of Park Chung-hee's Revolutionary Government were listed. According to the 1970 textbook, the Five-Year Plans was proceed under the belief that the national improvement was only possible based on the economic stability. The accomplishment of the 1st Five-Year Plan was positively narrated: it was a "fundamental work for the improvement," which was "the mission of 20 years after the Independence."
            Although the Five-Year Plans brought economic development in Republic of Korea, it also had serious side effects. For example, the gap between the rich and the poor exacerbated, and due to the governmental supports to the major companies brought extremely unfair relations between the labor and the capital. (more info about Chun Tae-il based on his critical biography to be added) However, since the textbook did not mention such weaknesses, the 1970 textbook just to encourage and to instilled the students to follow the governmental policy by reinforcing its positive side.
            The 1977 textbook became more ideological when it dealt with the Five-Year Plans. In the chapter "The Days of the 3rd Republic," the 1977 textbook offered only positive narration on the outcomes of governmental policies, by reiterating "innovative accomplishments" for two times and using other statements of praise repeatedly. Also, the 1977 textbook did not avoid obviously glorifying the Five-Year Plans as they were "successfully carried out." Also, the textbook stated the significance of "Saemaeul Movement" (New Village Movement), referring its effect on the modernization of farm villages.

d) October Yushin

V. Chun, Doo-hwan (1979-1988)
a) Biography
b) Coup d'etat of December Twelfth
c) Gwangju Massacre

VI. Conclusion
Status Quo of Korean history Education On Dictatorship in 1948-1988 / Possible Improvements

aspects changed?
reason : fundamental rights?
lack of information
history teachers?

VII. Appendix

a) A Timeline of Changes in Korean Educational Curriculum
The 1st Curriculum: 1954-1963
The 2nd Curriculum: 1963-1974
The 3rd Curriculum: 1974-1981
The 4th Curriculum: 1981-1987
The 5th Curriculum: 1987-1992
The 6th Curriculum: 1992-1997
The 7th Curriculum: 1997-

b) A Selective Timeline of Republic of Korea, 1945-2010
Article, South Korea profile, in: BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15292674

1945 - After World War II, Japanese occupation ends with Soviet troops occupying area north of the 38th parallel, and US troops in the south.
1948 - Republic of Korea proclaimed.
1950 - South declares independence, sparking North Korean invasion.
1953 - Armistice ends Korean War, which has cost two million lives.
1950s - South sustained by crucial US military, economic and political support.
1960 - President Syngman Ree steps down after student protests against electoral fraud. New constitution forms Second Republic, but political freedom remains limited.
1961 - Military coup puts General Park Chung-hee in power.
1963 - General Park restores some political freedom and proclaims Third Republic. Major programme of industrial development begins.
1972 - Martial law. Park increases his powers with constitutional changes.
1979 - Park assassinated. General Chun Doo-hwan assumes power.
1980 - Martial law declared after student demonstrations. In the city of Gwangju (Kwangju) at least 200 killed by the army, causing resentment that has yet to fade. Fifth republic and new constitution.
1981 - Chun indirectly elected to a seven year term. Martial law ends, but government continues to have strong powers to prevent dissent.
1986 - Constitution is changed to allow direct election of the president. Return to democracy
1980s - Increasing shift towards high-tech and computer industry.
1987 - President Chun pushed out of office by student unrest and international pressure in the build-up to the Sixth constitution. Roh Tae-woo succeeds Chun, grants greater degree of political liberalisation and launches anti-corruption drive.
1988 - Olympic games in Seoul. First free parliamentary elections.
1991 - North and South Korea join the United Nations.
1993 - Roh succeeded by Kim Young Sam, a former opponent of the regime and the first civilian president.
1995 - Corruption and treason charges against Roh Tae-woo and Chun Doo-hwan.
1996 - North Korean submarine runs aground in South, 11 crew found shot dead in apparent suicide and 13 killed by South Korean forces during massive search operation.
1998 - Kim Dae-jung sworn in as president and pursues "sunshine policy" of offering unconditional economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea. South Korea captures North Korean mini-submarine in its waters. Nine crew inside found dead.
2000 June - Summit in Pyongyang between Kim Jong-il and South Korean President Kim Dae-jung. North stops propaganda broadcasts against South.
2000 August - Border liaison offices re-open at truce village of Panmunjom. South Korea gives amnesty to more than 3,500 prisoners. One hundred North Koreans meet their relatives in the South in a highly-charged, emotional reunion. Kim Dae-jung awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
2002 March - Group of 25 North Koreans defect to South Korea through Spanish embassy in Beijing, highlighting plight of tens of thousands hiding in China after fleeing famine, repression in North.
2002 June - Battle between South Korean and North Korean naval vessels along their disputed sea border leaves four South Koreans dead and 19 wounded. Thirty North Koreans are thought to have been killed.
2002 December - Roh Moo-hyun, from governing Millennium Democratic Party, wins closely-fought presidential elections.
2003 October - Biggest mass crossing of demilitarised zone since Korean War: Hundreds of South Koreans travel to Pyongyang for opening of gymnasium funded by South's Hyundai conglomerate.
2004 March-May - President Roh Moo-hyun suspended after parliament votes to impeach him over breach of election rules and for incompetence. In May the Constitutional Court overturns the move and President Roh is reinstated.
2004 September - South Korea admits that its scientists carried out an experiment to enrich uranium in 2000. In November the UN's nuclear watchdog rebukes Seoul but decides not to refer the matter to the Security Council.
2007 February - South and North Korea agree to restart high-level talks suspended since July 2006 in wake of North's nuclear test. South Korea agrees with US to assume operational control of its own military forces, in the event of war, from 2012.
2007 May - Passenger trains cross the North-South border for the first time in 56 years.
2007 October - The leaders of North and South Korea pledge at a summit to seek talks to formally end the Korean war.
2007 November - Prime ministers from North and South Korea meet for the first time in 15 years.
2007 December - Conservative Lee Myung-bak wins landslide victory in presidential election. Thaw stalls
2008 April - North Korea hits out at new South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, warning that his tough stance could lead to "catastrophic consequences".
2008 July - North Korean soldier shoots South Korean woman in the North's Mount Kumgang special tourism area, leading to tensions between the two sides.
2009 January - North Korea says it is scrapping all military and political deals with the South over its "hostile intent", as ties worsen.
2009 May - Former president Roh Moo-hyun commits suicide over a bribery scandal.
2009 August - Former South Korean president Kim Dae-jung dies; North Korea sends a senior delegation to Seoul to pay its respects.
In a further sign of thaw in relations, North Korea announces easing of restrictions on cross-border traffic, and talks on family reunions - suspended since early 2008 - restart.
2009 October - North Korea expresses "regret" for unleashing dam water that drowned six campers downstream in South Korea in September. The two sides hold talks aimed at preventing flooding on the Imjin River which spans their militarised border.
2009 November - South and North Korean warships exchange fire across a disputed sea border.
2010 January - North Korea accepts an offer of food aid from South Korea, the first such aid in two years. South Korea returns fire after the North fires artillery shells near their disputed sea border.


Notes
(1)      Previously, the Daehan Publishing Company: it has changed its name to MiraeN Publishing Company since 2008, commemorating its 60th anniversary.
(2)      However, since all history textbooks are written by the National History Compliation Committee and approved by the Ministry of Education, there is not much difference among history textbooks published by numbers of publishing companies.
(3)      High school history textbooks that were published in 1956, 1957, 1970, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1990, and 1996 were available.
(4)      Gookjeong Textbook Inc., was the publishing company of textbooks established by government in 1953
(5)      The Ministry of Education was first founded as the Ministry of Culture and Education in 1948. The name was changed in 1990, as the Ministry of Education, then the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development in 2001, reorganized into the Ministry of Education and Science in 2008, and finally changed the name into the Ministry of Education again in 2013
(6)      Rhee Syung-man was was educated by his father, a traditional scholar, and in Baejae academy , George Washington University, Princeton University, and Harvard University.
(7)      In the early years of Republic of Korea, the members of National Assembly elected the president. However, Rhee, knowing that he would not be re-elected through the indirect election, tried to change the system to direct election by the public, who were too ignorant to know his faults.
(8)      The Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 incident, A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident, The Committee of Fact Finding of Jeju 4.3 Incident and Regaining the Impaired Reputation of Victims, 2003
(9)      The March 1st Movement was a national Public demonstration against Japanese occupation.
(10)      95% of the workplaces in Jeju joined in the Great Strike, including 66 policemen. Such high rate of participation showed that the public dissatisfaction and antipathy toward government and United States were very high.
(11)      Northwest Young Men's Association was the association of young rightists who moved from North to South due to the Communist suppression. Established in 1946, the association actively participated to the anti-Communist activism, and was financially supported by Rhee Syng-man.
(12)      The Workers Party of South Korea was a communist party in South Korea that established in 1946.
(13)      Approximately 30,000 to 80,000 people were victimized, labeling the Jeju Uprising as the incident that had the largest number of victims except the Korean War.
(14)      The National Security Law is a regulation of anti-government activities which endanger the national security in order to secure the national security, citizens' survival and freedom. Article, National Security Law, in: National Information Center of Legislation
(15)      Article, Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia
(16)      Ibid.
(17)      The high school history textbook first briefly mentioned about the innocent victims of the Jeju 4.3 Incident.
(18)      Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1986
(19)      Ibid.
(20)      Ibid.
(21)      Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1986
(22)      Ibid.
(23)      The Sunshine policy is a governmental policy of Kim Dae-joong Government that aimed for peaceful unification of Korea based on the cooperation with North Korea and providing support to North Korea.
(24)      The 1st Amendment was the unconstitutional and illegal amendment that tried to reinforce the presidential power while keeping the parliamentary system. It was passed by force. Article, 1st Amendment of Korea, in; National Archives of Korea
(25)      "This revolution was a succession and an improvement of April 19 Revolution." Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1970

VIII. Bibliography
Primary Source
History Textbooks
2nd Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1970
3rd Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1977
3rd Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1978
3rd Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1980
4th Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1986
5th Curriculum, Ministry of Culture and Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1990
6th Curriculum, Ministry of Education, Korean History, Daehan Publishing Co., 1996
7th Curriculum, Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, Korean History, Gyohak Publishing Co., 2006
Teacher's Guides
3rd Curriculum, Ministry of Culture & Education, Korean History: Guide for High School Teachers, Daehan Publishing Co., 1979
4th Curriculum, Ministry of Culture & Education, Korean History: Guide for High School teachers, Daehan Publishing Co., 1982
5th Curriculum, Ministry of Culture & Education, Korean History: Guide for High School teachers, Daehan Publishing Co., 1990
Books
A. C. Nahm, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Korea, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1993

C. Ham, A Study on the Changing History of Curriculum of Korea, Education & Science, 2003
This huge report is a result of a study of professor Ham Chong-gyu of Sookmyeong Women's Univeristy since 1970s, following to the request of Ministry of Education and Culture to thoroughly organize the information relative to the Korean Curriculums and their changes from the late Chosun dynasty up to the late 20th century. This is the most precise and detailed source for the history of Korean Curriculum that now exists.

C. Lee, Syngman Rhee; The Prison Years of a Young Radical, Younsei University Press, 2001
This book rather focuses on the early years of Rhee Syng-man as an activist of independence movement. In other words, the book emphasizes the favorable aspect of Rhee Syng-man.

D. K, The Birth of "the Reds", SeonIn, 2009
This book is a thorough analysis of the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, including the background, process, result, and the evaluation of the event. It also provided the table of the changed commentaries on the Yeosu-Suncheon Incident and the Jeju 4.3 Incident in the textbooks published from the 3nd Curriculum Era to the 7th Curriculum Era.

I. Chun, A Critical Biography of Park Chung-hee, Ehak Publishing Co., 2006

J. Seo, Story of Korean Election, History Critic Publishing, 2008
This book mainly focuses on the corrupted election of three dictators: Rhee Syng-man, Park Chung-hee, and Chun Doo-hwan. The writer, professor Joong-seok Suh of Sogang University, has a slight leftist perspective and harshly criticizes the unfair elections that the dictators manipulated in order to lengthen their reign.

J. Seo, Modern History of Korea through Photo and Picture, Woongjin Knowledge House, 2005
This book is a brief narration of modern Korean history written by Professor Suh, who has a slight leftist tendency. In the narrating the history since late 1940s, he clearly revels the pro-Japanese rightists' faults and those of the dictators.

S. Kim, About Park Chung-hee, Life and Dream, 2006

The Association of Korean History Teachers, Korean History for International Readers, Humanist Publishing, 2010
This book provides clear explanation for the international readers of Korean history. Although it contains a brief explanation on the modern history, it has better impartiality than any other source due to its conciseness.
The Association for Contemporary Korean History, Creating Republic of Korea, KeeParang, 2012
This book provides history of Korea in rather conservative perspective. Including this source is to neutralize the possible bias from slight leftist influence of "Modern History of Korea through Photo and Pictures" written by Professor Suh.

The Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 incident, A Fact Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident, The Committee of Fact Finding of Jeju 4.3 Incident and Reganing the Impaired Reputation of Victims, 2003
This report is the most detailed and through report of Jeju 4.3 Incident that includes background, process, result, evaluation, and records of several interviews of the victims written by the government-organized Planning Group of Writing Fact-Finding Report of Jeju 4.3 Incident. This also provides the original texts of Jeju 4.3 Special Law, which recovered the honor of the victims and their families.

Y. Cho, A Critical Biography of Chun Tae-il, Chun Tae-ill Commemoration Society [DolBaeGae] , 2009 [2001]

Encyclopedic Articles
Article, Aprial 19 Revolution, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000717453
Article, Chun Doo-hwan, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000900883
Article, Coup d'etat of December Twelfth, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000722646
Article, Dictatorship, in: Britannica Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/162240/dictatorship
Article, Five Year Plans, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000826533
Article, Jeju 4.3 Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000858888
Article, Park Chung-hee, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000843011
Article, Syngman Rhee, in: Britannica Online Encyclopedia http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/501064/Syngman-Rhee
Article, The May 16 Coup, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000744241
Article, The October Yushin, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000709304
Article, Vietnam War, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000895565
Article, Yeosu-Suncheon Incident, in: Doosan Encyclopedia http://www.doopedia.co.kr/doopedia/master/master.do?_method=view&MAS_IDX=101013000741021
Magazine Articles
Article, Reinforcing "Liberal Democracy" Intentionally Beautifies Dictatorship, in: Minjok 21, 2001
Newspaper Articles
Article, Chaos Expected to the Privatization of Government-published Textbooks, Younhap News, 1994 http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=101&oid=001&aid=0003873218
Article, Private Publishing Companies Publishing 1st Category Textbooks, Dong-A ilbo, 2001 http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=020&aid=0000075810
Article, The 'History War' of Park Geun-hye Government Has Started, in: The Media Today, 2013 http://www.mediatoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=108190
Article, The Right Adjusts Dictators' Idol and Textbooks¡¦ A Rush of Nationalism Ideology, in: The Kyunghyang Shinmun, 2011, http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201108260004255&code=940100

Online Articles
Article, Chronology of Mirae N Textbook, in: Mirae N Textbook Co. (Previously Daehan Textbook Co.) http://textbook.mirae-n.com/
Article, First Amendment of Korea, in: National Archives of Korea http://contents.archives.go.kr/next/content/listSubjectDescription.do?id=001431
Article, National Security Law, in: National Information Center of Legislation http://www.law.go.kr/lsInfoP.do?lsiSeq=116750&efYd=20120701#0000
Article, South Korea profile, in: BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15292674

Thesis
H. Kwon, A Study on Descriptions of Contemporary Korean History for the Korean High-school Textbook During the Thrid Curriculum Revision, Konkuk University, 2005
J. Kim, The Jeju Anti-Guerilla Campaign. The Red Hunt 1948-1950, 2006
Y. Kim, An Analysis on Dominant Ideology In History Textbooks Complied by the State, Ewha University, 1994