Transfer of Knowledge and Skills between the World of Islam and South Asia


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
LEJ



Table of Contents


Fourth Draft (Final Draft), Oct. 31 2013
Third Draft, Notes and References , Oct. 30 2013
Second Draft , Oct. 23 2013
Added Chapters , June 30 2013
First Draft , Mar. 6 2013



Fourth Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Table of Contents

I. Introduction and Method of Study
II. Boundaries of Study
III. Historical Analysis
III.1. Pre-Islamic Relations
III.1.1. Arab Explorers and Traders
III.1.2. Indian Explorers and Traders
III.2. Early Invasions and the Delhi Sultanates
III.2.1. Muhammad ibn Qasim in Sindh
III.2.2. Mahmud of Ghazni
III.2.3. Delhi Sultanates
III.3. Mughal Empire
III.3.1. Babur
III.3.2. Akbar
III.3.3. Jahangir
III.3.4. Jahan
III.3.5. Aurangzeb
IV. Particular Aspects of study
IV.1. Religion
IV.1.1. Hindu aspects in Islam
IV.1.2. Conversions to Islam
IV.1.3. Syncretic Religious Movements
IV.1.4. Interpretation
IV.1.4.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
IV.1.4.2. Quality of Transfer
IV.2. Sciences
IV.2.1. Astronomy
IV.2.2. Mathematics
IV.2.3. Medicine
IV.2.4. Interpretation
IV.2.4.1. Periodization
IV.2.4.2. Means of Transfer
IV.2.4.3. Quality of Transfer
IV.3. Agricultural Technology
IV.3.1. Grafting
IV.3.2. Irrigation
IV.3.3. Water and Windmills
IV.3.4. Interpretation
IV.3.4.1. Periodization
IV.3.4.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
IV.4. Metallurgy
IV.4.1. Indian influence on the Arabs and Persians
IV.4.2. Central Asian influence on India
IV.4.3. Interpretation
IV.4.3.1. Periodization
IV.4.3.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
IV.5. Language and Literature
IV.5.1. Literatures of Turko-Persian Culture
IV.5.2. Use of Vernacular Language in Muslim Literature
IV.5.3. Interpretation
IV.5.3.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
IV.5.3.2. Quality of Transfer
IV.6. Other Skills and Knowledge Transferred
IV.6.1. Architecture
IV.6.2. Shipbuilding
IV.6.3. Cuisine
IV.6.4. Board Game - Chess
V. Conclusion
Endnotes
Bibliography

I. Introduction and Method of Study
            Contact between the World of Islam and South Asia is of a different nature to contact of the World of Islam among other regions, such as East Asia or Europe in that South Asia had been under Muslim rule for a significant period of time. Transfer is too superficial a word to delineate the essence of the contact between the two worlds. In fact, direct interaction was established and not only transferred but was profoundly integrated as well. Hence, it is only proper that this study should deal with transfer and integration of cultural aspects as well as the technical knowledge and skills. With this in mind, this paper will initially look into patterns of transfer which can be illuminated by historical time periods. After the historical background is established, the paper will delve deeper into the particular aspects of transfer or integration that had taken place with special emphasis on religion, sciences, and language and literature.
            It can be seen that prior to Mahmud of Ghazni, the interaction has taken place in both the World of Islam and in India; after Mahmud of Ghazni, by large, interaction was limited to the Indian subcontinent. The Arabs had direct contact with India as conquerors in Sindh and as traders with south India. Indirectly the influence of Indian culture also co-existed though the channels of Persia and Central Asia. However, after the Mongol invasion, the Persians had developed direct relations with the Indians, more particularly during the Mughal period although interaction with the Arabs still existed.

II. Boundaries of Study
            The World of Islam refers to the civilization developed by the Muslim world, including the Middle East, Persia, etc. In the 7th to 9th century refers to Arabia (Yemen, Baghdad) and Iran, in the 12th to 17th century it rather refers to Iran, Afghanistan and Turan. The term South Asia refers to the Indian subcontinent. The time periods dealt with will be limited to before British Colonial rule of India because important connections between the world of Islam and South Asia had already been established before the Colonial era.

III. Historical Analysis
III.1. Pre-Islamic Relations
            We begin our analysis by discussing the beginnings of Arab and Indian relations. Though it is commonly believed that major interaction and integration between Arabia and India took place during the time of Muslim invasions, trade relations between Arabia and the Indian subcontinent predate Islamic expansion and have existed from ancient times. During this period, Arab forces entering India were not attempts to conquer the area but primarily exploratory missions, creating a rather liberal ambience of trade rather than force or conquest. However, it must be noted that since Arabs primarily entered India by sea during this period, pre-Islamic relations are mainly limited to Southern India.
            Based on these regular commercial voyages, the Arabs knew about India long before the advent of Islam and these regular commercial interactions between Arabs and Indians throughout this period culminated in influencing each other's language and culture (1).

III.1.1. Arab Explorers and Traders
            Arab traders, when travelling to India, especially used to visit the southwest coast, such as Malabar, which linked them with the ports of Southeast Asia. The Arab traders established little merchant communities in India and often married local women and found places for themselves within the Indian society. These communities established on the major trading ports functioned as a foothold for further expansion of Muslims and also provided contacts by which Indian learning could be transmitted to and expanded by the Arabs.

III.1.2. Indian Explorers and Traders
            Paralleling the Arabs, Indians traveled to the Arab world for trading purposes. These visits resulted in religious convergences of various sorts as there were many things in common between Hinduism and the pagan religions that existed in West Asia (2). Sages from India mingled with the Arabs and started influencing each other's lives (3). Some Indian goods that entered the Arab world were named after the place of origin, al-Hind. Indian swords, which the Arabs called Hindi, Hindawani, and Muhannad, gained the reputation of being very supple and sharp, as many Pre-Islamic Arab poetry has many references to this and many other Indian goods being popular among Bedouins (4). Furthermore, many Indian words like sandal, tanbul, karanfal, and narjeel were popular and widely used among Arabs, giving proof that even before the advent of Islam and Muslim invasions, there was significant interaction between the two cultures.

III.2. Early Invasions and the Delhi Sultanates
            Aforementioned, since ancient times, Arab seafarers and traders have been major carriers in the trading network that stretched from Italy in the Mediterranean to the South China Sea (5). The Arabs had settled down in many parts of south India as merchant communities in Konkan, Malabar and in many of the coastal towns of Madras and Mysore. After converting to Islam, these traders continued to frequent the ports of Southern and Southwestern India and became the major carriers of the religion, acting as missionaries.
            After the advent of Islam, there was not necessarily an increased contact with India but rather, a new dimension was added. In contrast to Southern India in which the headway of cultural exchange was made through a more liberal ambience, in Northern India, cultural interactions took place under Muslim conquerors and invasions.

III.2.1. Muhammad ibn Qasim in Sindh
            Muslim presence as rulers in India was initiated in 711 CE with the conquering of Sindh. This intrusion resulted indirectly from the peaceful trading contacts that had brought Muslims into contact with Indian civilization in the first place. Their entry to India was prompted by an attempt to free Muslim prisoners after a pirate raid in Raja Dahir (the king of Sindh)'s territory. After diplomatic attempts failed, Hajjaj (the viceroy of the eastern provinces of the Umayyad Empire) launched punitive measures against the king of Sindh. He sent seventeen-year-old Muhammad ibn Qasim with a small army, who defeated the Indian forces with ease due the Arab's superiority of military technique and also the voluntary surrenders of the Indians. Popular dissatisfaction with the former rulers seems to have contributed substantially to Arab success (6).
            During this period, little conversion of the conquered population was attempted and the normal rule was to employ local talent and make minimum changes in the local practices. Therefore, the native Indian people experienced little change. The voluntary surrenders of the native peoples were in fact due to promises on the Arabs' side of lighter taxation and greater religious tolerance, so the native inhabitants were free to go about their daily lives and have their freedom of worship. It was rather the Arabs who were much influenced by the rich culture and advanced knowledge of India during the early conquests, which will be dealt with greater depth in the chapter IV. However, it was through the conquest of Sindh that Muslims came to exercise a potent influence on Indian thought and culture in future times.

III.2.2. Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1002) (7)
            After the early conquests by Muhammad ibn Qasim's forces, little territory was added to the Muslim foothold on the subcontinent and there was a slow Muslim retreat as quarrels between the Arabs ruling in Sindh and quarrels with the Umayyad and later Abbasid caliphs led the reconquest of parts of the lower Indus valley by Hindu rulers. However, the slow Muslim retreat was reversed by a new series of military invasions, this time launched by a Turkish slave dynasty that in 962 CE had seized power in Afghanistan to the north of the Indus valley. The third ruler of this dynasty, Mahmud of Ghazni, led a series of expeditions that initiated nearly two centuries of Muslim raiding and conquest in northern India. Drawn by the legendary wealth of the subcontinent and a zeal to spread the Muslim faith, Mahmud repeatedly raided northwest India in the first decades of the 11th century. He defeated one confederation of Hindu princes after another and drove deeper and deeper into the subcontinent in the quest of rich temples to sack and loot. The example set by Mahmud of Ghazni of raiding India's riches, was followed by his successors and became a source of enmity between Hindus and Muslims in South Asia.
            The effect of the Ghazni invasions is then self-explanatory. A glimpse into India during the time of the invasions is well revealed in Islamic writer Al-Biruni's account of India. As Al-Biruni describes, "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places." (8) However, even in this period, evidence of peaceful interactions existed.

III.2.3. Delhi Sultanates (1206-1526)
            Delhi Sultanates refers to the five Delhi based kingdoms of Turkish origin from the 13th to 15th century. Unlike the raids of the previous Muslim rulers of the mountain areas, these were aimed not at acquiring plunder and glory but at the political control of northern India and in this period, the story of Islam in India is one of expansion and the building up of a great empire that would be based not on Ghazni or Ghor but on Lahore and Delhi ((8a). The territory reached as far as Southern India by the time the Sultanates were absorbed by the Mughal Empire. This period is referred to as heralding the Indian cultural renaissance, leaving prominent marks of Indo-Muslim fusion culture.

III.3. Mughal Empire (9)
            The Mughal Empire dominated most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th century to early 18th century. During the Mughal Empire, the pattern and mood of cultural contact depended on the policies of the emperors; hence, this chapter will discuss the prominent emperors and their attitudes and policies.

III.3.1. Babur (1526-1530)
            Babur, the open-minded first emperor of the Mughal Empire, founded a sophisticated civilization based on religious toleration - a civilization that was a mixture of Persian, Mongol, and Indian culture. There was a decrease in slavery and peace was made with the Hindu kingdoms of southern India during the rule of Babur. His first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows, a practice that was offensive to Hindus. Although Babur's ancestors were brutal conquerors, Babur himself was not a barbarian bent on loot and plunder but instead had great ideas about civilization, architecture, and administration.

III.3.2. Akbar (1556-1605)
            Akbar is regarded as one of the greatest rulers and Akbar was responsible for many of the features that characterize the Mughal period. Akbar's father, Humayan was not as a competent at governing as his grandfather Babur had been, but passed on his love of poetry and culture to his son, enabling Akbar to make the Mughal Empire and artistic power as well as a military one. Akbar succeeded the throne at the young age of 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in 1605, he had most of north, central, and western India under his rule. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders (while this may well have been for political reasons, it was also a part of his philosophy). Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believer equally, whatever their belief. He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Akbar's government included many Hindus in positions of power and responsibility. In other words, the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing. Akbar also ended the discriminatory tax that had been imposed on the non-Muslims. The amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces was an innovation. Non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law, and Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions.

III.3.3. Jahangir (1605-1627)
            Akbar's son, Jahangir readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration. His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects. Jahangir also began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered for to this day, importing hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and create magnificent gardens. In fact, Jahangir's approach to ruling was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of the Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure.

III.3.4. Jahan (1628-1631)
            The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between 1592 and 1666, during the reign of Jahan. Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal, which marks the stability, power, and confidence of the Mughal Empire. By Jahan's period, the capital had moved to the Red Fort in Delhi, putting the Fort at the heart of Mughal power. However, the money Jahan spent on buildings and on various military projects emptied his treasury and he was forced to raise taxes, aggravating the people of the empire.

III.3.5. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
            Aurangzeb was the last great emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled for nearly 50 years, coming to the throne after imprisoning his father and having his older brother killed. He was a vigorous leader, whose conquests expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest size. Aurangzeb was a very observant and religious Muslim who ended the policy of religious tolerance followed by earlier emperors. He no longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their own laws and customs, but imposed the Islamic law over the whole empire. Thousands of Hindu temples and shrines were torn down and a punitive tax on Hindu subjects was revived. In the last decades of the 17th century, Aurangzeb invaded the Hindu kingdoms in central and southern India, conquering much territory and taking many slaves. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its military power, but the rule was not stable, partly due to the hostility that Aurangzeb's intolerance and taxation inspired in the population and also because the empire had become too big to be efficiently and successfully governed. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The Mughal emperors that followed Aurangzeb became British or French puppets and the last Mughal emperor was deposed by the British in 1858.

IV. Particular Aspects of Study
IV.1. Religion
            During Muslim rule, both Islam and Hinduism were exposed to the philosophies and customs of the other and therefore could not avoid being influenced by one another; both inevitably have some aspects of the other in their religious philosophies and customs. Although the process of integration is obscure, and although it is perhaps more of a gradual integration process rather than transfer of knowledge, it is to be discussed in this paper because accommodation and integration can, in a broad sense, be perceived as a two-way transfer of knowledge. For conciseness, the discussion stays within the realms of Islam and Hinduism.

IV.1.1. Hindu aspects in Islam
            There is no doubt that Islam was, to some extent, influenced by Hinduism in some very important respects. They borrowed from the Hindus some aspects of mysticism and some mores, especially their caste-system, funeral and birth-rights, marriage customs, untouchability which they practiced against sweepers, and a host of other things (10) However, the main tenets of Hindu creed did not have much influence over the Muslim code of life and it can be safely said that Islam had a greater influence on Hinduism.

IV.1.2. Conversions to Islam
            The common belief that Islam made its way into India via sword is poorly evidenced by history. When Islam penetrated India through traders, interaction was undoubtedly peaceful and voluntary. Even during the time of the conquering of Sindh, the common axiom was that Muslims are governed by Islamic law while non-Muslims are subject to their own laws and social organization and Arab rulers from the occupation of Sindh accepted the right of the village and caste panchayats to settle the affairs of their community, leading to autonomous Hindu republics. Of course, there were occasional periods in history where the rulers oppressed the non-Muslim religions and it is true that with the rulers being Muslim there was the connotation of force was introduced, but in general, a large number of natives converted to Islam not because of the political domination of the Muslims but for other reasons, among which may be ranked the missionary activities of Sufi thinkers and the intolerable economic condition of the masses coupled with the ignorance of their own religion (11). The fact that there is surprising little Muslim converts at the centers of Muslim rule also contribute to the fact that forced conversion was not the norm. In a nutshell, egalitarian aspects of Islam appealed to the outcastes and depressed social classes, while high-caste Hindus stubbornly resisted conversion.

IV.1.3. Syncretic Religious Movements
            After the 14th century, the Muslim conquest of North India ushered a revolution in traditional Hindu thought. One of the earliest religious leaders was Kabir. Kabir hated the caste system, rejected the authority of the six schools of the Indian philosophy, thought lowly of the theory of the transmigration of souls, and repudiated the doctrine of reincarnation (12). However, he was equally uncompromising toward Muslim fundamentalism and tried his best to break the barriers existing between Hindus and Muslims. The founding of the Sikh religion in the latter half of the 15th century also sprouted from the contact with Islam and Hinduism. Guru Nanak's, the founder of Sikhism, aim was to unite both Hindu and Muslim through an appeal to what he considered the great central truths of both, acknowledging Kabir and as his spiritual teacher. (13). Kabir and Guru Nanak were followed by a host of Hindu thinkers and reformers in the 16th and 17th centuries, illustrating some of the easily visible results of Islam and Hindu contact. Long before the Hindus became reconciled to the Muslim rulers, their relations with the common Muslims had considerably improved as soon as they saw that the Muslims had made India their home and bigotry and feeling of superiority as conquerors were gradually diminishing and began to diminish their hostile attitude due to these syncretism movements.

IV.1.4. Interpretation
IV.1.4.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
            After ten centuries of invasions, a significant Muslim community had been established in the Indian subcontinent. It can be seen that Islam first made its way into South Asia via traders and explorers who acted missionaries of the new religion. Therefore, peaceful conversions and interactions ensued in the beginnings. However, with the start of the Muslim invasions, the spread of Islam took on a more forceful color, although the majority of the emperors enforced religious toleration.

IV.1.4.2. Quality of Transfer
            The imported faith of Islam collided with indigenous Hindu traditions, sometimes violently and sometimes as part of a dynamic relationship of cultural creativity. As religion is not a tangible good or a skill but actual way of thinking and worship, it is difficult for either culture to accept the contrasting religion fully and wholly. Therefore, although influenced by one another, both Islam and Hinduism still maintain their own distinct set of doctrines. The impression one gains is that there was never a very conscious attempt to create understanding, except on the part of Kabir and Nanak, and that the contacts between the two religions were, on the whole superficial as far as the total life of the country was concerned (14). However, as Islam and Hinduism interacted and were exposed to the capacities and ideas of the other, they did produce a rich material culture and led to equally complex syncretism in the world of ideas.

IV.2. Sciences
            The scientific cooperation between the Arabs and the peoples of India is particularly accentuated during the Arab occupation of Sindh. It was the first time India experienced a large influx of a culture as ancient and sophisticated as theirs and so active scientific cooperation prevailed. The Muslims' attitude toward the new and advanced scientific knowledge they encountered in India was that of openness and willingness to accept. Therefore, the Islamic civilization was enriched by the discovery of yet another great civilization.
            This chapter will deal mainly of the scientific interactions during Arab occupation of Sindh as the most significant interactions were of that time period.

IV.2.1. Astronomy
            It is said that in about the middle of the 8th century, Indo-Arabic scientific cooperation begun. The Abbasids had established the Baitul Hikmah in Baghdad where scholars sat together and translated ideas and scientific knowledge from all across the world into Arabic (15). Advanced Indian knowledge of astronomy was introduced in the Arab world at the end of the 8th century through the Indian Sanskrit book Surya Sidhhanta, containing methods for computing eclipses, computing the motions of the planets, and such. Caliph Al-Mansur (136-158 AH), fond of astronomy himself, ordered the translation of this book and after this, Indian astronomy became popular was studied by the Arabs with great effort and interest, adding greater amount of improvisations on the basis of their own observations. Other astronomical works that entered the Arab world during that time period was Aryabhatiya and Khandakhadyaka. Also, many Sanskrit astronomical terms were Arabicized and freely used by Arab astronomers in their treaties: kardaja (Karamajya, Sanskrit) was used and later replaced by Arabic Witr Mustawi then Jib (Jiva, Sanskrit), auj (Uch, Sanskrit) were used by earlier Arab astronomers (16).

IV.2.2. Mathematics
            Indian mathematics also came to the Arab world near the end of the 8th century. Ibrahim bin Habib al Fazari himself took on the translation of many Sanskrit mathematical treaties in to Arabic and through these works, Indian numerical system and the concept of zero became known to the Arab world. The Arabs learned mathematics from the Indians and they called it Indian mathematics or numbers - the Arabic word for numbers Hindsah means 'from India.' A notable figure in the spread of Indian mathematics is Al Khwarizmi, an astronomer and scholar in Baghdad's House of Wisdom. His book On the Calculation of Hindu Numerals written in 825, aided the spread of the Indian system of numeration to the Middle East and Europe.

IV.2.3. Medicine
            Indian medicine entered the Arab world when caliph Harun al-Rashid was sick and the Arab physicians could not cure him. Indian physician Manka was called, and he succeeded in curing him. And as expected, many Indian works were translated into Arabic, some of which deals with the details of the symptoms and the cure of sicknesses. Later, Muslim practitioners played a big role in India during the Mughal Empire, writing many medical books in Arabic and Persian.
            The following is a list of undated medical manuscripts preserved in India:

1. Khulasat ut-Tibb: by Muhammad bin Masood, a short treatise on medicine, on the art of dying, and paper making.
2. Asrar-i-Ittiba: by Shihab al-Din, essays on the virtues of amulets, medicine, charm for averting disease.
3. Shifa ar-Rijal: Shihab al-Din, poetical treatise on medicine 4. Bahr-ul-Manafia: 1794 by Maulood Muhammad, dedicated to Tipu Sultan, treatise on midwifery, children, exorcising devils, enchantments etc.
5. Qanun-dar-Ilm-Tibb: a translation by order of Tipu Sultan, a complete pharmacopeia.
6. Tarjuma Kitab-i-Farang: a translation of Dr Cookburn's treatise on twist of the intestines.
7. Mufradat dar-Ilm-Tibb: on botany and natural history, translated by order Tipu Sultan from French & English.
8. Risala Tib-i-Aspan: translation from Sanskrit by Zain al-Din 1519 and dedicated to Shamsuddin Muzafar Shah on farriery.
9. Kitab al-Sumum: by Shanka of India, translated into Persian by Hatim, later by Abbas Saeed Jauhari.
10. Sharah Hadae-tul-Hikma: by Muhammad bin Ibrahim, qazi of Shiraz, contains the whole course on sciences read in schools. It was much esteemed by Muslims of India.
11. Makhzanul Adwiyya: by Hakim Muhammad Hussin, printed in Persian.
12. Tazkira-tul-Hind: by Hakim Razi Ali Khan, on materia medica in Persian, written in early part of 19th century, lithographed in 1866 Hyderbabad (17).

IV.2.4. Interpretation
IV.2.4.1. Periodization
            India was, generally speaking, ahead of the world in some areas of science, philosophy, and literature in the 7th century when Arabs entered India. Therefore the Arabs were fascinated with the facets of rich intellectual heritage of India and possessed a very high opinion of the Indians. Keen on learning about the civilizations they encountered, the Muslim rulers sent envoys to India to procure information of their astrology, mathematics, and medicine and also brought Hindu scholars to Baghdad. Therefore, it can be said that the people of the world of Islam were more influenced by the Indians rather than the other way around from the Arab occupation of Sindh until the Mahmud of Ghazni. However, during the Mughal rule, Arabs expanded upon their acquired knowledge and played a role in Indian society as well.

IV.2.4.2. Means of Transfer
            In the case of theoretical science, in other words, the knowledge itself, with the exception of the Mahmud of Ghazni, the transfer was largely prompted by the Muslim rulers and was limited to scholars. The translation of books was the main means of transfer. The techniques and skills that were proliferated through different means

IV.2.4.3. Quality of Transfer
            It's difficult to evaluate the degree of interaction in the impact of the Arab or Persian traditions on India in the field of mathematics and astronomy. India's impact, however, is well-known and acknowledged. Starting from the Arab conquests in Sindh, for over five hundred years Muslim and other writers continued to apply to works on arithmetic the name Indian. It was only later that the Arabs expanded upon the newfound knowledge and in reverse played a role in Indian society as well.

IV.3. Agricultural Technology
IV.3.1. Grafting
            Interaction between Central Asia and India in the sphere of agricultural products and technology has been significant. Timur, with his invasion of India, accelerated the exchange of technologies between India and Central Asia by leaving behind in Delhi a number of skilled craftsmen and carrying with him to Samarqand a large number of Indian artisans and stone-masons. A Spanish visitor to Timur's court during 1403-1406 wrote that Samarqand was "full of goods from different countries and from India came the finest of spices such as the best variety of nutmegs, cloves, mace, ginger, etc." (18) Babur recalled the contributions of Timur in his autobiography Babur-nama and described the different commodities which were exported from Central Asia to India (19). These included fresh fruits such as apples, melons, grapes, etc, and also dry fruits. With the establishment of the Mughal dynasty in India, the pre-existing links between India and Central Asia were further deepened. The frequent movement of goods and people between the two regions had a deep impact on the cultural and material life of the regions. The process of exchange and interaction between India and Central Asia is described in Bernier's account and in the Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, commenting that the sale of Central Asian fruits was so popular in India that they even reached the Deccan (20).
            Inspired by their love of Central Asian fruits, the Mughal emperors made considerable innovations in horticultural techniques. To develop the culture of Central Asian and Persian fruits in India, the Mughal emperors imported seeds and gardeners and even borrowed the technique of grafting from these regions. Although grafting had been known in India since the ancient times, it was the extensive application of the Central Asian style of grafting which yielded significant results and improved the quality of fruits. Influenced by the Central Asian and Persian horticultural traditions, the Mughal emperors did not merely implement the simple principle of grafting but also encouraged the application of its different methods to make the technology of grafting effective and efficient. The Indian chroniclers of the 17th century have widely upheld the significance of grafting. Jahangir in Tuzak-i-Jahangiri says that sweet cherry was brought to Kashmir from Kabul by Akbar's governor and was propagated by means of grafting (21). By the same means, the cultivation of apricot and mulberry was made more productive in Kashmir. Mulberry, if grown through the indigenous technique, was bitter. But it was transformed into an edible variety by grafting. Grafting was even prescribed for even mangoes and peaches for a better yield. The practice of grafting had been widespread and improved the quality of various fruits.

IV.3.2. Irrigation
            From the 14th century, canals or 'long canals' built from un-dammed rivers, traversing fairly long paths could be seen in India. The basis and the technique of construction of these canals clearly exhibit Central Asian and Iranian influence. Inspired by the canal construction of Central Asia, such canals were mostly laid out by the Mughal emperors and the Mughal nobility. Other than the Mughals fostering the Central Asian technique of canal construction, the impact of Central Asia on canal digging can be seen earlier in the 13th and 14th centuries. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq was the first sultan of Delhi who can be credited with digging canals for the promotion of agriculture, but it was Firuz Shah Tughluq who created the biggest network of canals known in India until the 19th century (22). Interaction with Central Asia seems apparent particularly in the two large canals cut by Firuz Shah Tughluq (23). However, besides these long canals, there were a number of small canals or 'public canals' excavated and maintained by the local people and the landholders.
            Exhibiting interaction with Central Asia and consolidating its influence, the Mughal emperors excavated long and impressive canals, particularly in northern plains in the Upper Ganges and Indus basins. While Mughal emperors built long canals under the influence of Central Asia, one of their objectives in excavating the canals was to bring water to their orchards and gardens so that they could satisfy their interest in growing Central Asian and Persian fruits in India.

IV.3.3. Water- and Wind-mills
            Like in Central Asia and Iran, agricultural technology in India also showed evidence of utilization of non-human resources of power, particularly water and wind for maximum exploitation of land. These windmills and watermills were used for facilitating irrigation, pumping water, and grinding various crops, which is why it is categorized in the agricultural technique. The concepts of both water-mill and windmill were introduced into India from Central Asia and Iran as early as the 4th century and they became widespread in India by the 11th century. Both mills were mounted horizontally and therefore required no gearing (23a).
            Having imbibed the Central Asian and the Persian techniques, which strived to get maximum exploitation of its lands, water-mills were installed in the Deccan by the 7th century although they were put to more extensive use by the 16th century. The undulating nature of the Deccan plateau suited the horizontal character of the water-mills. The best-known example of a water-mill in the Deccan is Malik Ambar's water-mill at Aurangabad. Water-mills were also commonly used in the Kashmir, the Himalayan region, and in north-western portions of the Punjab. The water-mill was a kind of a paddle wheel mounted on a horizontal axle over a running stream and driven by the velocity of the running water, often used for grinding crops. They were virtually non-existent in the north Indian plains due to the nature of the rivers of this region, which were subject to great seasonal fluctuations, making it difficult for the water to flow with sufficient force and hence unsuitable for the setting up of water-mills.
            Besides the influence of Central Asia and Persia, the technical ingenuity in the use of water power was observed in a small locality of India ? the Hazara district, which lay on the route to Kashmir from Delhi (frequently used by the Mughal emperors). In this district, apart from the conventional corn-grinding water-mill, a water-driven wooden trip-hammer called pekoh was used for milling rice. Moreover, since the wheel in this case was vertical, it was an important departure from the horizontal water-mill.
            The technology of the windmill also came into India from Central Asia and Persia. Windmills were suited to a region where the winds were strong and blew constantly in one direction and where water as an alternative source of power was not available. Borrowing the technique of the horizontal windmill from Central Asia and Persia, a windmill was installed at Ahmedabad. This windmill was known locally as hawan-chakki and worked upon the movement of the wind and the rotation of the curtains. However, by 1761 only the millstone remained and it was no longer known when it had been originally installed.

IV.3.4. Interpretation
IV.3.4.1. Periodization
            Although these agricultural technologies had been in use in India prior to Central Asian and Persian influence it was largely during the Mughal Empire that the Central Asian and Persian techniques appeared in indigenous agricultural technologies and contributed to the improvement of Indian horticulture. Timur's invasion and the incorporation of a part of north-western India into his empire intensified the contacts between the two regions, facilitating the transfer of technology.

IV.3.4.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
            According to historical records, Central Asian influences were mostly headed by the Mughal emperors, but Indian peasants who were conscious of the changes and the changing demands of a more advanced agrarian economy, accommodated and imbibed various technologies as well. These technologies actually contributed a great deal to the improvement of agricultural harvest, such is the case of various fruits through grafting. However, Indian influence on Central Asia on agriculture is not as visible. It is known that Central Asia also imported from the more remote parts of Asia certain fruits such as oranges unknown in the Near East and developed considerably the cultivation of products such as sugarcanes, flax, and cotton, but whether it is specifically from South Asia is uncertain.

IV.4. Metallurgy
IV.4.1. Indian influence on the Arabs and Persians
            India influenced the Arabs and Persians in the area of metallurgy during the first millennium AD. Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization I: Our Oriental Heritage:
            "Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement¡¦By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift for Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much of this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing ¡°Damascus¡± blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India." (24)
            Wootz steel became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it was known as Damascus steel.

IV.4.2. Central Asian influence on India
            The earliest evidence of liquefying and casting metal goods comes from China where the artisans as well as a literate elite were able to harness their rivers to power their bellows and thus liquefy a wide range of metals to facilitate the fabrication of all sorts of alloys and castings. A host of advantages such as better ores enabled them to fabricate the earliest cupro-nickel alloys and high-arsenic coppers almost at the advent of the first millennium AD. It was difficult to prevent the dissemination of this knowledge, especially along the Silk Route, and soon variants of these alloys were being developed in areas referred to as 'Eastern Turkestan' in the medieval period. It is claimed that the artisans of Central Asian trade centers such as Tashkent, Samarqand and Bokhara became adept at fabrication multi-metal alloys when, in the first century AD, some Chinese deserters taught the Ferghanese artisans ways of making silver-and gold-like alloys (25). These cities of Central Asia soon became centers for the production of large castings such as cauldrons, vases, bowls, as well as of very small castings such as arrow-heads, hair-clips, tweezers, mirrors, and cheap jewelry. As the attempts to duplicate the gold-like and silver-like alloys used for these castings spread south-westward into Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar, and Kashmir, there arose the desire to duplicate these alloys.
            The southward movement of Chinese and Central Asian commercial interests into India had a number of historical regions. For example, during the Delhi Sultanate, the region of northern India began to attract master craftsmen and artisans who found generous patrons among the city-builders of the 13th and 14th century northern India (25a). Furthermore, once a sizeable and prosperous Muslim population became available in North India, Central Asian merchants began exporting charms, amulets, ornaments, and weapons made of supposedly magical alloys having exotic names like haft-josh, taliqun, kharchini, etc., into this region. Thus, some alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent. The alloy kharsini, listed as one of the 'Seven Metals' recognized by Jabir ibn Hayyan, was found in India. Al-Biruni in his Kitab al Jamahir, commenting on the excellent temple gongs and vessels being fabricated out of this alloy at Kashghar, said that they were much better than those being cast around Kabul ((26. However, not all attempts to duplicate the Central Asian techniques were successful because the exact techniques remained unknown due to the fact that there was a degree of confusion in the co-relationship between Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Turkic and Chinese terms as well as the metals and alloys they signified.

IV.4.3. Interpretation
IV.4.3.1. Periodization
            In the earlier period of Arab seafarers and traders, India's metallurgy techniques were exported to the Arabs and Persians. Wootz steel originated in India before the Common Era and there is archaeological evidence of the manufacturing process in South India from that time (27). Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became famous in the Middle East and was later traced to workshops in western India (28). During the Delhi sultanate, alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent via Central Asian merchants.

IV.4.3.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
            The transfer of metal technology was, in general, not forced upon by emperors or rulers but by commercial interests of merchants and traders. However, when Central Asian merchants brought with them were not fully transferred to the Indian people due to the fact that the exact techniques remained a mystery due to differences in terms in metals and alloys and such. However, wootz steel of India, which was spread widely through traders, was quite famous especially in the Middle East due to its superiority at the time.

IV.5. Language and Literature
IV.5.1. Literatures of Turko-Persian Culture
            Persian literature flourished in the subcontinent from the 12th to 19th centuries (especially from the late 16th through the 18th), largely with court patronage, holding a prominent place in Indian society at all levels, in both its Muslim and non-Muslim segments, with mainly literary and government functions, as well as Sufi religious ones (29). Ali Asani's "Muslim Literatures in South Asia" depicts the role of Persian in South India as follows: "Persian was not only the language of intellectual and artistic life in Muslim South Asia but was also the official language of government and administration. The significance of Persian extended far beyond its use as a medium of communication among the elite, however. Persian became such a prominent cultural component in medieval India that Persian vocabulary features prominently in all of the major North Indian languages. Furthermore, it so strongly influenced the literary forms, idioms, and scripts of several Indic languages such as Urdu, Sindhi, Pushtu, and Balochi, that a knowledge of Persian becomes critical to an appreciation of their literatures. This is particularly true of Urdu, whose poetry cannot be truly understood in all its nuances without a thorough knowledge of the Persian tradition¡¦ Every major and minor genre of Persian literature flourished here: from mystical poetry and biographies of saints to treatises on medicine, music, and war. Of special significance are the many historical works in Persian chronicling the reigns of almost every dynasty and ruler. These records have become important sources for reconstructing the history of Muslim India ..."
            As we can see, Persian affected the literary forms and vocabulary of North Indian languages. Persian culture also introduced the concept of historiography and recording of history to India. On the contrary, in Persian literature, (especially popular was poetry) little Hindu derivatives are found, but a rare exception, Amir Khusrau, exists, telling of some influence of the Indian culture. Unlike his fellow poets, he was the first and only of the Persian poets who alluded to Indian customs in his lyrics, incorporation a number of Indian stories into his Persian epic romances and attempting to compose verse in a local language, Hindawi (30). So there existed some Indian influence to Persian culture.

IV.5.2. Use of Indian Language in Muslim Literature
            Pioneering the use of Indian languages for Muslim literatures were various Sufis or mystics, who were very well suited in temperament to assimilating Islamic concepts and ideas to the Indian environment (31). Literature composed by Sufis in local languages played an instrumental role in this process of the Indian acculturation to Islam (32). In order for the Sufis to convey the Islamic faith to the indigenous peoples of India, who did not understand either Persian or Arabic, they expressed the Islamic values in vernacular within a South Asian framework - images, metaphors, verse-forms, etc. For example, popular romance epics were utilized for conveying Islamic instruction. Perhaps due to the South Asian framework, many scholars detect Hindu influences in much poetry written by Muslims in Indian languages.

IV.5.3. Interpretation
IV.5.3.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
            Persian literature flourished especially from the late 16th through the 18th, largely with court patronage.

IV.5.3.2. Quality of Transfer
            With Persian being the language of the court and intellectual and artistic life, there is no doubt that Persian had a great influence over the North Indian languages and literature. However, the other side - Indic languages or cultures influencing Persian - is comparatively less dominant. Although some traces of this phenomenon are shown, they are usually exceptional cases. This is probably due to the fact that Persian was "high-culture" meant for the elite while Indic languages were culture of the common folk. The transfer of aspects of the vernacular language to Muslim literature is more commonly seen in literature composed by Sufis, which was more "folk" in nature and meant for the illiterate classes living in rural areas.

IV.6. Other Skills and Knowledge Transferred
IV.6.1. Architecture
            In architecture, as in other spheres of culture, the Indo-Islamic society was enriched by the dislocation in Central Asia and Persia caused by the Mongol invasion because not only scholars but artisans as well came to Delhi as refugees, and they found a ready market for their skills in the expanding Muslim state (33). Muslim traditions had become firmly established on the Indian subcontinent and methods of construction were revolutionized, as in the case of Muslims' use of concrete and mortar whose binding properties allowed the spacious arches, domed roofs, and a sense of grandeur that Indian construction lacked, and ornament became an integral part of the scheme (34). However, there were places in which the indigenous forms of architecture remained dominant, such as the provincial capitals. For example, in Bengal, the Muslim rulers decorated their buildings with carving which is obviously the work of Hindu craftsmen, and in Gujarat they adapted the local style to Muslim needs to create some of India's most beautiful buildings (35).

IV.6.2. Shipbuilding
            Although not much is known about the exact skills transferred in the area of shipbuilding, the finding of an Indo-Arabian stone anchor in Kannur suggests the existence of such transfer of skills (36) if not the specific content of transfer. Furthermore, it is believed that the mounting of catapults on the warships of India was introduced by Muhammad ibn Qasim's armies in the conquering of Sindh.

IV.6.3. Cuisine
            Elements of Muslim cuisine were taken up by the Indians. The Muslims from western Asia brought the Mughlai cuisines to India when Mughal rulers conquered a large portion of India. During the Mughal Empire, these dishes were prepared for the Mughal Emperors for elegant dining with dry fruits and nuts. The hospitality of sharing of food with others in Mughal courtly society helped India to absorb it as its own. The resulting dishes are lamb kebabs laced with spices, the rice Pulao of India cooked with meat and turned into biryanis, lamb and meat roasts flavored with Indian herbs and seasoning, Indian dishes garnished with almonds, pistachios, cashews and raisins, etc (37). Furthermore, not only dishes and ingredients, but aspects of the Muslim rulers' splendor of living were also introduced, such as the idea of community dining and the concept of extravagant and lavish banquets entered India. On the other hand, India's influence on the cuisine of the Muslim world is shown through crops such as the sugar cane, the orange, and rice for they are believed to have been introduced from India to the world of Islam.

IV.6.4. Board Game - Chess
            Modes of entertainment were also transferred to other worlds. Chess, in particular, was transferred from India to Persia. The article on chess in Encyclopedia Iranica explains, "A great variety of legends about chess appear in early Arabic sources. Masudi, for example, describes how a series of learned kings of ancient India introduced various arts and sciences. Brahman was the first. Under his son Bahbud the game of nard was invented, and a couple of generations later King Dabsalem composed the book Kalila wa Demna. In the reign of his son Balhit the game of chess was invented, and certain of its mathematical properties were explored, especially the calculation and cosmological interpretation of the sum of squares from 1 to 64. Masudi also mentions six different forms of the game that were current in his time. Al-Biruni, in his book on India, describes an Indian variant of chess played with a pair of dice by four players on an ordinary board eight squares on a side; in his Atar he treats mathematical aspects of the problem of "the reduplication of the chess and its calculation." Ibn Kallekan also explains this problem in a story about the inventor of chess, sup-posedly an Indian sage named Sessa b. Daher in the time of a certain king Sehram (or Balhit), who asked as his reward that a grain of rice be placed in the first square of a chess board and that the amount then be doubled in each successive square of the sixty-four. Other Muslim writers attributed the invention of chess to a variety of legendary wise men, usually Indian. Most frequently mentioned is Hakim Sisa/Sehsa/Sefa/Sisak/Ses, etc., b. Daser/Daher/Daer al-Hendi," (38) showing how the game along with various legends entered Persia.

V. Conclusion
            Conclusively, by identifying general patterns of transfer on a historical level and looking into the specifics of transfer, a holistic view of interaction can be grasped:
            The first part of this paper is devoted to establishing a historical perspective of the interaction between the two cultures. From the historical analysis, it can be seen that there is a discrepancy in the transfer of skills and knowledge between the northern and southern parts of India, and that the direction of transfer changes as time passes. Generally, Islamic culture came into contact with cultures in North India through invasions and conquerors while in southern India, transfer occurred through a more liberal ambience of trade. Furthermore, during the first stages of contact, the advanced Indian civilization contributed more to the Islamic civilization, but as time passed and South Asia became the territory of Muslim reign, there was more transfer going from the direction of the Islamic culture to the Indian culture. Also, it is important to note that due to Muslim rule in South Asia, transfer and integration took place.
            The latter part of the paper revealed the interactions at a more specific level, focusing on contacts of religion, sciences, and language and literature. Interaction is more often than not two sided and rarely a one sided affair and so aspects of both cultures can be found in the other, but as the study shows, it is also true that, in some aspects, one side had a dominating influence on the other due to historical or social context. Until Mahmud of Ghazni, the interaction took place in both the world of Islam and India. But after it, it became pretty much one sided.

Endnotes
(1)      Ahmad 2011 p.4
(2)      ibid. p.5
(3)      ibid.
(4)      ibid.
(5)      Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(6)      Ikram 1964 1. The Impact of the Arabs
(7)      This chapter is largely based on Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(8)      Sachau 1914 p.22
(8a)      The Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: Muhammad Ghuri's Conquests
(9)      This chapter is largely based on BBC Religions - Islam: Mughal Empire
(10)      Shariff 1966 p.1395
(11)      ibid. p.1397
(12)      ibid. p.1404
(13)      Ikram 1964, IX The Interaction between Islam and Hinduism
(14)      ibid.
(15)      Ahmad 2011 p.10
(16)      ibid.
(17)      Virk 2011 pp.12-13
(18)      Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.401
(19)      ibid.
(20)      Tuzukh-i-Jahangiri
(21)      ibid.
(22)      Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.403
(23)      ibid.
(23a)      Wikipedia Article: Windmill
(24)      Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent
(25)      Needham 1954 p.5
(25a)      Majumdar 1954 p.646
(26)      Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.414
(27)      Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel
(28)      ibid.
(29)      Qutbuddin 2007 p.3
(30)      Asani 2006 p.2
(31)      ibid. p.3
(32)      ibid.
(33)      Ikram 1964, Society and Culture under the Sultanate
(34)      ibid. (35)      ibid. (36)      Tripati 2005
(37)      Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India
(38)      Encyclopaedia Iranica: Chess a board game

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Qutbuddin 2007      Qutbuddin, Tahera. "Arabic in India: A Survey and Classification of Its Uses, Compared with Persian," Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2007 http://nelc.uchicago.edu/sites/nelc.uchicago.edu/files/Qutbuddin,%20Arabic%20in%20India,%20JAOS%20127.3%202008.pdf
Richards 1993      Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Rizvi 1978      Rizvi, S.A.A. A History of Sufism in India, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1978-1983.
Russell 1969      Russell, Ralph. "The Pursuit of the Urdu Ghazal" in Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1969, pp.107-124.
Sachau 1914      E.C. Sachau, Alberuni's India, SOS Free Stock, 1914
Sharrif 1966      Sharrif, M. A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2. Harrassowitz, 1966, ch. 69, http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hmp/LXIX-Sixty-nine.pdf
SMCI      Survey of manuscript catalogues in India, http://ignca.nic.in/manus004.htm
Annotation: Catalogue of manuscripts of India. Tells the name of manuscript, the state and which institute in which it is located.
smith 1911      Smith, David Eugene and Karpinski, Louis Charles. The Hindu-Arabic Numerals, The Athenaeum Press, 1911
Takeo n.d.      Takeo Kamiya, Islamic architecture in India, n.d. http://www.ne.jp/asahi/arc/ind/1_primer/indoislam/indis_eng.htm
Tripati 2005      S. Tripati et al., "An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 34.1 pp.131-137, 2005, http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/181/1/Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_34_131.pdf
Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri      Rogers, Alexander (trsl.) and Beveridge, Henry (ed.). Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir 1909, http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
Upadhyay 2004      R. Upadhyay, Sufism in India: Its Origin, History, and Politics, 2004, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers10%5Cpaper924.html
Virk 2011      Virk, Zakaria, Science in India during Muslim Rule, 2011 https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
Welch 1978      Welch, Stuart C. Imperial Mughal Painting, George Braziller, 1978.
Zahoor 2005      A. Zahoor, History of Muslims in India, 2005, http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india.html

Titles I encountered during research but did not have access to
Agwani 1986      Agwani, Mohammed S. Islamic Fundamentalism in India. Chandigarh: Twenty-First Century India Society, 1986.
Ahmad 1978      Ahmad, Imtiaz, ed., Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
Ahmad 1993      Ahmad, Aijuzuddin. Muslims in India: Their Educational, Demographic, and Socio-Economic Status with Inter-Community Comparisons Based on Field Survey Conducted in 1991. New Delhi: Inter-India, 1993.
Basham 1967      Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India, 1: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. 3d ed., rev. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1967.
Eaton 1993      Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Comparative Studies on Muslim Societies, No. 17. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Grewel 1990      Grewel, J.S. The New Cambridge History of India, II.3: The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Jackson 1988      Jackson, Paul, ed., The Muslims of India: Beliefs and Practices. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1988.
Powell 1993      Powell, Avril Ann. Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. London: Curzon, 1993.
Richards 1974      Richards, J.F. "The Islamic Frontier in the East: Expansion into South Asia," South Asia [Nedlands, Australia], No. 4, October 1974, pp.91-109.
Rizvi 1987      Rizvi, S.A.A. The Wonder That Was India, 2: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent from the Coming of the Muslims to the British Conquest, 1200-1700. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1987.
Sahai 1989      Ratna Sahai, ed., Muslims in India. New Delhi: Ministry of External Affairs, 1989.
Schimmel 1973      Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. A History of Indian Literature, 7: Modern Indo-Iranian Literatures. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1973.
Schimmel 1980      Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Leiden: Brill, 1980.
Tahseen 1993      Tahseen, Rana. Education and Modernisation of Muslims in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1993.
Wink 1991      Wink, Andre. Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. 2d. ed., rev. Leiden: Brill, 1991.



Third Draft, Notes & References . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Endnotes
(1) Ahmad, nd., p.4
(2) ibid. p.5
(3) ibid.
(4) ibid.
(5) Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(6) Muslim Civilization in India: 1. The Impact of the Arabs
(7) This chapter is largely based on Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(8) Sachau, 1914, p.22
(8a) The Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: Muhammad Ghuri's Conquests
(9) This chapter is largely based on BBC Religions - Islam: Mughal Empire
(10) Shariff, 1966, p.1395
(11) ibid. p.1397
(12) ibid. p.1404
(13) Muslim Civilization in India: IX The Interaction between Islam and Hinduism
(14) ibid.
(15) Ahmad, nd., p.10
(16) ibid.
(17) Virk, nd., p.12-13
(18) Chattopadhyaya, 2002, p.401
(19) ibid.
(20) 116 Xabul Fruits. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir
(21) ibid.
(22) Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.403
(23) ibid.
(23a) Wikipedia Article: Windmill
(24) Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent
(25) Needham, 1954, p.5
(25a) Majumdar, 1954, p.646
(26) Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.414
(27) Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel
(28) ibid.
(29) Qutbuddin, 2007, p.3
(30) Asani, 2006, p.2
(31) ibid. p.3
(32) ibid.
(33) Muslim Civilization in India: Society and Culture under the Sultanate
(34) ibid.
(35) ibid.
(36) More information can be found on "An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala"
(37) Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India
(38) Encyclopaedia Iranica: Chess a board game

VI. Bibliography
Note: the titles bolded and in italics are titles I encountered during my research but did not have access to

Bibliographic Sources
Bibliography of India History up to 1750 (Compiled by Hermann Kulke) http://www.histosem.uni-kiel.de/lehrstuehle/asien/Bibliographie_30_06_05_drei.pdf
Bibliography of "Religions of India" page http://www.photius.com/religion/india_bibliography.html
Islam in India Bibliography http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~fc12/Bibliography/10_Islam_Bibliography.html
WHKMLA: History of the Mughal Empire http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xmughalempire.html
WHKMLA: History of Yemen http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/arabworld/xyemen.html
WHKLA: History of Malabar Coast http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xmalabar.html
Mansingh, Surjit, Historical Dictionary of India Delhi: First Vision Books, 1998
Historical and Cultural Dictionary of the Sultanate of Oman and the Emirates of Eastern Arabia
World Bibliographical Series Volume 85 Indian Ocean, Julia J. Gotthold with Donald w. Gotthold

General Sources
Wikipedia Article: Islam in Asia
Wikipedia Article: History of India
Wikipedia Article: History of Islam
Wikipedia Article: Muslim world
Islamic Civilization http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization
Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram edited by Ainslie T. Embree
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/index.html

General Sources: Islam in India (also include Indian influence on the world of Islam)
Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming Of Islam To South Asia http://history-world.org/islam6.htm
History of Muslims in India http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india.html
http://www.historydoctor.net/Advanced%20Placement%20World%20History/Islamic_and_Hindu_Kingdoms_In-India.htm
Wikipedia Article: Islam in India
Wikipedia Article: Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
Agrawal, S.P. Islamic Studies in India Ashok Kumar Mittal, 1991, Google Books http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=Kz2qMnKWbHAC&pg=PA33
Malik, Jamal. Islam in South Asia. Brill, 2008, Google Books http://books.google.co.kr/books?ei=F-5jT_ifLo2SiAek_43mBQ
R. Upadhyay, Sufism in India: Its Origin, History, and Politics, 2004
http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers10%5Cpaper924.html
Ahmad, Aftab, Continuity and Change in Indo-Arab Cultural Relations: A Survey with Special Reference to Oman http://web.squ.edu.om/OmanIndia/doc/absract_en/abstract3_en.pdf
BBC - Religion and Ethics http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/mughalempire_1.shtml
Notes on the influence of islam during the mid-eighth to thirteenth century http://www.preservearticles.com/2011100414592/notes-on-the-influence-of-islam-during-mid-eighth-century-ad-to-the-thirteenth-century.html
Encyclopaedia Iranica: India http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india
Encyclopaedia Iranica: India - relations with Iran http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-vi-relations-from-the-13th-to-the-18th-centuries
Encyclopaedia Iranica: Indo-muslim physicians http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xxxiii-indo-muslim-physicians
Encyclopaedia Iranica: Indo-persian historiography http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xvi-indo-persian-historiography
Richards, J.F. "The Islamic Frontier in the East: Expansion into South Asia," South Asia [Nedlands, Australia], No. 4, October 1974, pp.91-109.
Wink, Andre. Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. 2d. ed., rev. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Comparative Studies on Muslim Societies, No. 17. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Grewel, J.S. The New Cambridge History of India, II.3: The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Agwani, Mohammed S. Islamic Fundamentalism in India. Chandigarh: Twenty-First Century India Society, 1986.
Ahmad, Aijuzuddin. Muslims in India: Their Educational, Demographic, and Socio-Economic Status with Inter-Community Comparisons Based on Field Survey Conducted in 1991. New Delhi: Inter-India, 1993.
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Leiden: Brill, 1980.
Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India, 1: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. 3d ed., rev. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1967.
Powell, Avril Ann. Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. London: Curzon, 1993.
Rizvi, S.A.A. The Wonder That Was India, 2: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent from the Coming of the Muslims to the British Conquest, 1200-1700. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1987.
Tahseen, Rana. Education and Modernisation of Muslims in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1993.
Jackson, Paul, ed., The Muslims of India: Beliefs and Practices. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1988.
Ahmad, Imtiaz, ed., Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
Ratna Sahai, ed., Muslims in India. New Delhi: Ministry of External Affairs, 1989.
Feener, R. Michael and Sevea, Terenjit. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia Institute of Souteast Asian Studies, 2009
Ahmad, Aziz. An Intellectual History of Islam in India. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1969.
Eaton, Richard. "Approaches to the Study of Conversion to Islam in India" in Martin, Richard C., Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985.
Gandhi, Rajmohan. Understanding the Muslim Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
Mujeeb, M. The Indian Muslims. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1967.
Rizvi, S.A.A. A History of Sufism in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1978-1983.
E.C. Sachau, Alberuni's India, London, 1914
Bhavan, Bharatiya, The Delhi Sultanate, Bhavan's Book University, 1960
Muslim Civilization in India http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_01.html#conquest Annotation: provides a thorough overview of the Arab invasion of Sindh and contact of the different countries. Includes both the historical overview and the cultural/intellectual contacts of the Arabs and Medieval India.

Education
Some aspects of the Muslim Educational System in Pre-colonial India http://www.ilmgate.org/some-aspects-of-the-muslim-educational-system-in-pre-colonial-india/

Literature/Language/Art
Wikipedia Article: History of Hindustani
Muslim Ethos in Literature:
http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india/muslim_ethos_in_indian_literature.html
Tahera Qutbuddin, Arabic in India: A Survey and Classification of Its Uses, Compared with Persian, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2007 http://nelc.uchicago.edu/sites/nelc.uchicago.edu/files/Qutbuddin,%20Arabic%20in%20India,%20JAOS%20127.3%202008.pdf
Ali Asani, Muslim Literatures in South India, The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2006 http://www.iis.ac.uk/SiteAssets/pdf/A%20%20Asani%20p355-363%20pdf.pdf
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. A History of Indian Literature, 7: Modern Indo-Iranian Literatures. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1973.
Asani, Ali. "In Praise of Muhammad: Sindhi and Urdu Poems" in Lopez, Donald S., ed. Religions of India in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Russell, Ralph. "The Pursuit of the Urdu Ghazal" in Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1969, pp.107-124.
Welch, Stuart C. Imperial Mughal Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1978.
Persian Literature in Translation: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main

Religion
http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/141215-Influence-Islam-Indian-culture.aspx
BBC Religions - Islam: Mughal Empire http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/mughalempire_1.shtml
M. Sharrif, A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2. Harrassowitz, 1966 http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hmp/LXIX-Sixty-nine.pdf

Architecture
Takeo Kamiya, Islamic architecture in India http://www.ne.jp/asahi/arc/ind/1_primer/indoislam/indis_eng.htm
Burton-Page, John and Michell, George. Indian Islamic Architecture Leiden: Brill, 2008
Lowry, Glenn. "Humayun's Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture" in Muqarnas 4, 1987, pp.133-147.

Historiography
Wikipedia Article: List of Muslim Historians in India
Historiography of Medieval India, chapter 2 of K.L. Lal, The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India, 1992, http://voiceofdharma.org/books/tlmr/ch2.htm

Science
History of Indian Science and Technology "Alberuni on Pre-Islamic India's Science, Math, and Architecture by Vinod Kumar" http://www.indianscience.org/essays/t_es_kumar-v_math.shtml
Indian Journal of the History of Science
Virk, Zakaria, Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
Nadiri, Ishaq M. "Early Muslim Science and Entrepreneurship in Islam": Presentation for American Economic Association Conference January 2-5th, 2009
Smith, David Eugene, The Hindu-Arabic Numerals, Louis Charles Karpinski, 1911

Agriculture and Metallurgy
1. Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
2. Translaters Rogers, Alexander and edited by Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir 1909, http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
3. Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent
4. Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel
5. Wikipedia Article: Windmill, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windmill
6. Majumdar, R.C. The History and Culture of the Indian People: Vol. VI The Delhi Sultanate, Bhavan's Book University, 1954
7. Govind, Vijay, Some Aspects of Glass Manufacturing in Ancient India
8. Virk, Z., Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
9. Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilisation in China vol.1, Cambridge University Press, 1954 http://www.scribd.com/doc/93206901/Joseph-Needham-Science-and-Civilisation-in-China-Vol-1-Introductory-Orientations
10. Encyclopaedia Iranica Article: Iranian immigrants in India http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xxviii-iranian-immigrants-in-india

Cuisine
Mantra Masala : Healthy Cuisine from India http://www.mantramasala.com/indianExperience.htm
Mughal Influence on Indian Food, Indian Cuisine
Wikipedia Article: Indian Cuisine

Maritime History/ Shipbuilding
S. Tripati et al., An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 34.1 pp.131-137, 2005, http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/181/1/Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_34_131.pdf
Basa, Kishor K. 1999. Early trade in the Indian ocean: perspectives on Indo-South-east Asian maritime contacts (c. 400 BC-AD 500). Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. pp.29-72.
Dikshit, K.N. and R.G. Pandeya.1978. Ancient maritime contacts of west Bengal-literary and archaeological evidence. The Heritage of India (Ed.) L.N. Mishra. Bodhgaya: pp.232-237
Greeshmalatha, A. P. and G. Victor Rajamanickam. 1993. An analysis of different types of traditional coastal vessels along the Kerala coast. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: pp.36-51
Kulke, Hermann. 1999. Trade and politics in eleventh century bay of Bengal.Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. pp.214-225.
The Ottoman Empire, the classical age, 1300-1600 Halil Inalcik translated by Norman Itzkowitz, Colin Imber. Praeger, 1973
G.F. Hourani, Arab Seafaring, expanded edition Princeton 1995

Board Games
Encyclopaedia Iranica : Chess a board game, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chess-a-board-game

Manuscript Catalogues
Survey of manuscript catalogues in India, http://ignca.nic.in/manus004.htm
Annotation: Catalogue of manuscripts of India. Tells the name of manuscript, the state and which institute in which it is located.



Second Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction and Method of Study
            Contact between the World of Islam and South Asia is of a different nature to contact of the World of Islam among other regions, such as East Asia or Europe in that South Asia had been under Muslim rule for a significant period of time. Transfer is too superficial a word to delineate the essence of the contact between the two worlds. In fact, direct interaction was established and not only transferred but was profoundly integrated as well. Hence, it is only proper that this study should deal with transfer and integration of cultural aspects as well as the technical knowledge and skills. With this in mind, this paper will initially look into patterns of transfer which can be illuminated by historical time periods. After the historical background is established, the paper will delve deeper into the particular aspects of transfer or integration that had taken place with special emphasis on religion, sciences, and language and literature.
            It can be seen that prior to Mahmud of Ghazni, the interaction has taken place in both the World of Islam and in India; after Mahmud of Ghazni, by large, interaction was limited to the Indian subcontinent. The Arabs had direct contact with India as conquerors in Sindh and as traders with south India. Indirectly the influence of Indian culture also co-existed though the channels of Persia and Central Asia. However, after the Mongol invasion, the Persians had developed direct relations with the Indians, more particularly during the Mughal period although interaction with the Arabs still existed.

II. Boundaries of Study
            The World of Islam refers to the civilization developed by the Muslim world, including the Middle East, Persia, etc and South Asia refers to the Indian subcontinent. The time periods dealt with will be limited to before British Colonial rule of India because important connections between the world of Islam and South Asia had already been established before the Colonial era.

III. Historical Analysis
III.1. Pre-Islamic Relations
            We begin our analysis by discussing the beginnings of Arab and Indian relations. Though it is commonly believed that major interaction and integration between Arabia and India took place during the time of Muslim invasions, trade relations between Arabia and the Indian subcontinent predate Islamic expansion and have existed from ancient times. During this period, Arab forces entering India were not attempts to conquer the area but primarily exploratory missions, creating a rather liberal ambience of trade rather than force or conquest. However, it must be noted that since Arabs primarily entered India by sea during this period, pre-Islamic relations are mainly limited to Southern India.
            Based on these regular commercial voyages, the Arabs knew about India long before the advent of Islam and these regular commercial interactions between Arabs and Indians throughout this period culminated in influencing each other's language and culture (1).

III.1.1. Arab Explorers and Traders
            Arab traders, when travelling to India, especially used to visit the southwest coast, such as Malabar, which linked them with the ports of Southeast Asia. The Arab traders established little merchant communities in India and often married local women and found places for themselves within the Indian society. (1a) These communities established on the major trading ports functioned as a foothold for further expansion of Muslims and also provided contacts by which Indian learning could be transmitted to and expanded by the Arabs.

III.1.2. Indian Explorers and Traders
            Paralleling the Arabs, Indians traveled to the Arab world for trading purposes. These visits resulted in religious convergences of various sorts as there were many things in common between Hinduism and the pagan religions that existed in West Asia (2). Sages from India mingled with the Arabs and started influencing each other's lives (3). Some Indian goods that entered the Arab world were named after the place of origin, al-Hind. Indian swords, which the Arabs called Hindi, Hindawani, and Muhannad, gained the reputation of being very supple and sharp, as many Pre-Islamic Arab poetry has many references to this and many other Indian goods being popular among Bedouins (4). Furthermore, many Indian words like sandal, tanbul, karanfal, and narjeel were popular and widely used among Arabs, giving proof that even before the advent of Islam and Muslim invasions, there was significant interaction between the two cultures.

III.2. Early Invasions and the Delhi Sultanates
            Aforementioned, since ancient times, Arab seafarers and traders have been major carriers in the trading network that stretched from Italy in the Mediterranean to the South China Sea (5). The Arabs had settled down in many parts of south India as merchant communities in Konkan, Malabar and in many of the coastal towns of Madras and Mysore. After converting to Islam, these traders continued to frequent the ports of Southern and Southwestern India and became the major carriers of the religion, acting as missionaries.
            After the advent of Islam, there was not necessarily an increased contact with India but rather, a new dimension was added. In contrast to Southern India in which the headway of cultural exchange was made through a more liberal ambience, in Northern India, cultural interactions took place under Muslim conquerors and invasions.

III.2.1. Muhammad ibn Qasim in Sindh
            Muslim presence as rulers in India was initiated in 711CE with the conquering of Sindh. This intrusion resulted indirectly from the peaceful trading contacts that had brought Muslims into contact with Indian civilization in the first place. Their entry to India was prompted by an attempt to free Muslim prisoners after a pirate raid in Raja Dahir (the king of Sindh)'s territory. After diplomatic attempts failed, Hajjaj (the viceroy of the eastern provinces of the Umayyad Empire) launched punitive measures against the king of Sindh. He sent seventeen-year-old Muhammad ibn Qasim with a small army, who defeated the Indian forces with ease due the Arab's superiority of military technique and also the voluntary surrenders of the Indians. Popular dissatisfaction with the former rulers seems to have contributed substantially to Arab success (6).
            During this period, little conversion of the conquered population was attempted and the normal rule was to employ local talent and make minimum changes in the local practices. Therefore, the native Indian people experienced little change. The voluntary surrenders of the native peoples were in fact due to promises on the Arabs' side of lighter taxation and greater religious tolerance, so the native inhabitants were free to go about their daily lives and have their freedom of worship. It was rather the Arabs who were much influenced by the rich culture and advanced knowledge of India during the early conquests, which will be dealt with greater depth in the chapter IV. However, it was through the conquest of Sindh that Muslims came to exercise a potent influence on Indian thought and culture in future times.

III.2.2. Mahmud of Ghazni (7)
            After the early conquests by Muhammad ibn Qasim's forces, little territory was added to the Muslim foothold on the subcontinent and there was a slow Muslim retreat as quarrels between the Arabs ruling in Sindh and quarrels with the Umayyad and later Abbasid caliphs led the reconquest of parts of the lower Indus valley by Hindu rulers. However, the slow Muslim retreat was reversed by a new series of military invasions, this time launched by a Turkish slave dynasty that in 962CE had seized power in Afghanistan to the north of the Indus valley. The third ruler of this dynasty, Mahmud of Ghazni, led a series of expeditions that initiated nearly two centuries of Muslim raiding and conquest in northern India. Drawn by the legendary wealth of the subcontinent and a zeal to spread the Muslim faith, Mahmud repeatedly raided northwest India in the first decades of the 11th century. He defeated one confederation of Hindu princes after another and drove deeper and deeper into the subcontinent in the quest of rich temples to sack and loot. The example set by Mahmud of Ghazni of raiding India's riches, was followed by his successors and became a source of enmity between Hindus and Muslims in South Asia.
            The effect of the Ghazni invasions is then self-explanatory. A glimpse into India during the time of the invasions is well revealed in Islamic writer Al-Biruni's account of India. As Al-Biruni describes, "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places." (8) However, even in this period, evidence of peaceful interactions existed.

III.2.3. Delhi Sultanates
            Delhi Sultanates refers to the five Delhi based kingdoms of Turkish origin from the 13th to 15th century. Unlike the raids of the previous Muslim rulers of the mountain areas, these were aimed not at acquiring plunder and glory but at the political control of northern India and in this period, the story of Islam in India is one of expansion and the building up of a great empire that would be based not on Ghazni or Ghor but on Lahore and Delhi (8a). The territory reached as far as Southern India by the time the Sultanates were absorbed by the Mughal Empire. This period is referred to as heralding the Indian cultural renaissance, leaving prominent marks of Indo-Muslim fusion culture.

III.3. Mughal Empire (9)
            The Mughal Empire dominated most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th century to early 18th century. During the Mughal Empire, the pattern and mood of cultural contact depended on the policies of the emperors; hence, this chapter will discuss the prominent emperors and their attitudes and policies.

III.3.1. Babur
            Babur, the open-minded first emperor of the Mughal Empire, founded a sophisticated civilization based on religious toleration ? a civilization that was a mixture of Persian, Mongol, and Indian culture. There was a decrease in slavery and peace was made with the Hindu kingdoms of southern India during the rule of Babur. His first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows, a practice that was offensive to Hindus. Although Babur's ancestors were brutal conquerors, Babur himself was not a barbarian bent on loot and plunder but instead had great ideas about civilization, architecture, and administration.

III.3.2. Akbar
            Akbar is regarded as one of the greatest rulers and Akbar was responsible for many of the features that characterize the Mughal period. Akbar's father, Humayan was not as a competent at governing as his grandfather Babur had been, but passed on his love of poetry and culture to his son, enabling Akbar to make the Mughal Empire and artistic power as well as a military one. Akbar succeeded the throne at the young age of 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in 1605, he had most of north, central, and western India under his rule. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders (while this may well have been for political reasons, it was also a part of his philosophy). Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believer equally, whatever their belief. He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Akbar's government included many Hindus in positions of power and responsibility. In other words, the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing. Akbar also ended the discriminatory tax that had been imposed on the non-Muslims. The amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces was an innovation. Non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law, and Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions.

III.3.3. Jahangir
            Akbar's son, Jahangir readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration. His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects. Jahangir also began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered for to this day, importing hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and create magnificent gardens. In fact, Jahangir's approach to ruling was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of the Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure.

III.3.4. Jahan
            The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between 1592 and 1666, during the regin of Jahan. Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal, which marks the stability, power, and confidence of the Mughal Empire. By Jahan's period, the capital had moved to the Red Fort in Delhi, putting the Fort at the heart of Mughal power. However, the money Jahan spent on buildings and on various military projects emptied his treasury and he was forced to raise taxes, aggravating the people of the empire.

III.3.5. Aurangzeb
            Aurangzeb was the last great emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled for nearly 50 years, coming to the throne after imprisoning his father and having his older brother killed. He was a vigorous leader, whose conquests expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest size. Aurangzeb was a very observant and religious Muslim who ended the policy of religious tolerance followed by earlier emperors. He no longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their own laws and customs, but imposed the Islamic law over the whole empire. Thousands of Hindu temples and shrines were torn down and a punitive tax on Hindu subjects was revived. In the last decades of the 17th century, Aurangzeb invaded the Hindu kingdoms in central and southern India, conquering much territory and taking many slaves. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its military power, but the rule was not stable, partly due to the hostility that Aurangzeb's intolerance and taxation inspired in the population and also because the empire had become too big to be efficiently and successfully governed. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The Mughal emperors that followed Aurangzeb became British or French puppets and the last Mughal emperor was deposed by the British in 1858.

IV. Particular aspects of study
IV.1. Religion
            During Muslim rule, both Islam and Hinduism were exposed to the philosophies and customs of the other and therefore could not avoid being influenced by one another; both inevitably have some aspects of the other in their religious philosophies and customs. Although the process of integration is obscure, and although it is perhaps more of a gradual integration process rather than transfer of knowledge, it is to be discussed in this paper because accommodation and integration can, in a broad sense, be perceived as a two-way transfer of knowledge. For conciseness, the discussion stays within the realms of Islam and Hinduism.

IV.1.1. Hindu aspects in Islam
            There is no doubt that Islam was, to some extent, influenced by Hinduism in some very important respects. They borrowed from the Hindus some aspects of mysticism and some mores, especially their caste-system, funeral and birth-rights, marriage customs, untouchability which they practiced against sweepers, and a host of other things (10) However, the main tenets of Hindu creed did not have much influence over the Muslim code of life and it can be safely said that Islam had a greater influence on Hinduism.

IV.1.2. Conversions to Islam
            The common belief that Islam made its way into India via sword is poorly evidenced by history. When Islam penetrated India through traders, interaction was undoubtedly peaceful and voluntary. Even during the time of the conquering of Sindh, the common axiom was that Muslims are governed by Islamic law while non-Muslims are subject to their own laws and social organization and Arab rulers from the occupation of Sindh accepted the right of the village and caste panchayats to settle the affairs of their community, leading to autonomous Hindu republics. Of course, there were occasional periods in history where the rulers oppressed the non-Muslim religions and it is true that with the rulers being Muslim there was the connotation of force was introduced, but in general, a large number of natives converted to Islam not because of the political domination of the Muslims but for other reasons, among which may be ranked the missionary activities of Sufi thinkers and the intolerable economic condition of the masses coupled with the ignorance of their own religion (11). The fact that there is surprising little Muslim converts at the centers of Muslim rule also contribute to the fact that forced conversion was not the norm. In a nutshell, egalitarian aspects of Islam appealed to the outcastes and depressed social classes, while high-caste Hindus stubbornly resisted conversion.

IV.1.3. Syncretic Religious Movements
            After the 14th century, the Muslim conquest of North India ushered a revolution in traditional Hindu thought. One of the earliest religious leaders was Kabir. Kabir hated the caste system, rejected the authority of the six schools of the Indian philosophy, thought lowly of the theory of the transmigration of souls, and repudiated the doctrine of reincarnation (12). However, he was equally uncompromising toward Muslim fundamentalism and tried his best to break the barriers existing between Hindus and Muslims. The founding of the Sikh religion in the latter half of the 15th century also sprouted from the contact with Islam and Hinduism. Guru Nanak's, the founder of Sikhism, aim was to unite both Hindu and Muslim through an appeal to what he considered the great central truths of both, acknowledging Kabir and as his spiritual teacher. (13). Kabir and Guru Nanak were followed by a host of Hindu thinkers and reformers in the 16th and 17th centuries, illustrating some of the easily visible results of Islam and Hindu contact. Long before the Hindus became reconciled to the Muslim rulers, their relations with the common Muslims had considerably improved as soon as they saw that the Muslims had made India their home and bigotry and feeling of superiority as conquerors were gradually diminishing and began to diminish their hostile attitude due to these syncretism movements.

IV.1.4. Interpretation
IV.1.4.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
            After ten centuries of invasions, a significant Muslim community had been established in the Indian subcontinent. It can be seen that Islam first made its way into South Asia via traders and explorers who acted missionaries of the new religion. Therefore, peaceful conversions and interactions ensued in the beginnings. However, with the start of the Muslim invasions, the spread of Islam took on a more forceful color, although the majority of the emperors enforced religious toleration.

IV.1.4.2. Quality of Transfer
            The imported faith of Islam collided with indigenous Hindu traditions, sometimes violently and sometimes as part of a dynamic relationship of cultural creativity. As religion is not a tangible good or a skill but actual way of thinking and worship, it is difficult for either culture to accept the contrasting religion fully and wholly. Therefore, although influenced by one another, both Islam and Hinduism still maintain their own distinct set of doctrines. The impression one gains is that there was never a very conscious attempt to create understanding, except on the part of Kabir and Nanak, and that the contacts between the two religions were, on the whole superficial as far as the total life of the country was concerned (14). However, as Islam and Hinduism interacted and were exposed to the capacities and ideas of the other, they did produce a rich material culture and led to equally complex syncretism in the world of ideas.

IV.2. Sciences
            The scientific cooperation between the Arabs and the peoples of India is particularly accentuated during the Arab occupation of Sindh. It was the first time India experienced a large influx of a culture as ancient and sophisticated as theirs and so active scientific cooperation prevailed. The Muslims' attitude toward the new and advanced scientific knowledge they encountered in India was that of openness and willingness to accept. Therefore, the Islamic civilization was enriched by the discovery of yet another great civilization.
            This chapter will deal mainly of the scientific interactions during Arab occupation of Sindh as the most significant interactions were of that time period.

IV.2.1. Astronomy
            It is said that in about the middle of the 8th century, Indo-Arabic scientific cooperation begun. The Abbasids had established the Baitul Hikmah in Baghdad where scholars sat together and translated ideas and scientific knowledge from all across the world into Arabic (15). Astronomy was one of the first sciences to be introduced in the Arab world at the end of the 8th century through the Indian Sanskrit book Surya Sidhhanta, containing methods for computing eclipses, computing the motions of the planets, and such. Mansur, fond of astronomy himself, ordered the translation of this book and after this, Indian astronomy became popular was studied by the Arabs with great effort and interest, adding greater amount of improvisations on the basis of their own observations. Other astronomical works that entered the Arab world during that time period was Aryabhatiya and Khandakhadyaka. Also, many Sanskrit astronomical terms were Arabicized and freely used by Arab astronomers in their treaties: kardaja (Karamajya, Sanskrit) was used and later replaced by Arabic Witr Mustawi then Jib (Jiva, Sanskrit), auj (Uch, Sanskrit) were used by earlier Arab astronomers (16).

IV.2.2. Mathematics
            Indian mathematics also came to the Arab world near the end of the 8th century. Ibrahim bin Habib al Fazari himself took on the translation of many Sanskrit mathematical treaties in to Arabic and through these works, Indian numerical system and the concept of zero became known to the Arab world. The Arabs learned mathematics from the Indians and they called it Indian mathematics or numbers - the Arabic word for numbers Hindsah means 'from India.' A notable figure in the spread of Indian mathematics is Al Khwarizmi, an astronomer and scholar in Baghdad's House of Wisdom. His book On the Calculation of Hindu Numerals written in 825, aided the spread of the Indian system of numeration to the Middle East and Europe.

IV.2.3. Medicine
            Indian medicine entered the Arab world when caliph Harun al-Rashid was sick and the Arab physicians could not cure him. Indian physician Manka was called, and he succeeded in curing him. And as expected, many Indian works were translated into Arabic, some of which deals with the details of the symptoms and the cure of sicknesses. Later, Muslim practitioners played a big role in India during the Mughal Empire, writing many medical books in Arabic and Persian.
            The following is a list of undated medical manuscripts preserved in India:
1. Khulasat ?ut-Tibb: by Muhammad bin Masood, a short treatise on medicine, on the art of dying, and paper making.
2. Asrar-i-Ittiba: by Shihab al-Din, essays on the virtues of amulets, medicine, charm for averting disease.
3. Shifa ar-Rijal: Shihab al-Din, poetical treatise on medicine
4. Bahr-ul-Manafia: 1794 by Maulood Muhammad, dedicated to Tipu Sultan, treatise on midwifery, children, exorcising devils, enchantments etc.
5. Qanun-dar-Ilm-Tibb: a translation by order of Tipu Sultan, a complete pharmacopeia.
6. Tarjuma Kitab-i-Farang: a translation of Dr Cookburn's treatise on twist of the intestines.
7. Mufradat dar-Ilm-Tibb: on botany and natural history, translated by order Tipu Sultan from French & English.
8. Risala Tib-i-Aspan: translation from Sanskrit by Zain al-Din 1519 and dedicated to Shamsuddin Muzafar Shah on farriery.
9. Kitab al-Sumum: by Shanka of India, translated into Persian by Hatim, later by Abbas Saeed Jauhari.
10. Sharah Hadae-tul-Hikma: by Muhammad bin Ibrahim, qazi of Shiraz, contains the whole course on sciences read in schools. It was much esteemed by Muslims of India.
11. Makhzanul Adwiyya: by Hakim Muhammad Hussin, printed in Persian.
12. Tazkira-tul-Hind: by Hakim Razi Ali Khan, on materia medica in Persian, written in early part of 19th century, lithographed in 1866 Hyderbabad (17).

IV.2.4. Interpretation
IV.2.4.1. Periodization
            India was, generally speaking, ahead of the world in some areas of science, philosophy, and literature in the 7th century when Arabs entered India. Therefore the Arabs were fascinated with the facets of rich intellectual heritage of India and possessed a very high opinion of the Indians. Keen on learning about the civilizations they encountered, the Muslim rulers sent envoys to India to procure information of their astrology, mathematics, and medicine and also brought Hindu scholars to Baghdad. Therefore, it can be said that the people of the world of Islam were more influenced by the Indians rather than the other way around from the Arab occupation of Sindh until the Delhi Sultanates. However, during the Mughal rule, Arabs expanded upon their acquired knowledge and played a role in Indian society as well.

IV.2.4.2. Means of Transfer
            In the case of theoretical science, in other words, the knowledge itself, with the exception of the Mahmud of Ghazni, the transfer was largely prompted by the Muslim rulers and was limited to scholars. The translation of books was the main means of transfer. The techniques and skills that were proliferated through different means

IV.2.4.3. Quality of Transfer
            It's difficult to evaluate the degree of interaction in the impact of the Arab or Persian traditions on India in the field of mathematics and astronomy. India's impact, however, is well-known and acknowledged. Starting from the Arab conquests in Sindh, for over five hundred years Muslim and other writers continued to apply to works on arithmetic the name Indian. It was only later that the Arabs expanded upon the newfound knowledge and in reverse played a role in Indian society as well.

IV.3. Agricultural Technology
IV.3.1. Grafting
            Interaction between Central Asia and India in the sphere of agricultural products and technology has been significant. Timur, with his invasion of India, accelerated the exchange of technologies between India and Central Asia by leaving behind in Delhi a number of skilled craftsmen and carrying with him to Samarqand a large number of Indian artisans and stone-masons. A Spanish visitor to Timur's court during 1403-1406 wrote that Samarqand was "full of goods from different countries and from India came the finest of spices such as the best variety of nutmegs, cloves, mace, ginger, etc."(18) Babur recalled the contributions of Timur in his autobiography Babur-nama and described the different commodities which were exported from Central Asia to India (19). These included fresh fruits such as apples, melons, grapes, etc, and also dry fruits. With the establishment of the Mughal dynasty in India, the pre-existing links between India and Central Asia were further deepened. The frequent movement of goods and people between the two regions had a deep impact on the cultural and material life of the regions. The process of exchange and interaction between India and Central Asia is described in Bernier's account and in the Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, commenting that the sale of Central Asian fruits was so popular in India that they even reached the Deccan (20).
            Inspired by their love of Central Asian fruits, the Mughal emperors made considerable innovations in horticultural techniques. To develop the culture of Central Asian and Persian fruits in India, the Mughal emperors imported seeds and gardeners and even borrowed the technique of grafting from these regions. Although grafting had been known in India since the ancient times, it was the extensive application of the Central Asian style of grafting which yielded significant results and improved the quality of fruits. Influenced by the Central Asian and Persian horticultural traditions, the Mughal emperors did not merely implement the simple principle of grafting but also encouraged the application of its different methods to make the technology of grafting effective and efficient. The Indian chroniclers of the 17th century have widely upheld the significance of grafting. Jahangir in Tuzak-i-Jahangiri says that sweet cherry was brought to Kashmir from Kabul by Akbar's governor and was propagated by means of grafting (21). By the same means, the cultivation of apricot and mulberry was made more productive in Kashmir. Mulberry, if grown through the indigenous technique, was bitter. But it was transformed into an edible variety by grafting. Grafting was even prescribed for even mangoes and peaches for a better yield. The practice of grafting had been widespread and improved the quality of various fruits.

IV.3.2. Irrigation
            From the 14th century, canals or 'long canals' built from un-dammed rivers, traversing fairly long paths could be seen in India. The basis and the technique of construction of these canals clearly exhibit Central Asian and Iranian influence. Inspired by the canal construction of Central Asia, such canals were mostly laid out by the Mughal emperors and the Mughal nobility. Other than the Mughals fostering the Central Asian technique of canal construction, the impact of Central Asia on canal digging can be seen earlier in the 13th and 14th centuries. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq was the first sultan of Delhi who can be credited with digging canals for the promotion of agriculture, but it was Firuz Shah Tughluq who created the biggest network of canals known in India until the 19th century (22). Interaction with Central Asia seems apparent particularly in the two large canals cut by Firuz Shah Tughluq (23). However, besides these long canals, there were a number of small canals or 'public canals' excavated and maintained by the local people and the landholders.
            Exhibiting interaction with Central Asia and consolidating its influence, the Mughal emperors excavated long and impressive canals, particularly in northern plains in the Upper Ganges and Indus basins. While Mughal emperors built long canals under the influence of Central Asia, one of their objectives in excavating the canals was to bring water to their orchards and gardens so that they could satisfy their interest in growing Central Asian and Persian fruits in India.
            Another Central Asian technique imbibed in India was the qanat or karez or underground water-channel. Bernier, a foreign traveler of the 17th century, writes that qanats were most noticeable in the Indus basin, where the local practice was to cut qanats from either the rivers or the canals. Qanats in this region were facilitated by the very nature of the Indus basin. When the Indus continuously deposited silt, it raised its bed to a much higher level than that of the surrounding plains, so that it was easy to use the water supply in its mainstream as well as inundation channels by cutting qanats from them for irrigating the fields.

IV.3.3. Water and Windmills
            Like in Central Asia and Iran, agricultural technology in India also showed evidence of utilization of non-human resources of power, particularly water and wind. The concepts of both water-mill and windmill were introduced into India from Central Asia and Iran as early as the 4th century and they became widespread in India by the 11th century. Both mills were mounted horizontally and therefore required no gearing.
            Having imbibed the Central Asian and the Persian techniques, water-mills were installed in the Deccan by the 7th century although they were put to more extensive use by the 16th century. The undulating nature of the Deccan plateau suited the horizontal character of the water-mills. The best-known example of a water-mill in the Deccan is Malik Ambar's water-mill at Aurangabad. Water-mills were also commonly used in the Kashmir, the Himalayan region, and in north-western portions of the Punjab. They were virtually non-existent in the north Indian plains due to the nature of the rivers of this region, which were subject to great seasonal fluctuations, making it difficult for the water to flow with sufficient force and hence unsuitable for the setting up of water-mills.
            Besides the influence of Central Asia and Persia, the technical ingenuity in the use of water power was observed in a small locality of India ? the Hazara district, which lay on the route to Kashmir from Delhi (frequently used by the Mughal emperors). In this district, apart from the conventional corn-grinding water-mill, a water-driven wooden trip-hammer called pekoh was used for milling rice. Moreover, since the wheel in this case was vertical, it was an important departure from the horizontal water-mill.
            The technology of the windmill also came into India from Central Asia and Persia. Windmills were suited to a region where the winds were strong and blew constantly in one direction and where water as an alternative source of power was not available. Borrowing the technique of the horizontal windmill from Central Asia and Persia, a windmill was installed at Ahmedabad. This windmill was known locally as hawan-chakki and worked upon the movement of the wind and the rotation of the curtains. However, by 1761 only the millstone remained and it was no longer known when it had been originally installed.

IV.3.4. Interpretation
IV.3.4.1. Periodization
            Although these agricultural technologies had been in use in India prior to Central Asian and Persian influence it was largely during the Mughal Empire that the Central Asian and Persian techniques appeared in indigenous agricultural technologies and contributed to the improvement of Indian horticulture. Timur's invasion and the incorporation of a part of north-western India into his empire intensified the contacts between the two regions, facilitating the transfer of technology.

IV.3.4.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
            According to historical records, Central Asian influences were mostly headed by the Mughal emperors, but Indian peasants who were conscious of the changes and the changing demands of a more advanced agrarian economy, accommodated and imbibed various technologies as well. These technologies actually contributed a great deal to the improvement of agricultural harvest, such is the case of various fruits through grafting. However, Indian influence on Central Asia on agriculture is not as visible. It is known that Central Asia also imported from the more remote parts of Asia certain fruits such as oranges unknown in the Near East and developed considerably the cultivation of products such as sugarcanes, flax, and cotton, but whether it is specifically from South Asia is uncertain.

IV.4. Metallurgy
IV.4.1. Indian influence on the Arabs and Persians
            India influenced the Arabs and Persians in the area of metallurgy during the first millennium AD. Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization I: Our Oriental Heritage:
            "Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement¡¦By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing ¡°Damascus¡± blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India." (24)
            Wootz steel became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it was known as Damascus steel.

IV.4.2. Central Asian influence on India
            The earliest evidence of liquefying and casting metal goods comes from China where the artisans as well as a literate elite were able to harness their rivers to power their bellows and thus liquefy a wide range of metals to facilitate the fabrication of all sorts of alloys and castings. A host of advantages such as better ores enabled them to fabricate the earliest cupro-nickel alloys and high-arsenic coppers almost at the advent of the first millennium AD. It was difficult to prevent the dissemination of this knowledge, especially along the Silk Route, and soon variants of these alloys were being developed in areas referred to as 'Eastern Turkestan' in the medieval period. It is claimed that the artisans of Central Asian trade centers such as Tashkent, Samarqand and Bokhara became adept at fabrication multi-metal alloys when, in the first century AD, some Chinese deserters taught the Ferghanese artisans ways of making silver-and gold-like alloys (25). These cities of Central Asia soon became centers for the production of large castings such as cauldrons, vases, bowls, as well as of very small castings such as arrow-heads, hair-clips, tweezers, mirrors, and cheap jewelry. As the attempts to duplicate the gold-like and silver-like alloys used for these castings spread south-westward into Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar, and Kashmir, there arose the desire to duplicate these alloys.
            The southward movement of Chinese and Central Asian commercial interests into India had a number of historical regions. For example, during the Delhi sultanate, the region of northern India began to attract master craftsmen and artisans who found generous patrons among the city-builders of the 13th and 14th century northern India. Furthermore, once a sizeable and prosperous Muslim population became available in North India, Central Asian merchants began exporting charms, amulets, ornaments, and weapons made of supposedly magical alloys having exotic names like haft-josh, taliqun, kharchini, etc., into this region. Thus, some alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent. The alloy kharsini, listed as one of the 'Seven Metals' recognized by Jabir ibn Hayyan, was found in India. Al-Biruni in his Kitab al Jamahir, commenting on the excellent temple gongs and vessels being fabricated out of this alloy at Kashghar, said that they were much better than those being cast around Kabul (26). However, not all attempts to duplicate the Central Asian techniques were successful because the exact techniques remained unknown due to the fact that there was a degree of confusion in the co-relationship between Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Turkic and Chinese terms as well as the metals and alloys they signified.

IV.4.3. Interpretation
IV.4.3.1. Periodization
            In the earlier period of Arab seafarers and traders, India's metallurgy techniques were exported to the Arabs and Persians. Wootz steel originated in India before the Common Era and there is archaeological evidence of the manufacturing process in South India from that time (27). Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became famous in the Middle East and was later traced to workshops in western India (28). During the Delhi sultanate, alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent via Central Asian merchants.

IV.4.3.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
            The transfer of metal technology was, in general, not forced upon by emperors or rulers but by commercial interests of merchants and traders. However, when Central Asian merchants brought with them were not fully transferred to the Indian people due to the fact that the exact techniques remained a mystery due to differences in terms in metals and alloys and such. However, wootz steel of India, which was spread widely through traders, was quite famous especially in the Middle East due to its superiority at the time.

IV.5. Language and Literature
IV.5.1. Literatures of Turko-Persian Culture
            Persian literature flourished in the subcontinent from the 12th to 19th centuries (especially from the late 16th through the 18th), largely with court patronage, holding a prominent place in Indian society at all levels, in both its Muslim and non-Muslim segments, with mainly literary and government functions, as well as Sufi religious ones (29). Ali Asani's "Muslim Literatures in South Asia" depicts the role of Persian in South India as follows: ¡°Persian was not only the language of intellectual and artistic life in Muslim South Asia but was also the official language of government and administration. The significance of Persian extended far beyond its use as a medium of communication among the elite, however. Persian became such a prominent cultural component in medieval India that Persian vocabulary features prominently in all of the major North Indian languages. Furthermore, it so strongly influenced the literary forms, idioms, and scripts of several Indic languages such as Urdu, Sindhi, Pushtu, and Balochi, that a knowledge of Persian becomes critical to an appreciation of their literatures. This is particularly true of Urdu, whose poetry cannot be truly understood in all its nuances without a thorough knowledge of the Persian tradition¡¦ Every major and minor genre of Persian literature flourished here: from mystical poetry and biographies of saints to treatises on medicine, music, and war. Of special significance are the many historical works in Persian chronicling the reigns of almost every dynasty and ruler. These records have become important sources for reconstructing the history of Muslim India¡¦¡± As we can see, Persian affected the literary forms and vocabulary of North Indian languages. Persian culture also introduced the concept of historiography and recording of history to India. On the contrary, in Persian literature, (especially popular was poetry) little Hindu derivatives are found, but a rare exception, Amir Khusrau, exists, telling of some influence of the Indian culture. Unlike his fellow poets, he was the first and only of the Persian poets who alluded to Indian customs in his lyrics, incorporation a number of Indian stories into his Persian epic romances and attempting to compose verse in a local language, Hindawi (30). So there existed some Indian influence to Persian culture. IV.5.2. Use of Vernacular Language in Muslim Literature
            Pioneering the use of Indian languages for Muslim literatures were various Sufis or mystics, who were very well suited in temperament to assimilating Islamic concepts and ideas to the Indian environment (31). Literature composed by Sufis in local languages played an instrumental role in this process of the Indian acculturation to Islam (32). In order for the Sufis to convey the Islamic faith to the indigenous peoples of India, who did not understand either Persian or Arabic, they expressed the Islamic values in vernacular within a South Asian framework ? images, metaphors, verse-forms, etc. For example, popular romance epics were utilized for conveying Islamic instruction. Perhaps due to the South Asian framework, many scholars detect Hindu influences in much poetry written by Muslims in Indian languages.

IV.5.3. Interpretation
IV.5.3.1. Periodization and Means of Transfer
            Persian literature flourished especially from the late 16th through the 18th, largely with court patronage.

IV.5.3.2. Quality of Transfer
            With Persian being the language of the court and intellectual and artistic life, there is no doubt that Persian had a great influence over the North Indian languages and literature. However, the other side - Indic languages or cultures influencing Persian - is comparatively less dominant. Although some traces of this phenomenon are shown, they are usually exceptional cases. This is probably due to the fact that Persian was "high-culture" meant for the elite while Indic languages were culture of the common folk. The transfer of aspects of the vernacular language to Muslim literature is more commonly seen in literature composed by Sufis, which was more "folk" in nature and meant for the illiterate classes living in rural areas.

IV.6. Other Skills and Knowledge Transferred
IV.6.1. Architecture
            In architecture, as in other spheres of culture, the Indo-Islamic society was enriched by the dislocation in Central Asia and Persia caused by the Mongol invasion because not only scholars but artisans as well came to Delhi as refugees, and they found a ready market for their skills in the expanding Muslim state (33). Muslim traditions had become firmly established on the Indian subcontinent and methods of construction were revolutionized, as in the case of Muslims' use of concrete and mortar whose binding properties allowed the spacious arches, domed roofs, and a sense of grandeur that Indian construction lacked, and ornament became an integral part of the scheme (34). However, there were places in which the indigenous forms of architecture remained dominant, such as the provincial capitals. For example, in Bengal, the Muslim rulers decorated their buildings with carving which is obviously the work of Hindu craftsmen, and in Gujarat they adapted the local style to Muslim needs to create some of India's most beautiful buildings (35).

IV.6.2. Shipbuilding
            Although not much is known about the exact skills transferred in the area of shipbuilding, the finding of an Indo-Arabian stone anchor in Kannur suggests the existence of such transfer of skills (36) if not the specific content of transfer. Furthermore, it is believed that the mounting of catapults on the warships of India was introduced by Muhammad ibn Qasim's armies in the conquering of Sindh.

IV.6.3. Cuisine
            Elements of Muslim cuisine were taken up by the Indians. The Muslims from western Asia brought the Mughlai cuisines to India when Mughal rulers conquered a large portion of India. During the Mughal Empire, these dishes were prepared for the Mughal Emperors for elegant dining with dry fruits and nuts. The hospitality of sharing of food with others in Mughal courtly society helped India to absorb it as its own. The resulting dishes are lamb kebabs laced with spices, the rice Pulao of India cooked with meat and turned into biryanis, lamb and meat roasts flavored with Indian herbs and seasoning, Indian dishes garnished with almonds, pistachios, cashews and raisins, etc (37). Furthermore, not only dishes and ingredients, but aspects of the Muslim rulers' splendor of living were also introduced, such as the idea of community dining and the concept of extravagant and lavish banquets entered India.

IV.6.4. Board Game - Chess
            Modes of entertainment were also transferred to other worlds. Chess, in particular, was transferred from India to Persia. The article on chess in Encyclopedia Iranica explains, ¡°A great variety of legends about chess appear in early Arabic sources. Mas?udi, for example, describes how a series of learned kings of ancient India introduced various arts and sciences. Brahman was the first. Under his son B?hb?d the game of nard was invented, and a couple of generations later King Dabsalem composed the book Kalila wa Demna. In the reign of his son Balhit the game of chess was invented, and certain of its mathematical properties were explored, especially the calculation and cosmo¡şlogical interpretation of the sum of squares from 1 to 64. Mas?udi also mentions six different forms of the game that were current in his time. Al-Biruni, in his book on India, describes an Indian variant of chess played with a pair of dice by four players on an ordinary board eight squares on a side; in his A?ar he treats mathematical aspects of the problem of ¡°the reduplication of the chess and its calculation.¡± Ibn ?allekan also explains this problem in a story about the inventor of chess, sup¡şposedly an Indian sage named ?e??a b. Daher in the time of a certain king Sehram (or Balhit), who asked as his reward that a grain of rice be placed in the first square of a chess board and that the amount then be doubled in each successive square of the sixty-four. Other Muslim writers attributed the invention of chess to a variety of legendary wise men, usually Indian. Most frequently mentioned is ?akim Si?a/?eh?a/?efa/Sisak/Ses, etc., b. Daser/ Daher/Da?er al-Hendi,¡±(38) showing how the game along with various legends entered Persia.

V. Conclusion
            Conclusively, by identifying general patterns of transfer on a historical level and looking into the specifics of transfer, a holistic view of interaction can be grasped:
            The first part of this paper was devoted to establishing a historical perspective of the interaction between the two cultures. From the historical analysis, it can be seen that there is a discrepancy in the transfer of skills and knowledge between the northern and southern parts of India, and that the direction of transfer changes as time passes. Generally, Islamic culture came into contact with cultures in North India through invasions and conquerors while in southern India, transfer occurred through a more liberal ambience of trade. Furthermore, during the first stages of contact, the advanced Indian civilization contributed more to the Islamic civilization, but as time passed and South Asia became the territory of Muslim reign, there was more transfer going from the direction of the Islamic culture to the Indian culture. Also, it is important to note that due to Muslim rule in South Asia, transfer and integration took place.
            The latter part of the paper revealed the interactions at a more specific level, focusing on contacts of religion, sciences, and language and literature. Interaction is more often than not two sided and rarely a one sided affair and so aspects of both cultures can be found in the other, but as the study shows, it is also true that, in some aspects, one side had a dominating influence on the other due to historical or social context. Until the Mamhud of Ghazni, the interaction took place in both the world of Islam and India. But after it, it became pretty much one sided.


Endnotes
(1) Continuity and change in Indo-Arab Cultural relations: A survey with special reference to Oman, Aftab Ahmad, pg. 4
(1a) explanation of more detail on the marriages of the Aabs.
(2) ibid. pg.5
(3) ibid.
(4) ibid.
(5) Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(6) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: 1. The Impact of the Arabs
(7) This chapter is largely based on Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(8) E. C. Sachau, Alberuni's India (London, 1914), I, pg. 22
(8a) The Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: Muhammad Ghuri's Conquests
(9) This chapter is largely based on BBC Religions - Islam: Mughal Empire
(10) M. Shariff, A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2 pg. 1395
(11) ibid. pg. 1397
(12) ibid. pg. 1404
(13) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: IX The Interaction between Islam and Hinduism
(14) ibid.
(15) Continuity and change in Indo-Arab Cultural relations: A survey with special reference to Oman, Aftab Ahmad, pg. 10
(16) ibid.
(17) Zakaria Virk, Science in India during Muslim Rule pg. 12-13
(18) pg. 401 Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (ed.) India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
(19) ibid.
(20) 116 Xabul Fruits. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
(21) ibid.
(22) Chattopadhyaya 2002 pg. 403
(23) ibid.
(24) Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent
(25) Needham, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China Vol. 1 , Cambridge University Press, 1954 http://www.scribd.com/doc/93206901/Joseph-Needham-Science-and-Civilisation-in-China-Vol-1-Introductory-Orientations
(26) Chattopadhyaya 2002 pg.414
(27) Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel
(28)ibid.
(29) Tahera Qutbuddin, Arabic in India: A Survey and Classification of Its Uses, Compared with Persian, p.3
(30) Ali Asani, Muslim Literatures in South India, p.2
(31) ibid. p.3
(32) ibid.
(33) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: Society and Culture under the Sultanate
(34) ibid.
(35) ibid.
(36) More information can be found on "An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala"
(37) Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India
(38) Encyclopaedia Iranica: Chess a board game http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chess-a-board-game
VI. Bibliography
Bibliographic Sources
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Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India, 1: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. 3d ed., rev. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1967.
Powell, Avril Ann. Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. London: Curzon, 1993.
Rizvi, S.A.A. The Wonder That Was India, 2: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent from the Coming of the Muslims to the British Conquest, 1200-1700. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1987.
Tahseen, Rana. Education and Modernisation of Muslims in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1993.
Jackson, Paul, ed. The Muslims of India: Beliefs and Practices. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1988.
Ahmad, Imtiaz, ed. Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
Rahman, A. "Indian Muslims: A Historical Perspective." Pages 5-18 in Ratna Sahai, ed., Muslims in India. New Delhi: Ministry of External Affairs, 1989.
Feener, R. Michael and Sevea, Terenjit. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia Institute of Souteast Asian Studies, 2009
Ahmad, Aziz. An Intellectual History of Islam in India. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1969.
Eaton, Richard. "Approaches to the Study of Conversion to Islam in India" in Martin, Richard C., Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985.
Gandhi, Rajmohan. Understanding the Muslim Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
Mujeeb, M. The Indian Muslims. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1967.
Rizvi, S.A.A. A History of Sufism in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1978-1983.
Muslim Civilization in India http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_01.html#conquest
provides a thorough overview of the Arab invasion of Sindh and contact of the different countries. Includes both the historical overview and the cultural/intellectual contacts of the Arabs and Medieval India.

Education
Some aspects of the Muslim Educational System in Pre-colonial India http://www.ilmgate.org/some-aspects-of-the-muslim-educational-system-in-pre-colonial-india/

Literature/Language/Art
Wikipedia Article: History of Hindustani
Muslim Ethos in Literature: http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india/muslim_ethos_in_indian_literature.html
Arabic in India: http://nelc.uchicago.edu/sites/nelc.uchicago.edu/files/Qutbuddin,%20Arabic%20in%20India,%20JAOS%20127.3%202008.pdf
Muslim Literatures in South India by Ali Asani http://www.iis.ac.uk/SiteAssets/pdf/A%20%20Asani%20p355-363%20pdf.pdf
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. A History of Indian Literature, 7: Modern Indo-Iranian Literatures (fasc. 1). Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1973.
Asani, Ali. "In Praise of Muhammad: Sindhi and Urdu Poems" in Lopez, Donald S., ed. Religions of India in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Russell, Ralph. "The Pursuit of the Urdu Ghazal" in Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1969, pp.107-124.
Welch, Stuart C. Imperial Mughal Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1978.
Persian Literature in Translation: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main

Religion
http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/141215-Influence-Islam-Indian-culture.aspx
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Sharif, M. A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2. Harrassowitz, 1966 http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hmp/LXIX-Sixty-nine.pdf

Architecture
Islamic architecture in India http://www.ne.jp/asahi/arc/ind/1_primer/indoislam/indis_eng.htm
Google Books: Burton-Page, John and Michell, George. Indian Islamic Architecture Leiden: Brill, 2008 http://www.brill.nl/indian-islamic-architecture
Lowry, Glenn. "Humayun's Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture" in Muqarnas 4, 1987, pp.133-147.

Historiography
Wikipedia Article: List of Muslim Historians in India
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Science

History of Indian Science and Technology "Alberuni on Pre-Islamic India's Science, Math, and Architecture by Vinod Kumar" http://www.indianscience.org/essays/t_es_kumar-v_math.shtml
Indian Journal of the History of Science
Science in India during Muslim Rule
https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
Nadiri, Ishaq M. "Early Muslim Science and Entrepreneurship in Islam": Presentation for American Economic Association Conference January 2-5th, 2009
Smith, David Eungene The Hindu-Arabic Numerals Louis Charles Karpinski, 1911

Agriculture and Metallurgy
1. Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
2. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir
http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
3. Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent
4. Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel
5. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mumbai The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi Sultanate, Bhavan's Book University
6. Govind, Vijay Some Aspects of Glass Manufacturing in Ancient India
7. Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
8. Needham, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China Vol. 1 , Cambridge University Press, 1954 http://www.scribd.com/doc/93206901/Joseph-Needham-Science-and-Civilisation-in-China-Vol-1-Introductory-Orientations
9. Encyclopaedia Iranica Article: Iranian immigrants in India http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xxviii-iranian-immigrants-in-india

Cuisine
Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India http://www.mantramasala.com/indianExperience.htm
Mughal Influence on Indian Food, Indian Cuisine
Wikipedia Article: Indian Cuisine

Maritime History/ Shipbuilding
An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/181/1/Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_34_131.pdf
Basa, Kishor K. 1999. Early trade in the Indian ocean: perspectives on Indo-South-east Asian maritime contacts (c. 400 BC-AD 500). Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. pp.29-72.
Dikshit, K.N. and R.G. Pandeya.1978. Ancient maritime contacts of west Bengal-literary and archaeological evidence. The Heritage of India (Ed.) L.N. Mishra. Bodhgaya: pp.232-237
Greeshmalatha, A. P. and G. Victor Rajamanickam. 1993. An analysis of different types of traditional coastal vessels along the Kerala coast. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: pp.36-51
Kulke, Hermann. 1999. Trade and politics in eleventh century bay of Bengal.Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. pp.214-225.
The Ottoman Empire, the classical age, 1300-1600 Halil Inalcik translated by Norman Itzkowitz, Colin Imber. Praeger, 1973

Board Games
Encyclopaedia Iranica: Chess a board game http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chess-a-board-game

Manuscript Catalogues
Survey of manuscript catalogues in India, http://ignca.nic.in/manus004.htm
Catalogue of manuscripts of India. Tells the name of manuscript, the state and which institute in which it is located.



Added Chapters . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Agricultural Technology
I.1. Grafting
Interaction between Central Asia and India in the sphere of agricultural products and technology has been significant. Timur, with his invasion of India, accelerated the exchange of technologies between India and Central Asia by leaving behind in Delhi a number of skilled craftsmen and carrying with him to Samarqand a large number of Indian artisans and stone-masons. A Spanish visitor to Timur's court during 1403-1406 wrote that Samarqand was "full of goods from different countries and from India came the finest of spices such as the best variety of nutmegs, cloves, mace, ginger, etc." (1) Babur recalled the contributions of Timur in his autobiography Babur-nama and described the different commodities which were exported from Central Asia to India (2). These included fresh fruits such as apples, melons, grapes, etc, and also dry fruits. With the establishment of the Mughal dynasty in India, the pre-existing links between India and Central Asia were further deepened. The frequent movement of goods and people between the two regions had a deep impact on the cultural and material life of the regions. The process of exchange and interaction between India and Central Asia is described in Bernier's account and in the Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, commenting that the sale of Central Asian fruits was so popular in India that they even reached the Deccan (3a).
Inspired by their love of Central Asian fruits, the Mughal emperors made considerable innovations in horticultural techniques. To develop the culture of Central Asian and Persian fruits in India, the Mughal emperors imported seeds and gardeners and even borrowed the technique of grafting from these regions. Although grafting had been known in India since the ancient times, it was the extensive application of the Central Asian style of grafting which yielded significant results and improved the quality of fruits. Influenced by the Central Asian and Persian horticultural traditions, the Mughal emperors did not merely implement the simple principle of grafting but also encouraged the application of its different methods to make the technology of grafting effective and efficient. The Indian chroniclers of the 17th century have widely upheld the significance of grafting. Jahangir in Tuzak-i-Jahangiri says that sweet cherry was brought to Kashmir from Kabul by Akbar's governor and was propagated by means of grafting (3). By the same means, the cultivation of apricot and mulberry was made more productive in Kashmir. Mulberry, if grown through the indigenous technique, was bitter. But it was transformed into an edible variety by grafting. Grafting was even prescribed for even mangoes and peaches for a better yield. The practice of grafting had been widespread and improved the quality of various fruits.

I.2. Irrigation
From the 14th century, canals or 'long canals' built from un-dammed rivers, traversing fairly long paths could be seen in India. The basis and the technique of construction of these canals clearly exhibit Central Asian and Iranian influence. Inspired by the canal construction of Central Asia, such canals were mostly laid out by the Mughal emperors and the Mughal nobility. Other than the Mughals fostering the Central Asian technique of canal construction, the impact of Central Asia on canal digging can be seen earlier in the 13th and 14th centuries. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq was the first sultan of Delhi who can be credited with digging canals for the promotion of agriculture, but it was Firuz Shah Tughluq who created the biggest network of canals known in India until the 19th century (4). Interaction with Central Asia seems apparent particularly in the two large canals cut by Firuz Shah Tughluq (5). However, besides these long canals, there were a number of small canals or 'public canals' excavated and maintained by the local people and the landholders.
Exhibiting interaction with Central Asia and consolidating its influence, the Mughal emperors excavated long and impressive canals, particularly in northern plains in the Upper Ganges and Indus basins. While Mughal emperors built long canals under the influence of Central Asia, one of their objectives in excavating the canals was to bring water to their orchards and gardens so that they could satisfy their interest in growing Central Asian and Persian fruits in India.
Another Central Asian technique imbibed in India was the qanat or karez or underground water-channel. Bernier, a foreign traveler of the 17th century, writes that qanats were most noticeable in the Indus basin, where the local practice was to cut qanats from either the rivers or the canals. Qanats in this region were facilitated by the very nature of the Indus basin. When the Indus continuously deposited silt, it raised its bed to a much higher level than that of the surrounding plains, so that it was easy to use the water supply in its mainstream as well as inundation channels by cutting qanats from them for irrigating the fields.

I.3. Water- and Windmills
Like in Central Asia and Iran, agricultural technology in India also showed evidence of utilization of non-human resources of power, particularly water and wind. The concepts of both water-mill and windmill were introduced into India from Central Asia and Iran as early as the 4th century and they became widespread in India by the 11th century. Both mills were mounted horizontally and therefore required no gearing.
Having imbibed the Central Asian and the Persian techniques, water-mills were installed in the Deccan by the 7th century although they were put to more extensive use by the 16th century. The undulating nature of the Deccan plateau suited the horizontal character of the water-mills. The best-known example of a water-mill in the Deccan is Malik Ambar's water-mill at Aurangabad. Water-mills were also commonly used in the Kashmir, the Himalayan region, and in north-western portions of the Punjab. They were virtually non-existent in the north Indian plains due to the nature of the rivers of this region, which were subject to great seasonal fluctuations, making it difficult for the water to flow with sufficient force and hence unsuitable for the setting up of water-mills.
Besides the influence of Central Asia and Persia, the technical ingenuity in the use of water power was observed in a small locality of India ? the Hazara district, which lay on the route to Kashmir from Delhi (frequently used by the Mughal emperors). In this district, apart from the conventional corn-grinding water-mill, a water-driven wooden trip-hammer called pekoh was used for milling rice. Moreover, since the wheel in this case was vertical, it was an important departure from the horizontal water-mill.
The technology of the windmill also came into India from Central Asia and Persia. Windmills were suited to a region where the winds were strong and blew constantly in one direction and where water as an alternative source of power was not available. Borrowing the technique of the horizontal windmill from Central Asia and Persia, a windmill was installed at Ahmedabad. This windmill was known locally as hawan-chakki and worked upon the movement of the wind and the rotation of the curtains. However, by 1761 only the millstone remained and it was no longer known when it had been originally installed.

I.4. Interpretation
I.4.1. Periodization
Although these agricultural technologies had been in use in India prior to Central Asian and Persian influence it was largely during the Mughal Empire that the Central Asian and Persian techniques appeared in indigenous agricultural technologies and contributed to the improvement of Indian horticulture. Timur's invasion and the incorporation of a part of north-western India into his empire intensified the contacts between the two regions, facilitating the transfer of technology.
I.4.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
According to historical records, Central Asian influences were mostly headed by the Mughal emperors, but Indian peasants who were conscious of the changes and the changing demands of a more advanced agrarian economy, accommodated and imbibed various technologies as well. These technologies actually contributed a great deal to the improvement of agricultural harvest, such is the case of various fruits through grafting.
However, Indian influence on Central Asia on agriculture is not as visible. It is known that Central Asia also imported from the more remote parts of Asia certain fruits such as oranges unknown in the Near East and developed considerably the cultivation of products such as sugarcanes, flax, and cotton, but whether it is specifically from South Asia is uncertain.

II. Metallurgy
II.1. Indian influence on the Arabs and Persians
India influenced the Arabs and Persians in the area of metallurgy during the first millennium AD. Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization I: Our Oriental Heritage:
"Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement¡¦By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing ¡°Damascus¡± blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India." (6) Wootz steel became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it was known as Damascus steel.

II.2. Central Asian influence on India
The earliest evidence of liquefying and casting metal goods comes from China where the artisans as well as a literate elite were able to harness their rivers to power their bellows and thus liquefy a wide range of metals to facilitate the fabrication of all sorts of alloys and castings. A host of advantages such as better ores enabled them to fabricate the earliest cupro-nickel alloys and high-arsenic coppers almost at the advent of the first millennium AD. It was difficult to prevent the dissemination of this knowledge, especially along the Silk Route, and soon variants of these alloys were being developed in areas referred to as 'Eastern Turkestan' in the medieval period. It is claimed that the artisans of Central Asian trade centers such as Tashkent, Samarqand and Bokhara became adept at fabrication multi-metal alloys when, in the first century AD, some Chinese deserters taught the Ferghanese artisans ways of making silver-and gold-like alloys (7). These cities of Central Asia soon became centers for the production of large castings such as cauldrons, vases, bowls, as well as of very small castings such as arrow-heads, hair-clips, tweezers, mirrors, and cheap jewelry. As the attempts to duplicate the gold-like and silver-like alloys used for these castings spread south-westward into Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar, and Kashmir, there arose the desire to duplicate these alloys.
The southward movement of Chinese and Central Asian commercial interests into India had a number of historical regions. For example, during the Delhi sultanate, the region of northern India began to attract master craftsmen and artisans who found generous patrons among the city-builders of the 13th and 14th century northern India. Furthermore, once a sizeable and prosperous Muslim population became available in North India, Central Asian merchants began exporting charms, amulets, ornaments, and weapons made of supposedly magical alloys having exotic names like haft-josh, taliqun, kharchini, etc., into this region. Thus, some alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent. The alloy kharsini, listed as one of the 'Seven Metals' recognized by Jabir ibn Hayyan, was found in India. Al-Biruni in his Kitab al Jamahir, commenting on the excellent temple gongs and vessels being fabricated out of this alloy at Kashghar, said that they were much better than those being cast around Kabul (8). However, not all attempts to duplicate the Central Asian techniques were successful because the exact techniques remained unknown due to the fact that there was a degree of confusion in the co-relationship between Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Turkic and Chinese terms as well as the metals and alloys they signified.

II.3. Interpretation
II.3.1. Periodization
In the earlier period of Arab seafarers and traders, India's metallurgy techniques were exported to the Arabs and Persians. Wootz steel originated in India before the Common Era and there is archaeological evidence of the manufacturing process in South India from that time (9). Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became famous in the Middle East and was later traced to workshops in western India(10). During the Delhi sultanate, alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent via Central Asian merchants.
II.3.2. Means and Quality of Transfer
The transfer of metal technology was, in general, not forced upon by emperors or rulers but by commercial interests of merchants and traders. However, when Central Asian merchants brought with them were not fully transferred to the Indian people due to the fact that the exact techniques remained a mystery due to differences in terms in metals and alloys and such. However, wootz steel of India, which was spread widely through traders, was quite famous especially in the Middle East due to its superiority at the time.

Endnotes
(1) pg. 401 Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
(2) ibid.
(3a) 116 Xabul Fruits. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
(3) ibid.
(4) pg. 403 Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
(5) ibid.
(6) Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent
(7) Needham, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China Vol. 1 , Cambridge University Press, 1954 http://www.scribd.com/doc/93206901/Joseph-Needham-Science-and-Civilisation-in-China-Vol-1-Introductory-Orientations
(8) pg. 414 Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
(9) Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel
(10)ibid.

Reference List
1. Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
2. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir http://archive.org/stream/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft/tuzukijahangirio00jahauoft_djvu.txt
3. Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent
4. Wikipedia Article: Wootz Steel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel
5. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mumbai The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi Sultanate, Bhavan's Book University
6. Govind, Vijay Some Aspects of Glass Manufacturing in Ancient India
7. Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
8. Needham, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China Vol. 1 , Cambridge University Press, 1954 http://www.scribd.com/doc/93206901/Joseph-Needham-Science-and-Civilisation-in-China-Vol-1-Introductory-Orientations
9. Encyclopaedia Iranica Article: Iranian immigrants in India http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xxviii-iranian-immigrants-in-india



First Draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Introduction and Method of Study
II. Boundaries of Study
III. Historical Analysis
III.1. Pre-Islamic Relations
III.1.1. Arab Explorers and Traders
III.1.2. Indian Explorers and Traders
III.2. Early Invasions and the Delhi Sultanates
III.2.1. Muhammad ibn Qasim in Sindh
III.2.2. Mahmud of Ghazni
III.2.3. Delhi Sultanates
III.3. Mughal Empire
III.3.1. Babur
III.3.2. Akbar
III.3.3. Jahangir
III.3.4. Jahan
III.3.5. Aurangzeb
IV. Particular aspects of study
IV.1. Religion
IV.1.1. Hindu aspects in Islam
IV.1.2. Conversions to Islam
IV.1.3. Syncretic Religious Movements
IV.1.4. Interpretation
IV.2. Sciences
IV.2.1. Astronomy
IV.2.2. Mathematics
IV.2.3. Medicine
IV.2.4. Interpretation
IV.3. Language and Literature
IV.3.1. Literatures of Turko-Persian Culture
IV.3.2. Use of Vernacular Language in Muslim Literature
IV.3.3. Interpretation
IV.4. Other Skills and Knowledge Transferred
IV.4.1. Architecture
IV.4.2. Shipbuilding
IV.4.3. Cuisine
IV.4.4. Board Game - Chess
V. Conclusion
Endnotes
References


I. Introduction and Method of Study
Contact between the World of Islam and South Asia is of a different nature to contact of the World of Islam among other regions, such as East Asia or Europe in that South Asia had been under Muslim rule for a significant period of time. Transfer is too superficial a word to delineate the essence of the contact between the two worlds. In fact, direct interaction was established and not only transferred but was profoundly integrated as well. Hence, it is only proper that this study should deal with integration and transfer of cultural aspects as well as the technical knowledge and skills. With this in mind, this paper will look into patterns of transfer which can be illuminated by historical time periods will firstly be given. After the historical background is established, the paper will delve deeper into the particular aspects of transfer or integration that had taken place with special emphasis on religion, sciences, and language and literature.

II. Boundaries of Study
The World of Islam refers to the civilization developed by the Muslim world, including the Middle East, Persia, etc and South Asia refers to the Indian subcontinent. The time periods dealt with will be limited to before British Colonial rule of India because important connections between the world of Islam and South Asia had already been established before the Colonial era.

III. Historical Analysis
III.1. Pre-Islamic Relations
We begin our analysis by discussing the beginnings of Arab and Indian relations. Though it is commonly believed that major interaction and integration between Arabia and India took place during the time of Muslim invasions, trade relations between Arabia and the Indian subcontinent predate Islamic expansion and have existed from ancient times. During this period, Arab forces entering India were not attempts to conquer the area but primarily exploratory missions, creating a rather liberal ambience of trade rather than force or conquest. However, it must be noted that since Arabs primarily entered India by sea during this period, pre-Islamic relations are mainly limited to Southern India.
Based on these regular commercial voyages, the Arabs knew about India long before the advent of Islam and these regular commercial interactions between Arabs and Indians throughout this period culminated in influencing each other's language and culture (1).

III.1.1. Arab Explorers and Traders
Arab traders, when travelling to India, especially used to visit the southwest coast, such as Malabar, which linked them with the ports of Southeast Asia. The Arab traders established little merchant communities in India and often married local women and found places for themselves within the Indian society. (1a) These communities established on the major trading ports functioned as a foothold for further expansion of Muslims and also provided contacts by which Indian learning could be transmitted to and expanded by the Arabs.

III.1.2. Indian Explorers and Traders
Paralleling the Arabs, Indians traveled to the Arab world for trading purposes. These visits resulted in religious convergences of various sorts as there were many things in common between Hinduism and the pagan religions that existed in West Asia (2). Sages from India mingled with the Arabs and started influencing each other's lives (3). Some Indian goods that entered the Arab world were named after the place of origin, al-Hind. Indian swords, which the Arabs called Hindi, Hindawani, and Muhannad, gained the reputation of being very supple and sharp, as many Pre-Islamic Arab poetry has many references to this and many other Indian goods being popular among Bedouins (4). Furthermore, many Indian words like sandal, tanbul, karanfal, and narjeel were popular and widely used among Arabs, giving proof that even before the advent of Islam and Muslim invasions, there was significant interaction between the two cultures.

III.2. Early Invasions and the Delhi Sultanates
Aforementioned, since ancient times, Arab seafarers and traders have been major carriers in the trading network that stretched from Italy in the Mediterranean to the South China Sea (5). The Arabs had settled down in many parts of south India as merchant communities in Konkan, Malabar and in many of the coastal towns of Madras and Mysore. After converting to Islam, these traders continued to frequent the ports of Southern and Southwestern India and became the major carriers of the religion, acting as missionaries. After the advent of Islam, there was not necessarily an increased contact with India but rather, a new dimension was added. In contrast to Southern India in which the headway of cultural exchange was made through a more liberal ambience, in Northern India, cultural interactions took place under Muslim conquerors and invasions.

III.2.1. Muhammad ibn Qasim in Sindh
Muslim presence as rulers in India was initiated in 711 CE with the conquering of Sindh. This intrusion resulted indirectly from the peaceful trading contacts that had brought Muslims into contact with Indian civilization in the first place. Their entry to India was prompted by an attempt to free Muslim prisoners after a pirate raid in Raja Dahir (the king of Sindh)'s territory. After diplomatic attempts failed, Hajjaj (the viceroy of the eastern provinces of the Umayyad Empire) launched punitive measures against the king of Sindh. He sent seventeen-year-old Muhammad ibn Qasim with a small army, who defeated the Indian forces with ease due the Arab,s superiority of military technique and also the voluntary surrenders of the Indians. Popular dissatisfaction with the former rulers seems to have contributed substantially to Arab success (6).
During this period, little conversion of the conquered population was attempted and the normal rule was to employ local talent and make minimum changes in the local practices. Therefore, the native Indian people experienced little change. The voluntary surrenders of the native peoples were in fact due to promises on the Arabs' side of lighter taxation and greater religious tolerance, so the native inhabitants were free to go about their daily lives and have their freedom of worship. It was rather the Arabs who were much influenced by the rich culture and advanced knowledge of India during the early conquests, which will be dealt with greater depth in the chapter IV. However, it was through the conquest of Sindh that Muslims came to exercise a potent influence on Indian thought and culture in future times.

III.2.2. Mahmud of Ghazni (7)
After the early conquests by Muhammad ibn Qasim's forces, little territory was added to the Muslim foothold on the subcontinent and there was a slow Muslim retreat as quarrels between the Arabs ruling in Sindh and quarrels with the Umayyad and later Abbasid caliphs led the reconquest of parts of the lower Indus valley by Hindu rulers. However, the slow Muslim retreat was reversed by a new series of military invasions, this time launched by a Turkish slave dynasty that in 962 CE had seized power in Afghanistan to the north of the Indus valley. The third ruler of this dynasty, Mahmud of Ghazni, led a series of expeditions that initiated nearly two centuries of Muslim raiding and conquest in northern India. Drawn by the legendary wealth of the subcontinent and a zeal to spread the Muslim faith, Mahmud repeatedly raided northwest India in the first decades of the 11th century. He defeated one confederation of Hindu princes after another and drove deeper and deeper into the subcontinent in the quest of rich temples to sack and loot. The example set by Mahmud of Ghazni of raiding India's riches, was followed by his successors and became a source of enmity between Hindus and Muslims in South Asia.
The effect of the Ghazni invasions is then self-explanatory. A glimpse into India during the time of the invasions is well revealed in Islamic writer Al-Biruni's account of India. As Al-Biruni describes, "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places." (8) However, even in this period, evidence of peaceful interactions existed.

III.2.3. Delhi Sultanates
Delhi Sultanates refers to the five Delhi based kingdoms of Turkish origin from the 13th to 15th century. Unlike the raids of the previous Muslim rulers of the mountain areas, these were aimed not at acquiring plunder and glory but at the political control of northern India and in this period, the story of Islam in India is one of expansion and the building up of a great empire that would be based not on Ghazni or Ghur but on Lahore and Delhi (12). The territory reached as far as Southern India by the time the Sultanates were absorbed by the Mughal Empire. This period is referred to as heralding the Indian cultural renaissance, leaving prominent marks of Indo-Muslim fusion culture.

III.3. Mughal Empire (9)
The Mughal Empire dominated most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th century to early 18th century. During the Mughal Empire, the pattern and mood of cultural contact depended on the policies of the emperors; hence, this chapter will discuss the prominent emperors and their attitudes and policies.

III.3.1. Babur
Babur, the open-minded first emperor of the Mughal Empire, founded a sophisticated civilization based on religious toleration - a civilization that was a mixture of Persian, Mongol, and Indian culture. There was a decrease in slavery and peace was made with the Hindu kingdoms of southern India during the rule of Babur. His first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows, a practice that was offensive to Hindus. Although Babur's ancestors were brutal conquerors, Babur himself was not a barbarian bent on loot and plunder but instead had great ideas about civilization, architecture, and administration.

III.3.2. Akbar
Akbar is regarded as one of the greatest rulers and Akbar was responsible for many of the features that characterize the Mughal period. Akbar's father, Humayun, a drug-addict and a better poet than a ruler, was not as a competent at governing as his grandfather Babur had been, but passed on his love of poetry and culture to his son, enabling Akbar to make the Mughal Empire and artistic power as well as a military one. Akbar succeeded the throne at the young age of 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in 1605, he had most of north, central, and western India under his rule. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders (while this may well have been for political reasons, it was also a part of his philosophy). Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believer equally, whatever their belief. He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Akbar's government included many Hindus in positions of power and responsibility. In other words, the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing. Akbar also ended the discriminatory tax that had been imposed on the non-Muslims. The amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces was an innovation. Non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law, and Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions.

III.3.3. Jahangir
Akbar's son, Jahangir readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration. His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects. Jahangir also began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered for to this day, importing hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and create magnificent gardens. In fact, Jahangir's approach to ruling was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of the Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure.

III.3.4. Jahan
The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between 1592 and 1666, during the regin of Jahan. Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal, which marks the stability, power, and confidence of the Mughal Empire. By Jahan's period, the capital had moved to the Red Fort in Delhi, putting the Fort at the heart of Mughal power. However, the money Jahan spent on buildings and on various military projects emptied his treasury and he was forced to raise taxes, aggravating the people of the empire.

III.3.5. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb was the last great emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled for nearly 50 years, coming to the throne after imprisoning his father and having his older brother killed. He was a vigorous leader, whose conquests expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest size. Aurangzeb was a very observant and religious Muslim who ended the policy of religious tolerance followed by earlier emperors. He no longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their own laws and customs, but imposed the Islamic law over the whole empire. Thousands of Hindu temples and shrines were torn down and a punitive tax on Hindu subjects was revived. In the last decades of the 17th century, Aurangzeb invaded the Hindu kingdoms in central and southern India, conquering much territory and taking many slaves. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its military power, but the rule was not stble, partly due to the hostility that Aurangzeb's intolerance and taxation inspired in the population and also because the empire had become too big to be efficiently and successfully governed. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The Mughal emperors that followed Aurangzeb became British or French puppets and the last Mughal emperor was deposed by the British in 1858.

IV. Particular aspects of study
IV.1. Religion
During Muslim rule, both Islam and Hinduism were exposed to the philosophies and customs of the other and therefore could not avoid being influenced by one another; both inevitably have some aspects of the other in their religious philosophies and customs. Although the process of integration is obscure, and although it is perhaps more of a gradual integration process rather than transfer of knowledge, it is to be discussed in this paper because accommodation and integration can, in a broad sense, be perceived as a two-way transfer of knowledge. For conciseness, the discussion stays within the realms of Islam and Hinduism.

IV.1.1. Hindu aspects in Islam
There is no doubt that Islam was, to some extent, influenced by Hinduism in some very important respects. They borrowed from the Hindus some aspects of mysticism and some mores, especially their caste-system, funeral and birth-rights, marriage customs, untouchability which they practiced against sweepers, and a host of other things (10) However, the main tenents of Hindu creed did not have much influence over the Muslim code of life and it can be safely said that Islam had a greater influence on Hinduism.

IV.1.2. Conversions to Islam
The common belief that Islam made its way into India via sword is poorly evidenced by history. When Islam penetrated India through traders, interaction was undoubtedly peaceful and voluntary. Even during the time of the conquering of Sindh, the common axiom was that Muslims are governed by Islamic law while non-Muslims are subject to their own laws and social organization and Arab rulers from the occupation of Sindh accepted the right of the village and caste panchayats to settle the affairs of their community, leading to autonomous Hindu republics. Of course, there were occasional periods in history where the rulers oppressed the non-Muslim religions and it is true that with the rulers being Muslim there was the connotation of force was introduced, but in general, a large number of natives converted to Islam not because of the political domination of the Muslims but for other reasons, among which may be ranked the missionary activities of Sufi thinkers and the intolerable economic condition of the masses coupled with the ignorance of their own religion (11). The fact that there is surprising little Muslim converts at the centers of Muslim rule also contribute to the fact that forced conversion was not the norm. In a nutshell, egalitarian aspects of Islam appealed to the outcastes and depressed social classes, while high-caste Hindus stubbornly resisted conversion.

IV.1.3. Syncretic Religious Movements
After the 14th century, the Muslim conquest of North India ushered a revolution in traditional Hindu thought. One of the earliest religious leaders was Kabir. Kabir hated the caste system, rejected the authority of the six schools of the Indian philosophy, thought lowly of the theory of the transmigration of souls, and repudiated the doctrine of reincarnation (12). However, he was equally uncompromising toward Muslim fundamentalism and tried his best to break the barriers existing between Hindus and Muslims. The founding of the Sikh religion in the latter half of the 15th century also sprouted from the contact with Islam and Hinduism. Guru Nanak's, the founder of Sikhism, aim was to unite both Hindu and Muslim through an appeal to what he considered the great central truths of both, acknowledging Kabir and as his spiritual teacher. (13). Kabir and Guru Nanak were followed by a host of Hindu thinkers and reformers in the 16th and 17th centuries, illustrating some of the easily visible results of Islam and Hindu contact. Long before the Hindus became reconciled to the Muslim rulers, their relations with the common Muslims had considerably improved as soon as they saw that the Muslims had made India their home and bigotry and feeling of superiority as conquerors were gradually diminishing and began to diminish their hostile attitude due to these syncretism movements.

IV.1.4. Interpretation
After ten centuries of invasions, a significant Muslim community had been established in the Indian subcontinent. It can be seen that Islam first made its way into South Asia via traders and explorers who acted missionaries of the new religion. Therefore, peaceful conversions and interactions ensued in the beginnings. However, with the start of the Muslim invasions, the spread of Islam took on a more forceful color, although the majority of the emperors enforced religious toleration. The imported faith of Islam collided with indigenous Hindu traditions, sometimes violently and sometimes as part of a dynamic relationship of cultural creativity. As religion is not a tangible good or a skill but actual way of thinking and worship, it is difficult for either culture to accept the contrasting religion fully and wholly. Therefore, although influenced by one another, both Islam and Hinduism still maintain their own distinct set of doctrines. The impression one gains is that there was never a very conscious attempt to create understanding, except on the part of Kabir and Nanak, and that the contacts between the two religions were, on the whole superficial as far as the total life of the country was concerned (14). However, as Islam and Hinduism interacted and were exposed to the capacities and ideas of the other, they did produce a rich material culture and led to equally complex syncretism in the world of ideas.

IV.2. Sciences
The scientific cooperation between the Arabs and the peoples of India is particularly accentuated during the Arab occupation of Sindh. It was the first time India experienced a large influx of a culture as ancient and sophisticated as theirs and so active scientific cooperation prevailed. The Muslims' attitude toward the new and advanced scientific knowledge they encountered in India was that of openness and willingness to accept. Therefore, the Islamic civilization was enriched by the discovery of yet another great civilization.
This chapter will deal mainly of the scientific interactions during Arab occupation of Sindh as the most significant interactions were of that time period.

IV.2.1. Astronomy
It is said that in about the middle of the 8th century, Indo-Arabic scientific cooperation begun. The Abbasids had established the Baitul Hikmah in Baghdad where scholars sat together and translated ideas and scientific knowledge from all across the world into Arabic (15). Astronomy was one of the first sciences to be introduced in the Arab world at the end of the 8th century through the Indian Sanskrit book Surya Sidhhanta, containing methods for computing eclipses, computing the motions of the planets, and such. Mansur , fond of astronomy himself, ordered the translation of this book and after this, Indian astronomy became popular was studied by the Arabs with great effort and interest, adding greater amount of improvisations on the basis of their own observations. Other astronomical works that entered the Arab world during that time period was Aryabhatiya and Khandakhadyaka. Also, many Sanskrit astronomical terms were Arabicized and freely used by Arab astronomers in their treaties: kardaja (Karamajya, Sanskrit) was used and later replaced by Arabic Witr Mustawi then Jib (Jiva, Sanskrit), auj (Uch, Sanskrit) were used by earlier Arab astronomers (16).

IV.2.2. Mathematics
Indian mathematics also came to the Arab world near the end of the 8th century. Ibrahim bin Habib al Fazari himself took on the translation of many Sanskrit mathematical treaties in to Arabic and through these works, Indian numerical system and the concept of zero became known to the Arab world. The Arabs learned mathematics from the Indians and they called it Indian mathematics or numbers - the Arabic word for numbers Hindsah means 'from India.' A notable figure in the spread of Indian mathematics is Al Khwarizmi, an astronomer and scholar in Baghdad's House of Wisdom. His book On the Calculation of Hindu Numerals written in 825, aided the spread of the Indian system of numeration to the Middle East and Europe.

IV.2.3. Medicine
Indian medicine entered the Arab world when caliph Harun al-Rashid was sick and the Arab physicians could not cure him. Indian physician Manka was called, and he succeeded in curing him. And as expected, many Indian works were translated into Arabic, some of which deals with the details of the symptoms and the cure of sicknesses. Later, Muslim practitioners played a big role in India during the Mughal Empire, writing many medical books in Arabic and Persian.
The following is a list of undated medical manuscripts preserved in India :
1. Khulasat ?ut-Tibb: by Muhammad bin Masood, a short treatise on medicine, on the art of dying, and paper making.
2. Asrar-i-Ittiba: by Shihab al-Din, essays on the virtues of amulets, medicine, charm for averting disease.
3. Shifa ar-Rijal: Shihab al-Din, poetical treatise on medicine
4. Bahr-ul-Manafia: 1794 by Maulood Muhammad, dedicated to Tipu Sultan, treatise on midwifery, children, exorcising devils, enchantments etc.
5. Qanun-dar-Ilm-Tibb: a translation by order of Tipu Sultan, a complete pharmacopeia.
6. Tarjuma Kitab-i-Farang: a translation of Dr Cookburn's treatise on twist of the intestines.
7. Mufradat dar-Ilm-Tibb: on botany and natural history, translated by order Tipu Sultan from French & English.
8. Risala Tib-i-Aspan: translation from Sanskrit by Zain al-Din 1519 and dedicated to Shamsuddin Muzafar Shah on farriery.
9. Kitab al-Sumum: by Shanka of India, translated into Persian by Hatim, later by Abbas Saeed Jauhari.
10. Sharah Hadae-tul-Hikma: by Muhammad bin Ibrahim, qazi of Shiraz, contains the whole course on sciences read in schools. It was much esteemed by Muslims of India.
11. Makhzanul Adwiyya: by Hakim Muhammad Hussin, printed in Persian.
12. Tazkira-tul-Hind: by Hakim Razi Ali Khan, on materia medica in Persian, written in early part of 19th century, lighographed in 1866 Hyderbabad (17).

IV.2.4. Interpretation
India was, generally speaking, ahead of the world in some areas of science, philosophy, and literature in the 7th century when Arabs entered India and therefore the Arabs were fascinated with the facets of rich intellectual heritage of India and possessed a very high opinion of the Indians. Keen on learning about the civilizations they encountered, the Muslim rulers sent envoys to India to procure information of their astrology, mathematics, and medicine and also brought Hindu scholars to Baghdad. Therefore, it can be said that the people of the world of Islam were more influenced by the Indians rather than the other way around. It was only later that the Arabs expanded upon the newfound knowledge and in reverse played a role in Indian society as well.

IV.3. Language and Literature
IV.3.1. Literatures of Turko-Persian Culture
Persian literature flourished in the subcontinent from the 12th to 19th centuries (especially from the late 16th through the 18th), largely with court patronage, holding a prominent place in Indian society at all levels, in both its Muslim and non-Muslim segments, with mainly literary and government functions, as well as Sufi religious ones (18). Ali Asani's "Muslim Literatures in South Asia" depicts the role of Persian in South India as follows : "Persian was not only the language of intellectual and artistic life in Muslim South Asia but was also the official language of government and administration. The significance of Persian extended far beyond its use as a medium of communication among the elite, however. Persian became such a prominent cultural component in medieval India that Persian vocabulary features prominently in all of the major North Indian languages. Furthermore, it so strongly influenced the literary forms, idioms, and scripts of several Indic languages such as Urdu, Sindhi, Pushtu, and Balochi, that a knowledge of Persian becomes critical to an appreciation of their literatures. This is particularly true of Urdu, whose poetry cannot be truly understood in all its nuances without a thorough knowledge of the Persian tradition ... Every major and minor genre of Persian literature flourished here: from mystical poetry and biographies of saints to treatises on medicine, music, and war. Of special significance are the many historical works in Persian chronicling the reigns of almost every dynasty and ruler. These records have become important sources for reconstructing the history of Muslim India ..."
As we can see, Persian affected the literary forms and vocabulary of North Indian languages. Persian culture also introduced the concept of historiography and recording of history to India. On the contrary, in Persian literature, (especially popular was poetry) little Hindu derivatives are found, but a rare exception, Amir Khusrau, exists, telling of some influence of the Indian culture. Unlike his fellow poets, he was the first and only of the Persian poets who alluded to Indian customs in his lyrics, incorporation a number of Indian stories into his Persian epic romances and attempting to compose verse in a local language, Hindawi (18a). So there existed some Indian influence to Persian culture.

IV.3.2. Use of Vernacular Language in Muslim Literature
Pioneering the use of Indian languages for Muslim literatures were various Sufis or mystics, who were very well suited in temperament to assimilating Islamic concepts and ideas to the Indian environment (19). Literature composed by Sufis in local languages played an instrumental role in this process of the Indian acculturation to Islam (20). In order for the Sufis to convey the Islamic faith to the indigenous peoples of India, who did not understand either Persian or Arabic, they expressed the Islamic values in vernacular within a South Asian framework - images, metaphors, verse-forms, etc. For example, popular romance epics were utilized for conveying Islamic instruction. Perhaps due to the South Asian framework, many scholars detect Hindu influences in much poetry written by Muslims in Indian languages.

IV.3.3. Interpretation
With Persian being the language of the court and intellectual and artistic life, there is no doubt that Persian had a great influence over the North Indian languages and literature. However, the other side - Indic languages or cultures influencing Persian - is comparatively less dominant. Although some traces of this phenomenon are shown, they are usually exceptional cases. This is probably due to the fact that Persian was "high-culture" meant for the elite while Indic languages were culture of the common folk. The transfer of aspects of the vernacular language to Muslim literature is more commonly seen in literature composed by Sufis, which was more "folk" in nature and meant for the illiterate classes living in rural areas.

IV.4. Other Skills and Knowledge Transferred
IV.4.1. Architecture
In architecture, as in other spheres of culture, the Indo-Islamic society was enriched by the dislocation in Central Asia and Persia caused by the Mongol invasion for not only scholars but artisans as well came to Delhi as refugees, and they found a ready market for their skills in the expanding Muslim state (21). Muslim traditions had become firmly established on the Indian subcontinent and methods of construction were revolutionized, as in the case of Muslims' use of concrete and mortar whose binding properties allowed the spacious arches, domed roofs, and a sense of grandeur that Indian construction lacked, and ornament became an integral part of the scheme (22). However, there were places in which the indigenous forms of architecture remained dominant, such as the provincial capitals. For example, in Bengal, the Muslim rulers decorated their buildings with carving which is obviously the work of Hindu craftsmen, and in Gujarat they adapted the local style to Muslim needs to create some of India's most beautiful buildings (23).

IV.4.2. Shipbuilding
Although not much is known about the exact skills transferred in the area of shipbuilding, the finding of an Indo-Arabian stone anchor in Kannur suggests the existence of such transfer of skills (24) if not the specific content of transfer. Furthermore, it is believed that the mounting of catapults on the warships of India was introduced by Muhammad ibn Qasim's armies in the conquering of Sindh.

IV.4.3. Cuisine
Elements of Muslim cuisine were taken up by the Indians. The Muslims from western Asia brought the Mughlai cuisines to India when Mughal rulers conquered a large portion of India. During the Mughal Empire, these dishes were prepared for the Mughal Emperors for elegant dining with dry fruits and nuts. The hospitality of sharing of food with others in Mughal courtly society helped India to absorb it as its own. The resulting dishes are lamb kebabs laced with spices, the rice Pulao of India cooked with meat and turned into biryanis, lamb and meat roasts flavored with Indian herbs and seasoning, Indian dishes garnished with almonds, pistachios, cashews and raisins, etc (25). Furthermore, not only dishes and ingredients, but aspects of the Muslim rulers' splendor of living were also introduced, such as the idea of community dining and the concept of extravagant and lavish banquets entered India.

IV.4.4. Board Game - Chess
Modes of entertainment were also transferred to other worlds. Chess, in particular, was transferred from India to Persia. The article on chess in Encyclopedia Iranica explains, "A great variety of legends about chess appear in early Arabic sources. Masudi, for example, describes how a series of learned kings of ancient India introduced various arts and sciences. Brahman was the first. Under his son Bahbud the game of nard was invented, and a couple of generations later King Dab?alem composed the book Kal?la wa Demna. In the reign of his son Balhit the game of chess was invented, and certain of its mathematical properties were explored, especially the calculation and cosmological interpretation of the sum of squares from 1 to 64. Masudi also mentions six different forms of the game that were current in his time. Al-Biruni, in his book on India, describes an Indian variant of chess played with a pair of dice by four players on an ordinary board eight squares on a side; in his ???r he treats mathematical aspects of the problem of "the reduplication of the chess and its calculation." Ibn ?allekan also explains this problem in a story about the inventor of chess, sup-posedly an Indian sage named ?e??a b. D?her in the time of a certain king ?ehr?m (or Balh?t), who asked as his reward that a grain of rice be placed in the first square of a chess board and that the amount then be doubled in each successive square of the sixty-four. Other Muslim writers attributed the invention of chess to a variety of legendary wise men, usually Indian. Most frequently mentioned is ?ak?m ???a/?eh?a/?efa/S?s?k/Ses, etc., b. D?ser/ D?her/D??er al-Hend?," showing how the game along with various legends entered Persia.

V. Conclusion
Conclusively, by identifying general patterns of transfer on a historical level and looking into the specifics of transfer, a holistic view of interaction can be grasped : The first part of this paper was devoted to establishing a historical perspective of the interaction between the two cultures. From the historical analysis, it can be seen that there is a discrepancy in the transfer of skills and knowledge between the northern and southern parts of India, and that the direction of transfer changes as time passes. Generally, Islamic culture came into contact with cultures in North India through invasions and conquerors while in southern India, transfer occurred through a more liberal ambience of trade. Furthermore, during the first stages of contact, the advanced Indian civilization contributed more to the Islamic civilization, but as time passed and South Asia became the territory of Muslim reign, there was more transfer going from the direction of the Islamic culture to the Indian culture. Also, it is important to note that due to Muslim rule in South Asia, transfer and integration took place.
The latter part of the paper revealed the interactions at a more specific level, focusing on contacts of religion, sciences, and language and literature. Interaction is more often than not two sided and rarely a one sided affair and so aspects of both cultures can be found in the other, but as the study shows, it is also true that, in some aspects, one side had a dominating influence on the other due to historical or social context. Until the Mamhud of Ghazni, the interaction took place in both the world of Islam and India. But after it became pretty much one sided.

Endnotes

(1) Continuity and change in Indo-Arab Cultural relations: A survey with special reference to Oman, Aftab Ahmad, pg. 4
(1a) explanation of more detail on the marriages of the arabs.
(2) ibid. pg.5
(3) ibid.
(4) ibid.
(5) Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(6) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: 1. The Impact of the Arabs
(7) This chapter is largely based on Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming of Islam to South Asia
(8) E. C. Sachau, Alberuni's India (London, 1914), I, pg. 22
(9) This chapter is largely based on BBC Religions ? Islam: Mughal Empire
(10) M. Shariff, A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2 pg. 1395
(11) ibid. pg. 1397
(12) ibid. pg. 1404
(13) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: IX The Interaction between Islam and Hinduism
(14) ibid.
(15) Continuity and change in Indo-Arab Cultural relations: A survey with special reference to Oman, Aftab Ahmad, pg. 10
(16) ibid.
(17) Zakaria Virk, Science in India during Muslim Rule pg. 12-13
(18) Tahera Qutbuddin, Arabic in India: A Survey and Classification of Its Uses, Compared with Persian, pg. 3
(18a) Ali Asani, Muslim Literatures in South India, pg. 2
(19) ibid. pg. 3
(20) ibid.
(21) Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram, edited by Anslie Embree: Society and Culture under the Sultanate
(22) ibid.
(23) ibid.
(24) More information can be found on ¡°An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala¡±
(25) Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India


VI. Bibliography

Bibliographic Sources

Bibliography of India History up to 1750 (Compiled by Hermann Kulke) http://www.histosem.uni-kiel.de/lehrstuehle/asien/Bibliographie_30_06_05_drei.pdf
Bibliography of "Religions of India" page http://www.photius.com/religion/india_bibliography.html
Islam in India Bibliography http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~fc12/Bibliography/10_Islam_Bibliography.html
WHKMLA: History of the Mughal Empire http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xmughalempire.html
WHKMLA: History of Yemen http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/arabworld/xyemen.html
WHKLA: History of Malabar Coast http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xmalabar.html
Mansingh, Surjit Historical Dictionary of India Delhi: First Vision Books, 1998
Historical and Cultural Dictionary of the Sultanate of Oman and the Emirates of Eastern Arabia
World Bibliographical Series Volume 85 Indian Ocean, Julia J. Gotthold with Donald w. Gotthold

General Sources
Wikipedia Article: Islam in Asia
Wikipedia Article: History of India
Wikipedia Article: History of Islam
Wikipedia Article: Muslim world
Islamic Civilization http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization
Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Muslim Civilization in India by S.M. Ikram edited by Ainslie T. Embree http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/index.html

General Sources: Islam in India (also include Indian influence on the world of Islam)

Islam From The Beginning To 1300: The Coming Of Islam To South Asia http://history-world.org/islam6.htm
History of Muslims in India http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india.html
http://www.historydoctor.net/Advanced%20Placement%20World%20History/Islamic_and_Hindu_Kingdoms_In-India.htm
Wikipedia Article: Islam in India
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Encyclopaedia Iranica: Indo-muslim physicians http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xxxiii-indo-muslim-physicians
Encyclopaedia Iranica: Indo-persian historiography http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/india-xvi-indo-persian-historiography
Richards, J.F. "The Islamic Frontier in the East: Expansion into South Asia," South Asia [Nedlands, Australia], No. 4, October 1974, 91-109.
Wink, Andre. Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. 2d. ed., rev. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Comparative Studies on Muslim Societies, No. 17. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Grewel, J.S. The New Cambridge History of India, II.3: The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Agwani, Mohammed S. Islamic Fundamentalism in India. Chandigarh: Twenty-First Century India Society, 1986.
Ahmad, Aijuzuddin. Muslims in India: Their Educational, Demographic, and Socio-Economic Status with Inter-Community Comparisons Based on Field Survey Conducted in 1991. New Delhi: Inter-India, 1993.
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Leiden: Brill, 1980.
Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India, 1: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. 3d ed., rev. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1967.
Powell, Avril Ann. Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. London: Curzon, 1993.
Rizvi, S.A.A. The Wonder That Was India, 2: A Survey of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent from the Coming of the Muslims to the British Conquest, 1200-1700. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1987.
Tahseen, Rana. Education and Modernisation of Muslims in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1993.
Jackson, Paul, ed. The Muslims of India: Beliefs and Practices. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1988.
Ahmad, Imtiaz, ed. Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
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Gandhi, Rajmohan. Understanding the Muslim Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
Mujeeb, M. The Indian Muslims. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1967.
Rizvi, S.A.A. A History of Sufism in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1978-1983.

Muslim Civilization in India

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_01.html#conquest
: provides a thorough overview of the Arab invasion of Sindh and contact of the different countries. Includes both the historical overview and the cultural/intellectual contacts of the Arabs and Medieval India.

Education

Some aspects of the Muslim Educational System in Pre-colonial India http://www.ilmgate.org/some-aspects-of-the-muslim-educational-system-in-pre-colonial-india/

Literature/Language/Art

Wikipedia Article: History of Hindustani
Muslim Ethos in Literature: http://www.indianmuslims.info/history_of_muslims_in_india/muslim_ethos_in_indian_literature.html
Arabic in India: http://nelc.uchicago.edu/sites/nelc.uchicago.edu/files/Qutbuddin,%20Arabic%20in%20India,%20JAOS%20127.3%202008.pdf
Muslim Literatures in South India by Ali Asani http://www.iis.ac.uk/SiteAssets/pdf/A%20%20Asani%20p355-363%20pdf.pdf
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. A History of Indian Literature, 7: Modern Indo-Iranian Literatures (fasc. 1). Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1973.
Asani, Ali. "In Praise of Muhammad: Sindhi and Urdu Poems" in Lopez, Donald S., ed. Religions of India in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Russell, Ralph. "The Pursuit of the Urdu Ghazal" in Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1969, pp.107-124.
Welch, Stuart C. Imperial Mughal Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1978.
Persian Literature in Translation: http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main

Religion

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/141215-Influence-Islam-Indian-culture.aspx
BBC Religions ? Islam: Mughal Empire http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/mughalempire_1.shtml
Sharif, M. A History of Muslim Philosophy Book 2. Harrassowitz, 1966
http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hmp/LXIX-Sixty-nine.pdf

Architecture
Islamic architecture in India http://www.ne.jp/asahi/arc/ind/1_primer/indoislam/indis_eng.htm
Google Books: Burton-Page, John and Michell, George. Indian Islamic Architecture Leiden: Brill, 2008 http://www.brill.nl/indian-islamic-architecture
Lowry, Glenn. "Humayun's Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture" in Muqarnas 4, 1987, pp.133-147.

Historiography
Wikipedia Article: List of Muslim Historians in India
Historiography of Medieval India: http://voiceofdharma.org/books/tlmr/ch2.htm
Science
History of Indian Science and Technology ¡°Alberuni on Pre-Islamic India's Science, Math, and Architecture by Vinod Kumar¡± http://www.indianscience.org/essays/t_es_kumar-v_math.shtml
Indian Journal of the History of Science
Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
Nadiri, Ishaq M. ¡°Early Muslim Science and Entrepreneurship in Islam¡±: Presentation for American Economic Association Conference January 2-5th, 2009
Smith, David Eungene The Hindu-Arabic Numerals Louis Charles Karpinski, 1911

Cuisine
Mantra Masala: Healthy Cuisine from India http://www.mantramasala.com/indianExperience.htm
Mughal Influence on Indian Food, Indian Cuisine
Wikipedia Article: Indian Cuisine

Maritime History/ Shipbuilding
An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/181/1/Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_34_131.pdf
Basa, Kishor K. 1999. Early trade in the Indian ocean: perspectives on Indo-South-east Asian maritime contacts (c. 400 BC-AD 500). Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. p. 29-72.
Dikshit, K.N. and R.G. Pandeya.1978. Ancient maritime contacts of west Bengal-literary and archaeological evidence. The Heritage of India (Ed.) L.N. Mishra. Bodhgaya: p. 232-237
Greeshmalatha, A. P. and G. Victor Rajamanickam. 1993. An analysis of different types of traditional coastal vessels along the Kerala coast. Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 36-51
Kulke, Hermann. 1999. Trade and politics in eleventh century bay of Bengal.Maritime Heritage of India (Ed.) K.S. Behera. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. p. 214-225.
The Ottoman Empire, the classical age, 1300-1600 Halil Inalcik translated by Norman Itzkowitz, Colin Imber. Praeger, 1973

Board Games

Encyclopaedia Iranica: Chess a board game http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chess-a-board-game
Manuscript Catalogues

Survey of manuscript catalogues in India http://ignca.nic.in/manus004.htm :Catalogue of manuscripts of India. Tells the name of manuscript, the state and which institute in which it is located.