Transfer of Knowledge and Skills between the World of Islam and South Asia
Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
Table of Contents
Fourth Draft (Final Draft), Oct. 31 2013
Third Draft , Oct. 30 2013
Second Draft , Oct. 23 2013
Added Chapters , Oct. 17 2013
P.S. , Mar. 7 2013
First Draft , Mar. 6 2013
Fourth Draft . .
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The author has exceptional English proficiency and is an avid reader. In class discussion, she was given a handicap to give other students a chance to score points.
In her research paper, Lee, Eunji examines the transfer of knowledge and skills between 3 regions (Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia) during a period covering about 1000 years (7th to 18th century). She strictly separates between compilation of factual knowledge and interpretation, establishes a differentiated organization, and arrived at an independent conclusion. Her research is based on an extensive bibliography consisting of mostly academic titles. Lee, Eunji worked on this paper for four semesters.
From her research I learned that the various Central Asian conquerors of the Indo-Gangetic plain not only brought destruction and exploitation, but also facilitated the introduction of techincal and cultural skills.
Third Draft . .
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(1) Your references.
(1a) Many wikipedia references, without url. complete.
(1b) your usage of italics and bold fond is confusing. I assume : any title in Italics you did not use, right ?
Of course that is strange, as I have some of these titles in my bookshelf, and as our school library has others.
(1c) The comment "Google Books" does not belong at the beginning of a reference, but rather close to its end, preceding the url
(1d) You quote only one volume of Majumdar's The History and Culture of the Indian People. In my bookshelf is the complete set of
11 volumes; every volume, at the end, contains chapters on religion, literature, the arts etc. We have these books since the summer.
(1e) Grewel, J.S. The New Cambridge History of India, II.3: The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
In KMLA library.
(1f) I completed some of your references where essential information (author, or year of publication) was missing.
Ali Asani, Muslim Literatures in South India, The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2006
Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. A History of Indian Literature, 7: Modern Indo-Iranian Literatures. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1973.
Asani, Ali. "In Praise of Muhammad: Sindhi and Urdu Poems" in Lopez, Donald S., ed. Religions of India in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Once Ali Asani, once Asani, Ali. Use a standardized format for your references.
(2a) (17) Virk, nd., p.12-13
8. Virk, Z., Science in India during Muslim Rule https://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-during-the-Muslim-Rule.pdf
https://www.alislam.org/egazette/category/egazette/page/3/ check Jan. 11 2011. So it has a date of publication. Just takes a little effort to establish
(2b) (20) 116 Xabul Fruits. Translated Rogers, Alexander and Edited Beveridge, Henry Full text of The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or Memoirs of Jahangir
Too long. use short references
(3) Text : no comment.
Second Draft . .
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As you correctly state that in the past I found little to criticize in your papers, I will go over this paper draft with a magnifying glass.
Otherwise you might think I had little to teach to you.
(1) Please add a table of contents.
(2) It can be seen that prior to Mahmud of Ghazni, the interaction has taken place in both the World of Islam and in India; after Mahmud of Ghazni, by large, interaction was limited to the Indian subcontinent. The Arabs had direct contact with India as conquerors in Sindh and as traders with south India.
However, with the start of the Muslim invasions, ..
India was, generally speaking, ahead of the world in some areas of science, philosophy, and literature in the 7th century when Arabs entered India. Therefore the Arabs were fascinated with the facets of rich intellectual heritage of India and possessed a very high opinion of the Indians. Keen on learning about the civilizations they encountered, the Muslim rulers sent envoys to India to procure information of their astrology, mathematics, and medicine and also brought Hindu scholars to Baghdad. Therefore, it can be said that the people of the world of Islam were more influenced by the Indians rather than the other way around from the Arab occupation of Sindh until the Delhi Sultanates.
In the upper two passages, you use the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni (c. 1030) as a critical turning point; in the lower passage you use the Delhi Sultanate established by Muhammad al Ghuri in the 1190s as turning point. Unless you have a specific reason why, at this place, you want to use a
different turning point at this place in your narrative (and it would be appropriate to explicitly explain), it would be more coherent, if you would choose one of the two.
(3) Perhaps it is also helpful to point out, that the term "World of Islam" in the 7th to 9th century refers to Arabia (Yemen, Baghdad) and Iran, in the 12th to 17th century it rather refers to Iran, Afghanistan and Turan (= Uzbekistan and neighbours).
(4) Based on these regular commercial voyages, the Arabs knew about India long before the advent of Islam and these regular commercial interactions between Arabs and Indians throughout this period culminated in influencing each other¡¯s language and culture (1).
Correct. They also knew about India from the times of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great and his successors. From trade, they knew Gujarat, Malabar,
Ceylon, probably Coromandel and Bengal; from memory of political history, they knew the Indus valley. By the way, Arab chronist Al Tabari included pre-Arab history in his work : The History of al-Tabari Vol. 4: The Ancient Kingdoms,
The History of al-Tabari Vol. 5: The Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen, translated at SUNY. Our library has these two volumes,
Call Sign. 909 R815h.
(5) between 1592 and 1666, during the regin of typo
(6) III.3.5. Aurangzeb for this and similar chapters throughout your paper, add years of rule in brackets
(7) Astronomy was one of the first sciences to be introduced in the Arab world at the end of the 8th century through the Indian Sanskrit book Surya Sidhhanta, containing methods for computing eclipses, ..
Perhaps too strong; this sentence implies that Arabs before did not have any knowledge or perception of astronomy. More likely, advanced Indian knowledge of astronomy was introduced into the Arab world ...
(8) Sidhhanta, containing methods for computing eclipses, computing the motions of the planets, and such. Mansur, fond of astronomy himself, ordered the translation of this book and after this
Did you introduce Mansur before ? If not, refer to him as Caliph and give the years of his rule in brackets.
(9) Another Central Asian technique imbibed in India was the qanat or karez or underground water-channel. Bernier, a foreign traveler of the 17th century, writes that qanats were most noticeable in the Indus basin, where the local practice was to cut qanats from either the rivers or the canals. Qanats in this region were facilitated by the very nature of the Indus basin. When the Indus continuously deposited silt, it raised its bed to a much higher level than that of the surrounding plains, so that it was easy to use the water supply in its mainstream as well as inundation channels by cutting qanats from them for irrigating the fields.
The qanat is a technique attributed to the ancient Persians, a millennium prior to the emergence of Islam. As the Achaemenif Empire stretched into the Indus valley, is it not likely that this transfer may have taken place prior to Islam ? It would make sense if you would move this technique up in this paragraph,
and at least discuss the date of transfer.
(10) Like in Central Asia and Iran, agricultural technology in India also showed evidence of utilization of non-human resources of power, particularly water and wind. The concepts of both water-mill and windmill were introduced into India from Central Asia and Iran as early as the 4th century and they became widespread in India by the 11th century. Both mills were mounted horizontally and therefore required no gearing.
Please give a reference.
(11) IV.3.3. Water and Windmills Water- and Windmills
(12) in your water- and windmill chapter you explain little about the usage of these mills. You list these mills under "agricultural techniques";
please be more specific why you do so. Having watched numerous documentaries on the history of proto-industrial and early industrial knowledge, and
being half-Dutch, I would associate watermills with metalworking, textile industry and land reclamation.
(13) King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel.
Double check : gift from Alexander, or : gift for Alexander
(14) The Moslems took much this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East much of this
(15) During the Delhi sultanate, alloy techniques were brought into the Indian subcontinent via Central Asian merchants.
Delhi Sultanate; please give a reference.
(16) IV.5.2. Use of Vernacular Language in Muslim Literature title misleading, as it could refer to territory outside of the Indian subcontinent.
Also, here, languages of the Indian subcontinent using Arab script, such as Urdu, could be discussed here, if they fit into the time frame of your paper.
(17) IV.6.3. Cuisine
Perhaps here you may want to mention that India's influence on the cuisine of the Muslim world may have been much stronger, as crops such as sugar cane, the Orange, rice are believed to have been introduced from India to the World of Islam, and that Indian spices had contributed to Mecca becoming a trade center, in which Muhammad could make his appearance. Of course the introduction of most Indian spices into Arabia happened before the emergence of Islam.
(18) Mas?udi also mentions six different forms of the game that were current in his time. Al-Biruni, in his book on India, describes an Indian variant of chess played with a pair of dice by four players on an ordinary board eight squares on a side; in his A?ar he treats mathematical aspects of the problem of "the reduplication of the chess and its calculation." Ibn ?allekan also explains this problem in a story about the inventor of chess, supposedly an Indian sage named ?e??a b. Daher in the time of a certain king Sehram (or Balhit), who asked as his reward that a grain of rice be placed in the first square of a chess board and that the amount then be doubled in each successive square of the sixty-four. Other Muslim writers attributed the invention of chess to a variety of legendary wise men, usually Indian. Most frequently mentioned is ?akim Si?a/?eh?a/?efa/Sisak/Ses, etc., b. Daser/ Daher/Da?er al-Hendi,¡±(38)
It is commendable of you that you try to properly spell such names when you use Word.
But I have to convert your text into html (and in the process, copy and paste your text into an editor). In the process, all special characters get garbled.
So please use ordinary letters.
(19) The first part of this paper was devoted to establishing is devoted
(20) Until the Mamhud of Ghazni, spelling; no article
(21) explanation of more detail on the marriages of the Aabs. Arabs
(22) (2) ibid. pg.5 ibid. refers to the note just before. But that note does not contain a reference.
(23) Mahmud of Ghazni appears repeatedly throughout your paper. Add his life dates or dates of his rule in brackets. Keep in mind, you cover a wide area and some of your readers may lack detail knowledge.
(24) WHKLA: History of Malabar Coast
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/arabworld/xyemen.html wrong url
(25) A title I have missing in your reference list : G.F. Hourani, Arab Seafaring, expanded edition Princeton 1995
(26) 5. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mumbai The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Delhi Sultanate, Bhavan¡¯s Book University
6. Govind, Vijay Some Aspects of Glass Manufacturing in Ancient India years of publication missing.
please add the year of publication to every book reference
(27) please, in notes, use short references (family name of author, year, page number(s)). The note will be directly linked to the respective reference.
OVERALL : First, my apology. Some of the points listed above I could and should have found earlier; my (poor) excuse being that at the end of every semester I get flooded withy term papers, and because of your excellent command of English, the depth of your paper and the overall quality and persuasiveness of your analysis I tend to move your paper to the end of the list, as all others require morew immediate attention - and then I keep forgetting to come back to your paper, because I get distracted by matters such as the camp.
Very impressive. I especially like your coverage of techniques introduced into India from Central Asia.
The points I listed above are easy to fix. As this paper is being posted, attention to detail is required.
Added Chapters . .
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(1) Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India's Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
=> Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (ed.), ....
(2) (8) pg. 414 Edited Chattopadhyaya, D.P. India¡¯s Interaction with China, Central and West Asia Volume III Part 2, Oxford University Press, 2002
=> (8) Chattopadhyaya 2002 p.414.
The rest your reader finds in your reference list.
(3) please combine the two files into one text, with one uniform numbering of chapters and one uniform numbering of notes.
P.S. . .
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(5) Search about the "Arab Agricultural Revolution"
The term describes the spread of crops, mostly from the Far East (those often by the way of South Asia) and South Asia throughout the World of Islam.
Even if scholars disagree over the date when that spread took place, the topic is relevant for you.
(6) Discuss Arab-South Asian trade and the date when Arabs came to dominate it.
(7) In your conclusion you mention "transfer of skills between the northern and southern parts of India";
you mean to say : the transfer of skills between the World of Islam on one side and South Asia on the other has to be geographically differentiated
into a transfer of skills between the World of Islam on one, the Indo-Gangetic Plain (to avoid 'Northern South Asia) respectively Southern India
on the other side. Good observation.
(8) In your analysis : Discuss the means of transfer, the quality of transfer, and periodization.
First Draft . .
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(1) Your definition of boundaries is vague. It seems that your earlier chapter deals with relations between Arabia and India,
and the latter on how Muslim culture in Central Asia (Persia, Turan) affected India.
A question - did South Asia have so little impact on the core region of Islam after the Abbasis Period ? In your analysis
section, you may want to mention the geographical shifts in your chapters and at least explain why your focus, in geographic
terms, shifts as your paper moves along.
(2) In the skills and sciences section - add dates of transfer, at least approximate ones.
(3) Good reference section. But in your endnote section, very few titles are actually refered to. Please broaden the base of
titles you actually used.
(4) Go through your paper for garbled names. You may be able to use complex spellings in Word, but when I try convert such
files into html, this happens. Could not fix these.