The comparison on the influence of ethnic groups on the development of The Asian Tigers: Korea and Singapore


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
KNR



Table of Contents Table of Contents, 1st draft July 2nd 2013
Chapter V, 1st draft July 2nd 2013
Bibliography, 1st draft July 2nd 2013



Bibliography . go to Teacher's Log

I. Introduction II. Background II.1 Singapore II.1.1 Immigrant Influx in Singapore and its influence II.1.2 Britain Occupation II.1.3 Japanese Occupation II.2 Korea II.2.1 Japanese Occupation and the Spread of Minjok Ideology in Korea III.3 Comparison III. Political development III.1 Singpore III.1.1. Change in Government Structure III.1.2. Development towards Self-Government III.1.3 Sinapore in Malaysia III.1.4 Moving into democracy III.2 Korea III.2.1 Social and independent movements III.2.2 The Korean War III.2.3 Pro-democracy movements III.2.4 Moving into democracy III.3 Comparison IV. Economic development III.1 Singapore III.1.1 Economic Development Board III.1.2 Incentives to Multinational Corporations III.1.3 Improvements in infastructure III.2 Korea III.2.1 5-Year Development Plan III.2.2 Saemaul Movement III.2.3 Efficient Developmental State III.2.4 Citizen Movement III.3 Comparison V. Social Development V.1 Singapore V.1.1 Education Reform V.1.1.1 Ten Year Programme for Education Policy in the Colony of Singapore V.1.1.2 Survival Driven Education V.1.1.3 Efficiency Driven Education V.1.2 Housing programme V.1.3 Community centers V.1.4 Forging a bond V.2 Korea V.2.1 Education Reform V.2.1.1 Education Act of 1949 V.2.1.2 Special Action Act Under War V.2.1.3 Reform V.2.1.4 7.30 Education Revolution V.2.2 Social Movements V.2.3 Reconcilliation with North Korea V.3 Comparison VI. Conclusion VII. Bibliography



V. Social Development . go to Teacher's Log

Social Development is directly related to the quality of citizen's lives, which is a major contributing factor of nation building. Nation building means to unite the people within a country toward achieving common goals for the good of the nation. One way of doing this is to encourage and develop a feeling of belonging to the country. Singapore especially stressed its social reform for it had to bond diverse ethnic groups into one. Korea on the other hand used social development to subordinate its quickly developing technology.

V.1 Singapore
V.1.1 Education Reform
"The educational system was a way to get people of different races to interact and a means of supporting Singapore's economic development" -Singapore, From Settlement To Nation (Singapore Ministry of Education, 2007)
The following statement comes out in the National History Textbook of Singapore (confirmed and published by the Singapore Ministry of Education). It states that education was a way of integrating diverse ethnic groups. Indeed, analyzing the education policies from the late 1940s (after World War Two) to the late 1990s, one can see pivotal education was in Singapore’s nation building.

V.1.1.1 Ten Years Programme for Education Policy in the Colony of Singapore
In 1947, Singapore declared "Ten Years Programme for Education Policy in the Colony of Singapore". This policy issued universal and free primary education for boys and girls of all races, which was one of the initial efforts of Singapore in that it tried to make education available for everyone. This was crucial for Singapore’s development in that it provided a basis to develop capacity for self-governance.

V.1.1.2 Survival Driven Education
After such program started adapting into Singapore society, Singapore gained its independence from the Malay Peninsula in 1965. However, most of the world was doubtful of Singapore's existence, because of its weak industry base, growing population, and fall in trade. In this situation, Singapore put more emphasis on school in order to boost its infrastructure. Thus the period from 1950 to the mid 1970s was called to be a period of Survival Driven Education. The following are some of the characteristics of this period.
1. The creation of a single national education system
2. Bilingualism Policy
3. Emphasis on technological development
4. Establishment of Ministry of Science and technology and the Institute of Education
The philosophy of this period was "Conserved equal opportunity for all citizens, established the means of maintaining unity in diversity and instituted a program for training a new generation for the needs of a forward-looking, modern, industrial and technological society." Singapore quickly ramped up the number of places in schools and amalgamated the different types of schools to create a single national education system. Before, lessons were conducted in Chinese, Malay, Tamil or other dialects and the quality of education varied widely in standards. The government had to create an integrated school system that could produce a people capable of cohesive action, identifying their collective interests and then pursuing them. Singapore also further enforced “education for all” policy, making sure people could keep up with developments in the rest of the world.
The Bilingualism Policy of 1960 was a major policy that further supported Singapore’s goal of creating an integrated body. By making English the official language of Singapore, people could communicate in the same language, which provided a fundamental basis for people to develop a feeling of unity. However, the learning of a second language was mandatory for primary schools, which shows how Singapore wanted families to maintain their ethnic ideology as well. This was particularly effective, for it helped people of different races adapt without completely abandoning their identity.
In order to make sure schools were pursuing a higher level of education, there were emphasis on subjects that were pivotal for technological development of Singapore within and outside of the nation such as languages, science and math. Singapore created the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1968 to further enhance the role of science and technology in the economic development of the nation to formulate science policies and to coordinate the deployment of the nation's scientific and technological manpower. The yawning gap between the enrollment in academic and technical steams was also a growing problem which Singapore tried to decrease through this group. Also, with the establishment of the Institute of Education, the government upgraded teacher education by introducing part-time teaching programs (training the morning and teaching in the afternoon and vice versa) and recruiting large scales of teachers.

V.1.1.3 Efficiency Driven Education
V.1.2 Housing program
V.1.3 Community centers
V.1.4 Forging a bond
V.2 Korea

V.2.1 Education Reform
"The reason for such increased development in economics was the result of Korea's full display of its potential. High educational fever produced fine workers who had both the passion and diligence to work in poor conditions with low salary"
-Korean History Textbook (Chungae Education Press, 2011)
The following statement comes out in the National History Textbook of Korea (confirmed and published by the Korean Ministry of Education). It states that education was the prime mover in the development of economics. While the education in Singapore was primarily focused on integrating ethnic groups, the education of Korea worked as a subordinating support for its economic development.

V.2.1.1 Education Act of 1949
The Education Act of 1949 was like Singapore's Then Years Programme for Education Policy in that it called for a universal education system that would prepare for self-governance. Below are some of the clauses of this act.
1. Equal right of education
2. 6 years of mandatory education
3. Humanitarian ideal in education
4. Importance of Neutral Education
5. Protection of status of women
Equal education rights for social minorities, such as women and a set limit of mandatory education all demonstrate how Korea disseminated education in order to strengthen its infrastructure. However, one interesting thing to point about in this Education Act is the Humanitarian ideal in education. This Humanitarian ideal, called Hong-Ik Ingan (Hong-Ik Human) was one of the founding principles of Korea. Meaning to widely benefit the human race, this ideology had been passed down for hundreds of years. The reason why such ideology was listed in one of the clauses for the Education Act was to remind Korean citizens of our nationalism and our role to the country. This united the people toward achieving common goals for the good of the nation.

V.2.1.2 Special Action Act Under War (1950)
One of the major differences between Singapore and Korea was that Korea suffered through internal war, the Korean War (1950-1953 armistice). While one may think that the war brought negative consequences toward the education reform, it actually triggered its citizens to take a step further. It is during the time of the Korean War in which the "education fever of Korea" started to boom
Many historians contend that it was during the Japanese occupation in which such education fever started. In a Confucianism society, the role of education was pivotal in determining the rank of one's occupation; after the abolition of the status system, education became one of the major factors determining one's rank. However, during the Japanese Occupation (1910-1945), this standard became the only way for the civilians to live a protected life for the educated few were granted lessons overseas or were granted administrative positions. Thus Koreans started studying "to live" which brought up high passion for education. Korean Ethnic Nationalism was a contributing factor to this situation. Korean Ethnic Nationalism was a deliberate creation by the empire of Japan for the Japanese assimilation policy. They encouraged Koreans to take pride in their Koreanness, in their history, heritage, culture as a brother nation going back to a common ancestry with the Japanese. However, Koreans used this concept of Minjok (Korean Nationalism) to define their independence and thus as a way to resist Japanese assimilation policies and historical scholarship. Without this common ideology within Koreans, it would have been hard for such a vast amount of people to gain sudden passion for education to protect their country.
During the Korean War, which was 5 years after the Japanese Occupation, Koreans were once again triggered with the belief that they had to educate in order to survive. Thus the government implemented ways such as establishing refugee schools, publicizing temporary textbooks and establishing union schools under war. With the help of the government, citizens could further their standards for a sufficient education.

V.2.1.3 Reform
During the mid 1950s, Korea faced a problem. Korea's initial education plan was to follow that of the west, to implement a progressive educational philosophy which stresses a student's experience. However, because of the fact that teachers did not yet adapt to the progressive educational way (they were educated in a very conservative society in which most knowledge came from text) and because the social norm did not yet develop enough to support such policy, this initial plan failed. Korea's education system became based on textbooks.
In order to amend such plans, in 1955 there was the First Amendment of Education Program. This program was the first that Korea made on its own. In order to prevent Korea's educational tendency to focus only on injecting knowledge methods (from textbooks), Korea abolished the entrance exam of primary and secondary (middle school) schools. Also, through the Reform of People through Education Act, the Korean government made sure that teachers were ready enough to implement progressive teaching methods by giving the ministry of education the power to 1. Appoint the educational superintendent and principles of universities 2. Evaluate professor qualifications 3. Prohibition of labor movement of teachers 4. Implement national examination for educator degree.

V.2.1.4 7.30 Education Revolution



VII. Bibliography . go to Teacher's Log

1. Primary Sources
- Korean Phoenix
- DongAh Newspaper (March 24th, 1972)
- Collection of President Park Jeong Hee's speech related to 1978 Saemaul Movement
- Lyrics of Saemaul Movement
- Keynote speech by Mr. Masgos Zulkifli BMM, Senior Parlimentary Secretary, Ministry of Eudcation, at the Association of Muslim Professionals' (AMP) Community in Review Senior on Saturday, 26 January 2008 at Holiday Inn Parkview Hotel at 10:00 am

2. Secondary Sources

1) Encyclopedia Articles
- "Korean Ethnic Nationalism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_ethnic_nationalism
- "South Korea" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Korea - "Singapore" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore#Demographics
- "Four Asian Tigers" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_asian_tigers, http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%95%84%EC%8B%9C%EC%95%84%EC%9D%98_%EB%84%A4_%EB%A7%88%EB%A6%AC_%EC%9A%A9
- "Race Riots" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964_race_riots_in_Singapore
- "Timeline of Singaporean History" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Singaporean_history
- "Economy of Singapore" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Singapore#Economic_history
- "Racial Tension" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Singapore#Racial_tension
- "Culture of Singapore" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Singapore
- "Demographics of Singapore" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore#Ethnic_groups
- "Education in Singapore" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Singapore#History
- "Education in Korea" http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%EB%AF%BC%EA%B5%AD%EC%9D%98_%EA%B5%90%EC%9C%A1#.EB.8C.80.ED.95.9C.EB.AF.BC.EA.B5.AD_.EC.A0.95.EB.B6.80_.EC.88.98.EB.A6.BD_.EC.9D.B4.ED.9B.84.EC.9D.98_.EA.B5.90.EC.9C.A1

2) Text Books
- Middle School Korean History Textbook, Ministry of Education pp.200-324
- High School Korean History Textbook, 해법천재교육 pp.374-407
- Understanding Our Past - Singapore from Colony to Nation, Curriculum Planning & Development Division Ministry of Euducation, Singapore pp.204-256
- Singapore - From settlement to nation, Curriculum Planning & Development Division Ministry of Euducation, Singapore, pp.144-236

3) Books
- Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, And Legacy, GI-Wook Shin
- The Singapore Story, Lee Kuan Yew, Simon & Schuter (1998)
- From Thrid World to First - The Singapore Story: 1965-2000, Lee Kuan Yew, Times Media Private Limited (2000)
- 150 Years of Education in Singapore, T.R Doraisan, Gwee Yee Hean, Singapore: TTC Publications Board, Teachers Training College (1969)
- Education and colonial transition in Sigapore and Hong Kong: Comparisons and contrasts, Jason Tan, Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC)
http://repository.nie.edu.sg/jspui/bitstream/10497/6634/3/bookchapter_CERC-2_a.pdf

4) Thesis Papers
- Beyond demographic transition: industrialization and population change in Singapore, Cheung PP, 1989
- Singaporean multi-cultural society - Opening or obstacles for non-governmental civic activities, Hoy-Pick Lim, National University of Singapore, 1989
- THE REGIONAL CULTURE OF NEW ASIA - Cultural governance and creative industries in Singapore, Audrey Yue
- A Comparison of the Economic Development of the Republic of Korea and the Philippines since Independence, Chi-Kyu Shim, 2008
- The Global Economic Recession and Industrial Structure: Evidence from Four Asian Dragons, Wenjen Hsieh, National Cheng Kung University, 2011
- Report on IPS Research Forum on Ethnic Relations in Singapore, 24 Oct 2002, Lai Ah Eng (IPS Research Fellow and Coordinator of the IPS Ethnic Relations Project) November 2002
- LANGUAGE POLICY AND NATION-BUILDING IN A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY: The Case Singapore Model, Eddie C. Y. KUO
- The Development of Education in Singapore since 1965 Background paper prepared for the Asia Education Study Tour for African Policy Makers, June 18 ? 30, 2006, Professor S. Gopinathan National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Education and Colonial Transition in Singapore and Hong Kong; comparisons and contrasts, JASON TAN
- 150 years of education in Singapore / contributor and editor, T.R. Doraisamy ; contributors, Gwee Yee Hean
- LANGUAGE POLICY AND NATION-BUILDING IN A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY: The Case Singapore Model, Eddie C. Y. KUO http://www2.kokugakuin.ac.jp/ijcc/wp/cimac/kuo.html
- The Development of Education in Singapore since 1965 Background paper prepared for the Asia Education Study Tour for African Policy Makers, June 18 - 30, 2006, Professor S. Gopinathan National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

5) Papers
- Ethnic Nationalism in Korea, 2012 (http://www.studymode.com/essays/Ethnic-Nationalism-In-Korea-964772.html)
- Model for Development: A Case Study of Singapore's Economic Growth, Taymaz Rastin, Simon Fraser University (http://lilt.ilstu.edu/critique/fall%202003/taymazfinal.pdf)
- Report on IPS Research Forum on Ethnic Relations in Singapore, 24 Oct 2002, Lai Ah Eng (IPS Research Fellow and Coordinator of the IPS Ethnic Relations Project), November 2002
- Education and Colonial Transition in Singapore and Hong Kong; comparisons and contrasts, JASON TAN
- 150 years of education in Singapore / contributor and editor, T.R. Doraisamy ; contributors, Gwee Yee Hean
- Problems of Korean Education Fever and the way to progress (http://sales.happyreport.co.kr/search/view_page.asp?topcat_id=01&midcat=02&rday=20090213721009)
- Managing Ethnic Diversity and its Challenges, National Library of Singapore, (http://libguides.nl.sg/content.php?pid=109756&sid=827189)

6) Review
- Book Review: Ethnic Nationalism in Korea, by Gi-Wook Shin (http://nojeokhill.koreanconsulting.com/2010/02/book-review-ethnic-nationalism-in-korea-by-giwook-shin.html)

7) Websites
- Economic History of Singapore, SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT, Thayer Watkins (http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/singapore.htm)
- http://www.slideshare.net/noblepylon/economic-development-of-south-korea-under-park-chung-hee-196179-7328748
- Singapore Education System http://libguides.nl.sg/content.php?pid=57257&sid=460807
- Education in Singapore History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Singapore#History
- Problems of Korea’s Education Heat and its solutions http://sales.happyreport.co.kr/search/view_page.asp?topcat_id=01&midcat=02&rday=20090213721009
- Racial Tension in History of Singapore https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Singapore#Racial_tension
- Culture of Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Singapore
- Demographics of Singapore (Ethnic groups) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Singapore#Ethnic_groups
- History of Korean Education http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%EB%AF%BC%EA%B5%AD%EC%9D%98_%EA%B5%90%EC%9C%A1#.EB.8C.80.ED.95.9C.EB.AF.BC.EA.B5.AD_.EC.A0.95.EB.B6.80_.EC.88.98.EB.A6.BD_.EC.9D.B4.ED.9B.84.EC.9D.98_.EA.B5.90.EC.9C.A1

8) Newspaper Articles
- 새마을운동의 선순환구조와 지속 : 1970년대 농촌새마을운동, 안희선 기자 (2012) http://www.saemaul.or.kr/newspaper/special_view.asp?idx=759
- 지나친 교육열 일제때 학력차별이 뿌리 (Excessive Education Fever, the root of Japanese Occupation) http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/culture/religion/212843.html