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The marriages of English Monarchs from the Tudor to the Hanover Dynasty
purpose of their marriages

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Yang, Soobin
Term Paper, European History Class, July 2012

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Goals of Marriage Policy
II.1 Uniting the Country after Civil War
II.1.1 War of the Roses
II.1.2 English Civil War
II.2 Religion
II.3 Alliance
II.4 Connection with Germany
II.5 Love
III. Conclusion

I. Introduction 1. Why has this topic been chosen ?
            It sounds like a cliche, however history repeats itself. Not in an exact same situation nor an exact same circumstance but actually it does. Therefore as a history opens the door to the new future ahead, studying history all its aspects is one of the biggest tasks assigned for human beings. Among various history fields, particularly royal story is interesting as it usually full of scheming and plots.
            Initially, a topic involved in Henry VIII, who is at the intersection between history and freedom from morality, was selected. However, since it was too narrow to deal with as a term paper, the topic changed to "The Marriages of English Monarchs from the Tudor to the Hanover Dynasty (1) - the purpose of the marriages".

2. What will this paper cover ?
            This term paper is going to cover three English Dynasties, Tudor (1485-1603), Stuart (1603-1714), and Hanover (1714-1901). By looking through 16 individual kings or queens (six Stuart each, five for Tudor and Hanover each.), this paper will figure out their own purpose of marriages.
            Marriages were among the most important, large scaled acts undertaken by monarchs through history since family relations are often very primary and strong. Thus by analyzing monarchs' marriages, it is easy to understand the policy and reign of a king or a queen more thoroughly. Since kings and queens had influence all over a certain country and the lives of the people of the day, it would be worthy enough to study 'what did the king or the queen want and seek'.
            The investigation under this topic tells that all the purpose could be divided into five big categories; could be for civil wars, religion, alliance, connection with German countries or might be for love. This paper will analyze the purposes by organizing those reasons. Sometimes, one marriage has several purposes simultaneously. Those cases arranged in few categories.

II. Goals of Marriage Policy

II.1 Uniting the Country after Civil War

II.1.1 The Wars of the Roses

A. Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
            The founder of the Tudor Dynasty was a successor of Lancaster named Henry, who emerged after triumphant of the Wars of the Roses which, is a series of civil wars fought between two royal rival branches: the houses of Lancaster and York. They had fought each other for the throne of England from 1455 to 1485. After a victory of the war, he was crowned Henry VII, and married Elizabeth Plantagenet, of the York branch of the family, a daughter of Edward IV. After the bloody war, Henry acknowledged the necessity of marrying Elizabeth to secure the stability of his rule and weaken the claims of other surviving members of the House of York [2]. By the marriage, Henry Tudor could unite and reconcile the two houses which mean he removed his biggest opponents. It reflects on the crest of family he chose very well. 'Tudor Roses' which was the emblem of the Tudors represented the fusion of the Lancastrian and York noble factions. This fusion was symbolized by the White rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.

B. Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour
            Henry VII had two sons; Arthur who was crown prince and Henry, the second son. At that time, the two biggest and most powerful countries in Europe were France and Spain. After marrying Elizabeth, Henry VII was still eager to strengthen his kingdom and its potential support of pretenders to his throne [3]. This is because they just got through such bloody civil war, the War of Roses which I've talked about so far. However England distrusted France after 2 centuries of warfare. Thus Henry VII sought the support of Queen Isabella I of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon. For Spain, since France was their rival, the alliance with England was collectively good. When Arthur, the crowned prince of England was two years old, a marriage with the Spanish princess, Catherine of Aragon was arranged for him as part of the Treaty of Medina del Campo (1489). Catherine was the youngest daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand. However, in 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15, after only 20 weeks of marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10 year old Henry. Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Prince Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon [4]. In 1509, 17 years old, Prince Henry married Catherine and ascended the throne few days later.
            However after becoming a king, Henry became impatient with Catherine's inability to produce the male heir he desired. All of Catherine's children died in infancy except their daughter Mary. Henry wanted a male heir to consolidate the power of the Tudor dynasty. He was afraid the possible situation that England would be in a bloody civil war again if he didn't have any stable successor. In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient, he became enamored of a young woman in the Queen's entourage, Anne Boleyn. Thus he divorced Catherine de Aragon and married Anne.
            Given the King's desperate desire for a son, the sequence of Anne's pregnancies and miscarriages made him more restless. Most sources attest to the birth of Elizabeth in September 1533, a possible miscarriage in 1534, and another miscarriage in 1536. For her final miscarriage, the aborted child seemed to be a male child which she had not borne 3.5 months, at which the King has shown great distress [5]. As Anne recovered from her final miscarriage, Henry started getting exhausted and totally gave up getting his heir from Anne. As his love was getting cooled, he tried to find another woman so he can get heir, and accused Anne for several unconvinced evidences. On 2 May 1536 Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. Although the evidence against her was unproven, the accused were found guilty and condemned to death by the peers. A week after having been imprisoned, she was executed on Tower Green. [6]
            One day after Anne's execution on 10 May 1536, Henry became engaged to Jane Seymour, They married 10 days later. In 1537, Jane finally gave birth to a son, Prince Edward, Henry considered Jane to be his "true" wife, being the only one who had given him the male heir he so desperately sought. [7]
            The divorce with Catherine de Aragon, the marriage and execution of Anne Boelyn, the marriage with Jane Seymour were all triggered by heir obsession of Henry VIII. Then why did he so struggle over his heir? That's obviously because of the War of Roses. Since the War of Roses was severe which weaken the king's authority, he tried to recover and strengthen it by staunchly establishing the succession.

II.1.2. The English Civil War, 1642-1649

James II and Anne Hyde, 1685-1689
            James II was a king of England and Scotland who was a member of the house of Stuart. His wife, Anne Hyde was a daughter of Sir Edward Hyde (later 1st Earl of Clarendon). In 1659, at Breda in the Netherlands, she allegedly married James, then Duke of York, in a secret ceremony. This was because the royal family at this time remained in exile following the English Civil War. However still, Anne's father served as the loyal Royalist chief adviser to the prospective King Charles II of England, James's elder brother. Also Anne herself was a maid of honor to Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, sister of Charles and James. If the royal family was not exiled from England, the marriage would seem to be impossible since Anne Hyde was just a commoner. [8] However considering that all the circumstances for the royals were extremely harsh and Hyde didn't abandon the loyalty despite of this harshness, their marriage could be achieved.

II.2 Religion
            Religion has been one of the most important factors throughout human history. Especially before modern days, religious rule was roots and branch key for every detail decision in most people's life. In order to strengthen royal authority, monarchs had to appoint themselves as a deputy of God or at least they had to show people that they themselves strongly believe in God. Once they made their people believe the religion they believe, they could manipulate as they wanted under guise of God's order. England state religion was Roman Catholic until Henry VII. However Henry VIII created the Anglican Domain in order to marry Anne Boleyn and separated it from the Church of Rome. [9] From then on, the bloody war between Roman Catholic and Anglican Domain began. Depend on a monarch's religion, a spouse was chosen.
            Though the first wife of Henry VIII was Catherine de Aragon, Henry VIII decided to marry Anne Boleyn. However the head of the Roman Catholic Church didn't approve his divorce from Catherine since Pope Clement was under control of Catherine's nephew, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus, Henry VIII decided to be the head of the church himself and created the Anglican Domain, separated from the Roman Catholic Church. Thomas Cromwell, who was the main protagonist of the English church's break with the Catholic Church in Rome, helped engineering the annulment of the king's marriage with Catherine de Aragon so that Henry could marry his mistress Anne Boleyn. Meanwhile, Parliament had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of 'praemunire' against all who introduced papal bulls into England. Parliament prohibited the Church from making any regulations (canons) without the king's consent. [10] It was only then that Pope Clement VII at last took the step of launching sentences of excommunication against Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell. [11] Supremacy over the Church of England was officially declared by Parliament in 1534, and Cromwell declared at the same time the archbishop's decree of annulment to be invalid and the marriage with Catherine de Aragon null. [12] The papal nuncio was withdrawn from England and diplomatic relations with Rome were broken off. After that, several more laws were passed in England. The Ecclesiastical Appointments Act 1534 required the clergy to elect bishops nominated by the Sovereign. [13] The Act of Supremacy in 1534 declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England" and the Treasons Act 1534 made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as such. [14] In response to the excommunications, the Peter's Pence Act was passed in and it reiterated that England had "no superior under God, but only your Grace" and that Henry's "imperial crown" had been diminished by "the unreasonable and uncharitable usurpations and exactions" of the Pope. [15]
            In defiance of the Pope, the Church of England was now under Henry's control, not Rome's. After Henry VIII established the Anglican Domain, the invisible war between Catholic and Anglican lasted over hundreds years. The monarchs chose his or her wife based on their own religion. For example, Anne of Cleves (16), the wife of Henry VIII as well as Philip of Spain, the husband of Mary I got married because of their religion.

A. Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves
            Anne of Cleves was the fourth wife if Henry VIII. She was born in 1515 as the second daughter of Johann III, Duke of Cleves and Count of Mark. Anne's father was influenced by Erasmus and followed a moderate path within the Reformation. [17] He sided with the Schmalkaldic League which was a defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire, and opposed Emperor Charles V. In 1526, her elder sister Sybille was married to John Frederick Elector of Saxony (18), head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany and considered the "Champion of the Reformation." The Duke's ongoing dispute over Gelre (in Dutch) Gelderland (in German) with Emperor Charles V made them suitable allies for England's King Henry VIII in the wake of the Truce of Nice in 1538. [19] The match with Anne was urged on the King by his chancellor, Thomas Cromwell who was one of the strongest advocates of the English Reformation for the firm settlement of the Anglican Domain in England. [20]

B. Mary I. and Philip of Spain
            Mary I was a daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine de Aragon who was a Roman Catholic. Also she was a step sister of Elizabeth I whose mother was the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn. As I mentioned earlier, the Anglican Domain was established by Henry VIII with the purpose of divorcing him from Catherine de Aragon and permitting him to marry Anne Boleyn. After Henry VIII divorced from Catherine, Mary was not permitted to see her mother, who was sent by Henry to live away from the court. [21] Furthermore she officially was deprived of her princess status and the right of succession, and treated as an illegitimate child. [22] Thus, it seems clear that Mary hated Anne and her child, Elizabeth since they were main culprits of this severe situation endured by Mary.
            Mary succeeded the crown of England in 1553. She was unmarried at that time. However, right after she became a queen at age 37, Mary turned her attention to finding a husband and producing an heir, in order to prevent the protestant Elizabeth, from succeeding to the throne. Still, Elizabeth was her successor under the terms of Henry VIII's will and the Act of Succession of 1544. [23] Meanwhile, her cousin Charles V suggested her to marry his only son, Prince Philip of Spain. [24] Since Philip was a Catholic, she willingly accepted the offer and married in 1544.

II.3 Alliance
            Lots and lots of countries clustered in Europe continent. Thus, the relations between country and country are the question, 'to be or not to be'. As family relation is so primary and strong, marriage of monarchs could be one of the certain alliances between countries.

A. James I and Anne of Denmark
            James I was the first king of Stuart Dynasty. His spouse, Anne of Denmark who married James in 1589, was Scandinavian, which would help Scottish trade. Scot merchant communities were established across Northern Europe in Bergen, Malmö, Elsinore (25) and Copenhagen, into the Baltic Sea at Danzig, and even as far afield as Russia. [26]

B. Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
            James I hoped for a Spanish match for his son, Charles, since he wished a peaceable resolution of the conflict whereby Frederick V would renounce his title to Bohemia in exchange for the return of the Palatinate. [27] In 1623, Buckingham accompanied Charles I, then Prince of Wales, to Spain for marriage negotiations regarding the Infant Maria. The negotiations had long been stuck and eventually failed. It is believed that Buckingham's crassness was the key to the total collapse of agreement. [28] Even the Spanish ambassador asked Parliament to have Buckingham executed for his behavior in Madrid.
            Thus for plan B, he headed toward another marriage negotiation with France. As France belonged to two top military countries in Europe, (Of course, the other was Spain.) Buckingham tried to establish an alliance of England with France instead of Spain in order to contain Spain and Spanish military power. [29] As a result, Henrietta Maria of France who was the youngest daughter of King Henry IV of France chose as a spouse of Charles I and got married in 1625.

C. Charles II and Catherine of Bragança
            Catherine of Bragança was a second surviving daughter of the King Joao IV of Portugal and later became a wife of King Charles II. She was seen as a useful conduit for contracting an alliance between Portugal and England, after the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659 in which Portugal was arguably abandoned by France, mutual enemy for England and Portugal both. [30] Also Portugal only recently had regained its independence from Spain, an independence not yet recognized by the latter. Portugal who was comparatively the underdog, could deal with it since Spain was fighting against France. However, that war had been ended in 1659, which means Spain could solely focus on Portugal. [31] Portugal who became urgent, request a military alliance with England. [32] Part of this military alliance, Catherine of Braganza, who was a sister of Afonso VI married Charles II in 1662. [33]

D. Mary II and William of Orange (William III)
            William III was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau at birth, the appointed stadholder of Holland since 1672, and a joint monarch of England since 1689. by having married Mary. During the war between Dutch Republic and France (1672-1679), William tried to improve his position by marrying Mary Stuart, a daughter of James. [34] Although he anticipated resistance to a Stuart match from the Amsterdam merchants who had disliked his mother (another Mary Stuart), William believed that marrying Mary would increase his chances of succeeding to Charles' kingdoms, and would draw England's monarch away from his pro-French policies. [35] England Parliament was fully aware of William's intention but allowing Mary to marry William in 1677 in order to gain leverage in negotiations relating to this war. [36] As the rivalry between England and France had long history, I guess the influence over the Dutch-France war appealed to them attractive.

E. Anne and George of Denmark
            As George was the youngest son of King Frederick III of Denmark and Norway, the marriage in 1683 between Queen Anne and George of Denmark was for developing an Anglo-Danish alliance to contain Dutch maritime power. [37] After establishing Dutch East India Company, the maritime power of the Netherlands rapidly rose up and eventually became unrivaled. [38] If you cross a line between Denmark and England, the line would pass through the sea of the Netherlands which means the ally could efficiently impede the Dutch seaborne trade.

II.4 Connection with Germany
            The house of Hanover originated from current Germany. Queen Anne, who was the last monarch of Stuart, had no child. Thus, the parliament had to appoint an heir. The Electress Sophie Hannover, a granddaughter of James I, was declared heiress presumptive to Queen Anne by the Act of Settlement 1701. [39] However the Electress Sophia had died on 8 June, two months before Anne, so the Electress' son, George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British Crown. George was born in Hanover, and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (40) from his father and uncles. [41] Now, in England the era of the Hanover Dynasty began which was basically a royal dynasty from the Holy Roman Empire. In order to consolidate the king's authority by tighten the connection with their origins. [42] All the kings and queens of Hanover married persons of German origin. Thus I will suggest the positions of each spouse's house and show you he or she actually related to the countries of German origin, usually belong to Holy Roman Empire.

A. George I and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
            The wife of George I, Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Celle line) was born in 1666, the only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. [43] He ruled first over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, then also over the Lüneburg subdivision. In 1689 he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (44). This couple got married in 1682. [45]

B. George II and Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
            Caroline of brandenburg-Ansbach was a wife of George II married in 1705. Her father, Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach represented Hohenzollern dynasty situated in Germany whose main line were electors of Brandenburg. [46] This lineage made Caroline a third cousin of the great elector Friedrich Wilhelm. And her mother, Eleonore Erdmuth Luise, was the daughter of Johann Georg, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (47), also originated from Germany. [48] Caroline's father died in 1686, and her mother's marriage in 1692 to the Elector Johann Georg, the fourth of Saxony, was part of a diplomatic initiative to tighten the bonds between Saxony and Brandenburg in the formation of the coalition of German states against Louis XIV. [49] Thus Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was strongly connected with the houses of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Saxe-Eisenach, and Saxony.

C. George III and Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
            Sophia Charlotte was a wife of George III, married in 1761. She was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow and his wife Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. [50] Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a north German duchy in the Holy Roman Empire.

D. George IV and Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
            Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (51) was a wife of George IV married in 1795. Her father, Charles William Ferdinand was a Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was a sovereign prince of the Holy Roman Empire. [52]

E. William IV. and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
            Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (53) was a wife of William IV married in 1818. Her father was George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and her mother was Luise Eleonore, daughter of Prince Christian of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. [54]

F. Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
            Lord Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (55) was the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. This couple married in 1840. [56]

II.5 Love
            Love is a basic emotion that almost every human being could feel. Love is not created "lately" nor "abruptly" but has long history itself. Love has been always there through every moment and every place of human history. No exception for the monarchs. Though people often see monarchs as cold blooded beings and avidly seeking for selfish desires, they actually did love just like all others, since they were human as well.
            In this paper I see definition of love, 'feeling romantically attracted to somebody else, and he or she is very important to you.' The reason falling in love could be one's good appearance or nature also.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr
            Henry VIII (1509~1547) who belongs to Tudor Dynasty is notorious for his cruel love. He had six wives, among them, I see four wives as his love; Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard and Katherine Parr.
            Anne Boleyn was the second wife of Henry VIII, the mother of Queen Elizabeth. Anne spent almost seven years from 1516 to 1522 in France which was regarded the most cultural advanced country at that time. [57] As a result, a historian Retha M. Warnicke described her as following, "Anne was the perfect woman courtier. Her carriage was graceful and her French clothes were pleasing and stylish; she danced with ease, had a pleasant singing voice, played the lute and several other musical instruments well, and spoke French fluently. She was a remarkable, intelligent, quick-witted young noble woman that first drew people into conversation with her and then amused and entertained them. In short, her energy and vitality made her the center of attention in any social gathering." [58] Henry VIII's biographer J. J. Scarisbrick adds that Anne "reveled in" the attention she received from her admirers. [59] Since she was working for Queen Catherine of Aragon as a maid of honor, and such a fascinating young lady as proved, Henry VIII soon get attracted to her which was not that surprising considering the given the descriptions of Anne Boleyn above.
            These are the tokens of love, three famous love letters from King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. They were found in the Vatican Library, possibly stolen from Anne and sent to the papacy during Henry VIII's struggle for an annulment of his marriage to Catharine of Aragon. [60] The letters were written in French.
            "My mistress and friend: I and my heart put in your hands, begging you to have it suitors for your good favor, and that your affection for them should not grow less through absence. For it would be a great pity to increase their sorrow since absence does it sufficiently, and more than ever I could have thought possible reminding us of a point in astronomy, which is, that the longer the days are the farther off is the sun, and yet the more fierce. So it is with our love, for by absence we are parted, yet nevertheless it keeps its fervor, at least on my side, and I hope on yours also: assuring you that on my side the ennui of absence is already too much for me: and when I think of the increase of what I must needs suffer it would be well nigh unbearable for me were it not for the firm hope I have and as I cannot be with you in person, I am sending you the nearest possible thing to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole device which you already know." [61]
            "No more to you at this present mine own darling for lack of time but that I would you were in my arms or I in yours for I think it long since I kissed you. Written after the killing of a hart at xj. Of the clock minding with God's grace tomorrow mightily timely to kill another: by the hand of him which I trust shortly shall be yours." [62]
            "Mine own sweetheart, these shall be to advertise you of the great loneliness that I find here since your departing, for I ensure you me thinketh the time longer since your departing now last than I was wont to do a whole fortnight: I think your kindness and my fervents of love causeth it, for otherwise I would not have thought it possible that for so little a while it should have grieved me, but now that I am coming toward you me thinketh my pains been half released .... Wishing myself (specially an evening) in my sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dukkys I trust shortly to kiss. Written with the hand of him that was, is, and shall be yours by his will." [63]

            Jane Seymour was the third wife of Henry VIII. Jane Seymour became a maid-of-honor in 1532 to Queen Catherine, but Jane may have served Catherine until the early of 1527, and went on to serve Queen Anne Boleyn. Jane was noted to have a child-like face, as well as a modest personality. [64] According to the Imperial Ambassador Eustace Chapuys, Jane was of middling stature and very pale. John Russell commented that Jane was "the fairest of all the King's wives." [65] Also Polydore Vergil added, ”°"she was a woman of the utmost charm in both character and appearance." [66] These are the reasons why Henry did show his great interest and affection to her. In 1536, those two finally got married. When Henry VIII died in 1547, Henry was buried beside her in the grave which he had made for her, on his request.

            Catherine Howard was the fifth wife of Henry VIII. In 1540, Henry VIII married Catherine Howard. Henry VIII was 49 while Catherine was about 20 and it was again a love match (On Henry's side anyway) He had fallen in love with his fourth wife, Anne of Cleve's maid, a girl Starkey describes as "petite, plump, pretty and accomplished in the Courtly graces with an easy charm and abundant store of good nature". [67] Henry was bestowed with her, calling her 'Rose without a Thorn' and showering her with gifts and public affection. [68]

            Henry VIII married Katherine Parr in his last years of illness, disillusion, and pain. He had previously had string of bad relationships with most of his previous queens' cheating and betraying. [69] He therefore wanted someone who was devoted, loving and caring his past days. Katherine Parr was the one he sought for. Considering the facts that Katherine enjoyed a close relationship with Henry's three children and was personally involved in the education of Elizabeth and Edward, we can easily guess Katherine Parr was actually an attentive woman. [70] These are the reasons why Henry VIII married Katherine Parr in 1543 relied her so much.

III. Conclusion
            Five monarchs (I don't consider Lady Jane Grey as a queen since her reign was too short and lack of legitimacy) belong to the house of Tudor (1485-1603), and three of them got married. Henry VIII (1485-1509) married Elizabeth of York seeking for the absolute power of monarchs. Henry VIII (1509-1547) marriages was for alliance with Spain (Catherine of Aragon), repeated miscarriages (Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour), stabilize the Anglican Domain in the kingdom (Anne of Cleves), and for love (Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr). Lastly, the purpose of the Mary I (1553-1558)'s marriage with Philip II of Spain was to prevent protestant Elizabeth to be a queen.
            There were six monarchs in Stuart Dynasty (1603-1714), and all of them got married. James I decided to marry Anne of Denmark to expedite trade with Scandinavia. The marriage of Charles I (1625-1649) and Henrietta Maria of France was for alliance with France. In order to make a military alliance with Portugal, Charles II (1660-1689) married Catherine of Bragança. Under the situation of exile of royal family, Anne Hyde could marry James II in spite of her low status. Mary II (1689-1694) and her husband William of Orange (1689-1702) were the joint sovereigns. William married Mary in order to contain pro-France influence in England while the purpose in a point of Mary's view was to gain the upper hand of the war between France and Dutch Republic. I suggest both points of view as they both were the English monarchs. The last queen of Stuart Dynasty, Anne (1702-1714), married George of Denmark achieved for allying with Denmark to contain Dutch trade power.
            The house of Hanover (1714-1901) originated from Hanover which situated in current Germany. Thus in order to gain the ground, they tried to connect with German originated countries. (Brunswick-Lüneburg, Brandenburg-Ansbach, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Brunswick, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)

(1)      in German spelled "Hannover"
(2)      Chrismes 1972 pp.342-348
(3)      Weir 1991 p.94
(4)      Luke 1967 p.132
(5)      Hart 2009 pp.165-170
(6)      Wikipedia : Anne Boleyn
(7)      Lindsey 1995 pp.201-203
(8)      Strickland 1852 p.345
(9)      Fraser 1992 pp.198-207
(10)      History Learning Site : English Church
(11)      Ibid.
(12)      Ibid.
(13)      Ibid.
(14)      Ibid.
(15)      Ibid.
(16)      in German spelled "Kleve"
(17)      Farquhar 2001 p.98
(18)      in German spelled "Sachsen"
(19)      Lloyd 1996 pp.106-123
(20)      Schofield 2008 pp.452-455
(21)      Luke 1967 pp.442-443
(22)      Ibid.
(23)      Mike 2002 pp.561-572
(24)      Wikipedia : Mary I of England
(25)      In Danish spelled "Helsingør"
(26)      Stephen 1895 p.443
(27)      Panton 1997 pp.378-381. The Palatinate is called "Kurpfalz" in German
(28)      BBC : Buckingham
(29)      Macaulay 1848 p.234
(30)      Plaidy 2008 p.334
(31)      Ibid.
(32)      Ibid.
(33)      Ibid.
(34)      Maclagan 1999 pp.561-670
(35)      Wikipedia : William of Orange
(36)      Speck 1993 p.332
(37)      Stephen 1895 pp.422-435
(38)      Ibid.
(39)      Hichens 2006 pp.87-156
(40)      Ibid.
(41)      spelled "Braunschweig-Lüneburg" in German
(42)      Hichens 2006 pp.87-156
(43)      Wikipedia : Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Luneburg
(44)      spelled "Sachsen-Lauenburg" in German
(45)      Wikipedia : Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Luneburg
(46)      Wikipedia : Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
(47)      in German spelled "Sachsen-Eisenach"
(48)      English Monarchs : Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
(49)      Ibid.
(50)      Spartacus Educational : Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(51)      in German spelled "Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel"
(52)      Arkell 1939 p.43
(53)      in German spelled "Sachsen-Meiningen"
(54)      Wikipedia : Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
(55)      in German spelled "Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha"
(56)      Bennett 1977 pp.257-259
(57)      Hart 2009 pp.176-177
(58)      Fraser 1992 p.298
(59)      Lindsey 1995 p.234
(60)      Farquhar 2001 pp.342-359
(61)      Ibid.
(62)      Ibid.
(63)      Ibid.
(64)      Loads 2007 pp.265-266
(65)      Ibid.
(66)      Keneth 1997 p.331
(67)      Smith 1961 pp.156-171
(68)      Ibid.
(69)      Queens royal surreys : Catherine Parr
(70)      Ibid.

Bibliography The following websites were visited in March to June 2012

1.      The Oxford History of Britain, Morgan Keneth O, Oxford UP, 1997
2.      The six wives of Henry„·, David Loads, Amberley, 2007
3.      The Companion to British History, Charles Arnold-Baker, Routledge, 1996
4.      Historical dictionary of the United Kingdom, Kenneth J. Panton, Scarecrow, 1997
5.      The History of England, lord Macaulay, Penguin classics, 1848
6.      Britain in the eighteenth century 1688-1820, Jeremy Gregory and John Stevenson, The Longman Companion, 2000
7.      Queenship in Europe 1660-1815, Andrew Hanham, Cambridge, 2004
8.      A Concise History of Britain 1707-1975, W.A. Speck, Cambridge, 1993
9.      The Western Heritage, Donald Kagan, Pearson, 1991
10.      The British Empire 1558-1995, T.O. Lloyd, Oxford, 1996
11.      Britain in the nineteenth century 1815-1914, Chris Cook, Longman, 1999
12.      British Kings & Queens, Ashley Mike, Carroll & Graf, 2002
13.      Henry VII. Berkeley, Chrismes. Stanley B, University of California Press,1972
14.      The Tudor Age (1485?1603), John Guy, Oxford University Press, 1988
15.      Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity, David Starkey, Harper Press, 2006
16.      The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.), Kelly Hart, The History Press, 2009
17.      Divorced, Beheaded, Survived, Karen Lindsey, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, 1995
18.      A Treasure of Royal Scandals, Michael Farquhar, Penguin Books, 2001
19.      The Six Wives of Henry VIII, Alison Weir, Bodley Head, 1991
20.      Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century, Morris. T. A, New Fetter Lane, 1998
21.      A biography of Catherine of Aragon, first wife to Henry VIII, Mary M. Luke, Coward-McCann, Inc, 1967
22.      The Wives of Henry VIII, Antonia Fraser, Vintage Books , 1992
23.      The Rise & Fall of Thomas Cromwell, Schofield John, The History Press, 2008
24.      A Tudor tragedy: The life and times of Catherine Howard, Lacey Baldwin Smith, Reprint Society , 1961
25.      Lives of the Queens of England Vol 5, Agnes Strickland, 1852, Colburn
26.      Dictionary of National Biography Vol 43, Sir Leslie Stephen, Elder & Co., 1895
27.      The Sisters who would be Queen - the Tragedy of Mary, Katherine and Lady Jane Grey, Leanda de Lisle, Harper Press, 2008
28.      Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery, Eric Ives, Oxford Press, 2009
29.      John Dudley Duke of Northumberland 1504?1553, David Loades, Clarendon Press, 1996
30.      Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, Pimlico, 1996
31.      The Merry Monarch's Wife: The Story of Catherine of Braganza, Jean Plaidy, Harper Press, 2008
32.      Anne of Denmark, Queen of England, Leeds Barrol, University of Pennsylvania, 2001
33.      Henrietta Maria: Queen of the Cavaliers, Quinton Bone, University of Illinois Press, 1972
34.      Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, Michael Maclagan, Little, Brown & Co., 1999
35.      Caroline of Ansbach, R. L. Arkell, Oxford University Press, 1939
36.      Wives of the Kings of England, From Hanover to Windsor, Mark Hichens, Peter Owen Publishers, 2006
37.      King without a crown: Albert, Prince Consort of England, 1819?1861, Daphne Bennett, Heinemann, 1977
38.      wikipedia: - Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford Dudley, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, James I, Anne of Denmark, Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France, Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, William III, Anne, George of Denmark, George I, Sophie Dorothea, George II, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, George III, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George IV, Caroline of Brunswick, William IV, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
39.      BBC : - British History, History Figure
40.      History Learning Site : - Medieval England
41.      Tudor History : - Tudor Dynasty
42.      English Monarchs :
43.      British Monarchy :
44.      Hubpages : - British Royal Wedding History
45.      Royal History of England : - royal wedding
46.      Spartacus Educational : - The Monarchy, British history, Making of the United Kingdom
47.      Kingsedu : - woman's history
48.      megaessay : - british monarch
49.      Queens royal surreys: - Elizabeth of York, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Lady Jane Grey, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, Anne of Denmark, Henrietta Maria of France, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, Sophie Dorothea, Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Caroline of Brunswick, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
50.      The diary of Samual Pepys : www.
51.      Georgian Index - prince wale wedding
52. : - Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford Dudley, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, James I, Anne of Denmark, Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France, Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, William III, Anne, George of Denmark, George I, Sophie Dorothea, George II, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, George III, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George IV, Caroline of Brunswick, William IV, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
53.      Encyclopaedia Britannica Online : - Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford Dudley, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, James I, Anne of Denmark, Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France, Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, William III, Anne, George of Denmark, George I, Sophie Dorothea, George II, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, George III, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George IV, Caroline of Brunswick, William IV, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
54.      Examiner : - historical profile
55.      The royal forums : - William IV (1765-1837) and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1792-1849 )
56.      Bigenealogy : - rulers of England
57.      True knowledge : - Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford Dudley, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, James I, Anne of Denmark, Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France, Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, William III, Anne, George of Denmark, George I, Sophie Dorothea, George II, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, George III, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George IV, Caroline of Brunswick, William IV, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
58.      Fanpop : - pictures of English Monarchs
59.      Wdw : - Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
60.      Oxford dictionary of national biography: - Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford Dudley, Mary I, Felipe II, Elizabeth I, James I, Anne of Denmark, Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France, Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James II, Mary II, William III, Anne, George of Denmark, George I, Sophie Dorothea, George II, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Ansbach, George III, Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George IV, Caroline of Brunswick, William IV, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen

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