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Poland Belarus
First posted on July 8th 2002, last revised on March 2nd 2010

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (12th century - 1795) is claimed as predecessor by both Lithuania and Belarus. In the course of the Polish Partitions 1772-1795 annexed by the Russian Empire, the bulk of the territory of present-day Lithuania was part of Kovno Gubernia and Vilna Gubernia. During World War I, German troops occupied Lithuania; the Germans planned to establish Lithuania as a satellite state. In the aftermath of World War I, Lithuania managed to establish independence, but Vilnius and environs were contested by Lithuanians, Belorussians and Poles, and the area in a coup was annexed by Poland. In 1923 Lithuania annexed the Memelland (hitherto part of East Prussia). In September 1939, Lithuanian forces occupied the Vilnius area, and Lithuania annexed it.
From 1940 to 1991 (with the brief exception of German occupation 1941-1944) Lithuania was part of the USSR. In 1991 Lithuania stated that the accession of 1940 had been illegal and thus invalid. With the USSR disintegrating on Dec. 30th 1992, Lithuanian independence was no longer contested.

Lithuania since 1945
Lithuania 1945-1991
Lithuania 1938-1945 . Klaipeda / Memelland

1926-1938 . Klaipeda / Memelland
1922-1926 . Klaipeda / Memelland
1918-1922 . Klaipeda / Memelland

1914-1918 . Gubernia Kovno . Gubernia Vilna
1863-1914 . Gubernia Kovno . Gubernia Vilna
1795-1863 . Gubernia Kovno . Gubernia Vilna

For the earlier history of modern Lithuania, see under Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Historical Atlas, Lithuania Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, countries - Lithuania
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Lithuania
E.J. Harrison, Lithuania, past and present, 1922, IA
J. Silupas, Lithuania in retrospect and prospect, 1915, IA
Lithuanian national council of America, Lithuania; facts supporting her claim for reestablishment as an independent nation, 1918, IA
W. Gaigalat, Litauen : das besetzte Gebiet, sein Volk und dessen geistige Strömungen, 1917, in German, IA
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from SSEES
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Lithuanian Links, from Baltic Studies Internet Resources at Univ. of Washington
Lithuanian History Sources, from Global Lithuanian Net
Lietuvos Istorijos Metrastis (Articles on Lithuanian History in Lithuanian; English summaries; online since 1998)
Organizations The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania; Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German
Lithuanian Institute of History
Lithuanian Global Genealogical Society
Academic Network of Grand Duchy of Lithuania Scholars
Lietuvos Istorijos Mokyjtok Asociacija, from Euroclio
Genocide and Resistance Research Center of Lithuania
Vilnius Yiddish Institute
Historical Dictionaries Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines Timeline, to 1929, since 1930, from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Category : Years in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General Accounts History of Lithuania, from Ramunas Personal Pages
History of Lithuania, from Scantours
Article History of Lithuania, from Wikipedia
A. Jusaitis, The history of the Lithuanian nation and its present national aspirations, 1918, IA
Specific Periods W. Kutosawsky, Lithuania and White Ruthenia, 1919, IA
J. Zilius, T. Norus, Lithuania's case for independence, 1918, IA
P. Saurusaitis, Thirty days in Lithuania in 1919, 1920
Lithuanian national council of America, Lithuania against Poland; an appeal for justice, 1919, IA
P. Molis, The American press on Lithuania's freedom, 1920, IA
St. Kutrzeba, The rights of Russia to Lithuania and White-Ruthenia, 1919, IA
League of nations. Delegation from Lithuania, Les droits de la Lithuanie sur Vilna et son territoire. Memoire presente par la Delegation lithuanienne a la Societe des nations, n.d., IA
Georg von Rauch, The Baltic States : The Years of Independence. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 1917-1940, (1970) trsl. from the German by Gerald Onn, 1974, GB
Historiography Lithuania's Soviet Historiography, English language Table of Contents
Politics General Political Resources on the Net : Lithuania
For the Record 2000 : Lithuania, from UN Human Rights System
Concentration Camps Today : (Soviet) Lithuania, from ATTAC
Military Wars of Lithuania, 1800-1999, from ACED
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Lithuania
Article Economy of Lithuania, from Wikipedia
History of the Nordic Exchange
History of the Association of the Lithuanian Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Crafts
Our History, from Gubernija (brewery, since 1685); Sviekata (History of Beer in Lithuania), by Stephany Gutauskas
Worker Strikes, Political Punishments, and the Development of Soviet Lithuania's Industry 1965-1985, by Saulius Grybauskas
Lithuania, from European Textile Network (historical sites)
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Lithuania (4), from Ethnologue
Assessment for Poles in Lithuania, from Minorities at Risk
History of Russians in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Assessment for Russians in Lithuania, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Lithuania
Lithuania, pp.3345-3372 in vol.5A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Lithuania, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Lithuania, from Jewish Virtual Library; Lithuania, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Catholic Church in Republic of Lithuania, from GCatholic
Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Lituania
A. Herrmann, Die nationalen Spannungen in der lutherischen Kirche Litauens der Zwanziger Jahre, Annaberger Annalen 1997
History of Regions Memelland, Vilna Gubernia, Kovno Gubernia, at this site
Counties, Municipalities of Lithuania, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Vilnius, from Wikipedia
History of Klaipeda, from Wikipedia
History of Kaunas, from Wikipedia
Institutions Transportation Lithuania, from Airline History
Article Rail Transport in Lithuania : History, from Wikipedia
Broadcasting Radio in Lithuania - Bits of History, by Sigitas Zilionis
Academic Institutions Article Vilnius University : History, from Wikipedia
Edifices Structurae : Lithuania; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Lithuania
Biographies List of Lithuanians, from Wikipedia
Others Lithuania : Banned Literature and Illegal Newspapers, from Beacon for Freedom of Expression
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Lithuania
Articles Lithuania at the Olympics, Sport in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Freemasonry in Lithuania, from JMS
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; scroll down for Lithuania, from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Titles of European Rulers : Lithuania
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Lithuania, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Wilna (Litauen), from Wikipedia German edition; List of Soviet Ambassadors to Lithuania, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Article : U.S. Ambassador to Lithuania, from Wikipedia; Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Vilnius (since 1991), from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Lithuania, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Bishops List of Bishops of Vilnius, Bishops of Samogitia, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Lithuania
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Lithuania, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyert
Historical Abortion Statistics - Lithuania, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1997), from IFES Election Guide (since 1998), from Electoral Geography 2.0 (since 1992)
from Elections and Electoral Systems (links)
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Lithuania
Valstybes zinios, Veliausios zinios
Article : Valstybes zinios, from Wikipedia German edition
Hemerotheques Periodika, from Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa, German language historical periodicals from Central and Eastern Europe
ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers, Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for Lithuania
Specific Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Lithuania", search all issues; 199 Lithuania articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Films on History/Society Lithuania Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); Lithuanian Film Center
Article : Cinema of Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Lithuania, from Cinema of the World
List of Lithuanian Films, from Wikipedia; Lithuania Film, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Lithuanian Integral Museum Information System
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Lithuania
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports; scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Lithuania
Archival Deposits Online Search CIA Released Documents for Lithuania
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Lithuania Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, IA
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Lithuania
Epaveldas, Lithuanian Cultural Heritage; here description from European History Primary Sources
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Lithuania, from ILO, 34 docs. since 1921
Internet Law Library : Lithuania
Verfassungen der Republik Litauen (Constitutions of the Republic of Lithuania), from verfassungen.de, in German
Treaties Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Lithuania
Lithuania, pp.655-691 in vol.9 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Lithuania
Lithuanian Information Bureau, The Lithuanian-Polish dispute; correspondence between the Council of the League of Nations and the Lithuanian government since the second assembly of the League of Nations, 15th December, 1921-17th July, 1922, 1922, IA
Codex diplomaticus Lithuaniae, 1845, IA
Making the History of 1989 : Lithuania
Individual Documents Report of the Select committee to Investigate Communist Aggression against Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, East Germany, Russia, and the Non-Russian Nations of the U.S.S.R. Second interim report to the Select Committee on Communist Aggression, House of Representatives, Eighty-third Congress, second session, under authority of H. Res. 346 and H. Res. 438, 1954, IA
Lithuanian Information Bureau, Lithuanian recognition advocated by Hon, William G. McAdoo, Dr. Herbert Adams Gibbons, Hon. Walter M. Chandler, 1921, IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Lithuania : Valstybinis Zemtvarkos Institutas (VZI), Vilnius
collections click here
Atlas of Lithuania, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Lithuania, Maps of the History of Lithuania, from Wikimedia Commons
Lithuania Maps, PCL, UTexas
A. Kapochunas, Lithuanian Maps
David Rumsey Map Collection : Lithuania
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear, Lithuania
Lithuania, hindsight Europe in the Year 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Lithuania, Contemporary Lithuania 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 edition; Article Lithuanians and Letts, from EB 1911
Entries Lithuania, Embassy of, Litbel, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides K. Baedeker, La Russie: manuel du voyageur, 1897, 1902, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Russland : Handbuch für Reisende, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, St. Petersburg und Umgebung: Handbuch für Reisende 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Lithuania, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 5 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Lithuania, 22 entries
The Lithuanian Archival System : a Brief Guide, by T. Balkelis
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Lithuania, from Consilium Europa
Musea Category : Museums in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
The Amber Museum of Palanga, by Antanas Tranyzas
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Lithuania, from Wikipedia
Tentative List : Lithuania, World Heritage List, scroll down for Latvia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Windmills in Lithuania, from Windmill World
Libraries Libraries in Lithuania, from LibDex, 29 entries
History of the Lithuanian National Library, from The European Library
Martinas Mazvidas National Library of Lithuania
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Lithuania, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Lithuania Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Lithuania, from World Coin Catalogue
Stamps Rare Lithuania, Lithuania, Russ. Occ. Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Lithuania Stamps, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Lithuania survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database Lietuvos istorijos bibliografija (Bibliography of the History of Lithuania), introduction from European Historical Bibliographies
EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies)
Bibliographieportal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas - LitDok Ostmitteleuropa
general bibliographies
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Kovno Ghetto - Bibliography, from Virtual Shtetl
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jewish Resistance Library, Bibliography - Lithuania
serial publications Lithuanian Institute of History, Publications
Institute of Luthuanian Studies, Publications
Genocide and Resistance Research Center of Lithuania, Publications
general bibliographies
Lithuania entries
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
on Lithuania The Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences : Digital Library
Epaveldas, Lithuanian Cultural Heritage; here description from European History Primary Sources
Online Journals full text online Jahrbücher für die Geschichte Osteuropas 1936-2006, BSB
Lituanus 1954-2004; English-language
Annaberger Annalen über Litauen und deutsch-litauische Beziehungen 1993-2009
Historiography Article : Lithuanian Historiography, by J. Danauskas, J. Rackauskas, pp.563-566, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
On Central, Eastern Europe Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
General Accounts David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995
Manfred Hellmann, Grundzüge der Geschichte Litauens (Main Features of Lithuania's History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1976 (in German) [G]
Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Specific Topics Lithuania, pp.100-103, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Historical Dictionaries Saulius Suziedelis (ed.), Historical Dictionary of Lithuania, Rowman & Littlefield 1997