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Sweden emerged as the Kingdom of the Svear and Götar in the 11th century. Swedish kings, after their election, went on the Eriksgata, i.e. they visited Uppland, Södermannaland, Östergötland, Småland, Västergötland, Närke, Västmanland.
In the 13th century, Sweden began its conquest of Finland (the eastern border being pushed eastward, in wars against the Republic of Novgorod, and in the latter's succession, against the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, until 1611).
Christianity was introduced in the later 11th century, Uppsala becoming the seat of the Swedish archbishop.
In 1250 a new dynasty got hold of the Swedish throne, the Folkunger, their first king being Valdemar Birgersson (1250-1278). Sweden got into closer relations with continental Europe, to a large part facilitated by the Hanseatic League. German merchants were invited to settle in coastal towns, such as Stockholm or Kalmar; the Tyska Kyrkan (German church) is Stockholm's oldest. Royal stone castles were built in many strategically imported places, an expression of royal power, a power which was intensified in the provinces of mainland Sweden, where the difference between Goetar and Svear lost significance, and in colonized Finland. The church was another pillar of royal power; the construction of Uppsala Cathedral was begun in 1270.
The Statute of Alsnö of 1279 exempted nobles who kept a castle and horse from paying taxation; thus introducing feudalism to Sweden.
Swedish society came under a strong influence of (lower) German civilization and of the church; this is reflected in the many loanwords Swedish language took over from German and Latin. The grammar and structure of Swedish language was overformed, largely due to the impact of Lower German.
In 1350 king Magnus Eriksson (until 1355 also king of Norway) abolished the provincial laws and the various city laws, replacing them by a uniform countryside law and a uniform city law; the Swedish state established its hold on legislation. In 1363 Magnus was deposed by opposing noblemen, who recognized Albrecht Duke of Mecklenburg as new King of Sweden, the first foreigner on the country's throne.
In 1346 Birgitta (in 1391 canonized ST. Birgitta) founded Vadstena Convent; she urged the pope to return to Rome, the kings of England and France to end the 100-Years-War. She herself moved to Rome, where she spent the remainder of her life. The Ooder of St. Birgitta (sometimes spelled St. Bridget) still exists; her daughter St. Catherine succeeded her as abbess of Vadstena.
In 1389 a group of discontent noblemen invited Queen Margarethe of Denmark-Norway in, declared Albrecht deposed. Albrecht, leading an army with the intention to defeat his opponents, was taken prisoner, later released. In 1397 Erik of Pomerania, Margarethe's adopted son, was elected King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (the Union of Kalmar).
In the 13th century, Sweden became an important supplier of iron and copper for the European marked; the Stora Kopparberget copper mine traces her origin back to 1288. German miners from the Harz region immigrated to Sweden, bringing valuable knowhow.
Sweden in her relation with the Union Kings . Queen Margaretha's adoptive son Bogislav, who took on the Swedish name of Erik, in history named Erik of Pomerania, ruled since 1397, alone since 1412. A major political success was the acquisition of Gotland in 1409 from the Teutonic Order, by paying the latter her expenses for the expedition against the pirates who controlled Visby in 1398.
In her later years, Margarethe got in conflict with the Swedish church, because she ignored the right of the Swedish cathedral chapters to elect their respective bishops, nominating her own candidates and having them appointed by the popel King Erik, after failing to come to an agreement with the Swedish church, continued that practice. In addition, Erik violated the indigenate, the rule that only Swedes qualified for administrative posutions in Sweden; being a native German, Erik appointed many Germans, but also Danes and even an Italian to such positions. In addition, Erik, by continuing the policy of reduction (the crown claiming lands alienated, i.e. which had come into the hands of noblemen. These policies antagonized both clergy and nobility of Sweden. King Erik had no children; disregarding the treaty that created the union of Kalmar, he promised succession to his cousin Bogislav IV. (another Bogislav) of Pomerania.
When Erik failed in his attempt to gain Schleswig (1423-1424) and Lübeck imposed trade sanctions on Erik's Scandinavian kingdoms, matters only turned to the worse. In 1434 a rebellion, lead by Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, broke out in Dalarna. The rebels defeated the local forces loyal to Erik and the rebellion quickly spread; the first Riksdag (Swedish parliament) met in 1435. In negotiations with Erik, an understanding was sought; yet Sweden by now had institutions and demands. In 1439 both Denmark and Sweden declared Erik deposed; he had taken up residence on Visborg castle, which at his order had been constructed on the southern end of the city wall of Visby, Gotland; here, Erik continued to rule until early in 1449, claiming the title of King of Denmark and Sweden. Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson had fallen victim to an assassin, and Karl Knutsson had been appointed marshal and regent of Sweden by Riksråd (the council of the realm). In 1441 Riksråd elected Christoph of Wittelsbach (Bavaria, already King of Denmark) King. When he died, he was succeeded in Denmark by Christian I. of Oldenburg, in Sweden and Norway by Karl Knutsson.
The Emergence of National Institutions . Union King Erik was residing in Copenhagen for most of his earlier reign. His policies made him appear as a foreigner; he violated many Swedish traditions and laws. When Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson lead a rebellion, few Swedes sided with Erik and many were willing to support the rebellion.
In 1435 a general meeting of representatives from the entire country was held at Arboga, Sweden's first Riksdag (parliament). There rebellion leaders were elected/appointed to offices representing the Swedish nation. They were to form the Riksråd (council if the realm) instead of the foreigners Erik had appointed previously.
Future union kings would not repeat Erik's mistake of disregarding the indigenate; the Riksdag, dominated by Sweden's most prolific noble families, would become the main political body maintaining Swedish national identity.
The Economy . Erik's policy of acquiring Gotland and attempting to acquire Schleswig caused costs even the three kingdoms combined were scarcely capable of paying for. The economic blockade imposed by Lübeck, which Erik provoked, caused suffering in Sweden as the nation had become increasingly dependent on imports, most of all of salt.
The Status of Sweden within the Union of Kalmar, and Swedish-Danish Relations . While Danish King Christian maintained that the Kalmar Union was not dissolved and he thus had a claim for the crowns of both Norway and Sweden, the island of Gotland, claimed both by Sweden and Denmark was an immediate bone of contention. Sweden launched an invasion and got control of the island except the fortress of Visborg, where Erik XIII. held out. Erik sold out the fortress and his claim to the crown to Christian, and at night Danish soldiers sneaked into the fortress; the Swedes evacuated the island and Gotland again was under Danish control.
In 1450, Christian I. succeeded in having the Norwegian Council renounce Karl Knutsson as their king and elect King Christian instead. In 1451-1452 Denmark and Sweden were at war with each other. In 1457 Karl Knutsson faced a conspiracy lead by Archbishop Jöns Bengtsson; Karl Knutsson fled to Danzig, while the Swedish Council elected Christian I.
Christian I. violated the prerogatives he had agreed to in 1457, and opposition to his rule grew. In 1463 Archbishop Bengtsson was arrested; in 1464 armed resistance was taken up, and King Karl Knutsson returned, only to be ousted in 1465 by bishops Jöns Bengtsson and Kettil Karlsson; in 1467 King Karl Knutsson returned; he died in 1470.
Sten Sture the Elder in 1470 assumed the position of stadholder of the realm. An invading army sent by King Christian I. of Denmark was defeated in the Battle of Brunkeberg in 1471. In 1476 Sweden recognized Christian I. as king of Sweden, under certain conditions. Christian died in 1481, in Denmark succeeded by his son Hans, who claimed the Swedish throne. In 1483 delegates from the councils of Denmark, Sweden and Norway drew up the Halmstad Recess, in which the higher nobility of each country was guaranteed dominant influence in the administration of each country. In 1484 Sweden accepted the Halmstad Recess; yet the election of Hans was repeatedly postposed. In 1493 Denmark and Muscovy formed an alliance directed against Sweden; a Russian invasion of Swedish Finland was repelled (1495). Sweden signed peace with Muscovy in 1497. The same year the Swedish Council dismissed Sten Sture and elected Hans as King of Sweden. In 1501 Sten Sture lead a rebellion; the Council deposed King Hans (1501); places held by troops loyal to King Hans were taken. On such an occasion, Hans' wife Christina was taken prisoner by the Swedes (1502).
Sten Sture died in 1503, succeeded by Svante Nilsson. In 1505 the Councils of Denmark and Norway condemned the Swedish rebellion; the Emperor ordered the Hanseatic cities to break off trade with Sweden. A peace was negotiated in 1509, but did not hold. Svante Nilsson died in 1512, succeeded after a brief interlude by Sten Sture the Younger. Negotiations with the aim of electing Christian II. (already King of Denmark) King of Sweden lead to no result; in 1515 the Swedish delegation bluntly stated that it was impossible for them to elect a foreigner king.
Meanwhile there was a pro-unionist party in Sweden, lead by Archbishop Gustav Trolle of Uppsala; in 1517 he was imprisoned. Now the Sture-party was excommunicated by the pope. In 1520 Sten Sture the younger died; Unionist forces took Stockholm. The nobles who had supported Sten Sture were accused of heresy, in a trial presided by Archbishop Gustav Trolle, sentenced to death, and executed (the Stockholm Bloodbath, 1520). It seemed that the Unionist side had won a decisive victory. One of the Sture party, Gustavus Vasa, fled to Norway, then made up his mind, returned, raised a rebel force in Dalarna, acquired money when he raided Stora Kopparberget, and then proceeded to liberate Stockholm (1523) and all of Sweden - Sweden's independence was established.
The Swedish Riksrad (council of the realm), for the larger part of the period concerned, accepted the view that Sweden was a part of the Kalmar Union; however it saw no need to hurry the election of a king and rather delayed such an election by the way of negotiation. Thus a distinct Swedish foreign policy emerged only when the respective King of Denmark decided to treat Sweden as an enemy.
Domestic Policy . Domestic and foreign policy were so strongly interwined, that for a description of events reference is made to the preceding chapter.
The Swedish Riksråd (Council of the realm) emerged as the nation's political driving force. It appointed or dismissed the country's political leaders; its delegates negotiated treaties. The nation's nobility, including the leading clergymen (who also were of noble descent) dominated national policy.
While the Swedish nobility often stood together when threatened by a Danish (Unionist) invasion, frequently Sweden's nobility was divided in two factions willing to fight each other over who would determine the country's future.
Despite the seemingly chaotic twists and turns of Swedish history in the later 15th and early 16th century, the Sture family, in her drive for power resp. Swedish independence, provided the background for the emergence of Swedish national identity.
Sweden's economy was dominated by agriculture; the population of Sweden proper (without Finland) is estimated as having been 500,000 c.1400 and 750,000 c.1500. Sweden's cities were of negligible size, the largest, Stockholm, having less than 10,000 inhabitants. The most important economic sector besides agriculture was mining (iron, copper, silver).
Intellectual Life . In 1477 Uppsala University was founded, the oldest university in Scandinavia. The Sture Chronicles recorded Swedish history from a perspective supporting the rebels.
Foreign Policy . When, in 1523, the rebel forces under Gustavus Vasa took Stockholm Castle and reestablished Swedish independence, they did so with the aid of a fleet from Lübeck, to which they were indebted. Relations with Denmark- Norway remained strained. Union king Christian was expelled by the Danes, too; yet the Danes had expelled kings before in the period of the Kalmar Union, and the next king always claimed the throne of Sweden. Then there was the matter of the island of Gotland, claimed both by Denmark and Sweden, held by Soeren Norby, a man loyal to deposed king Christian; Gotland, from where merchant ships had been molested, was raided by a Lübeck fleet in 1525 and afterwards was reclaimed by Denmark.
War between Lübeck and the (Habsburgian) Netherlands in 1532 provided Gustavus I. Vasa with an opportunity to double-cross Lübeck and get rid of Sweden's debt, simply by declaring the latter paid; Lübeck's trade privileges were cancelled. Earlier that year Sweden and Denmark had cooperated in foiling deposed union king Christian II.'s attempt to raise a revolt in Scania and reclaim his former domains. In 1534 Denmark and Sweden formed an alliance directed against Lübeck; the Luebeckers were defeated in 1535; peace was signed in 1535 in which Lübeck agreed to the cancellation of Sweden's debt. The Treaty of Bromsebro (1541) with Denmark resolved Danish-Swedish differences.
In 1555 Swedish Finland was invaded by the Russians; peeace was concluded in 1557, without territorial changes. When the Livonian Knights and the city of Reval. under pressure from Muscovy, requested Swedish aid (1558), Gustavus I. denied it.
Domestic Policy . When Gustavus I. Vasa entered Stockholm in 1523, the Danes were expelled. Sweden's independence had been claimed as early as 1515, when Swedish delegates in negotiations with Christian II. had maintained that Sweden, having laws, statutes and traditions of her own, could not accept a foreign king. In 1523, Sweden's independence was de facto established.
Only in 1528 was Gustavus I. formally crowned King of Sweden. In 1540 Sweden was declared a hereditary monarchy (the riksförestaenders and kings previously had been elected).
A peasant rebellion in 1542-1543 in Småland, under Nils Dacke, after initial successes, was crushed. The Riksdag of 1544 was the first regular diet to meet in 15 years. Here the clergy was established as a separate estate, Sweden's diet consisting of four estates - clergy, nobility, burghers and bondes (free farmers). Gustavus I. also succeeded in securing the inheritance of his second-born children - duchies for the sons, dowries for the daughters.
The peasant rising under Nils Dacke in 1542-43 bore some similarities with the German Peasants Revolt, as the rebel peasants demanded a return to what they saw as the old form of government; they killed royal baillifs, burnt down noble estates. In Swedish and Danish historiography (the rising affected both Swedish Småland and Danish Blekinge) Nils Dacke is at times compared with Robin Hood.
The Reformation . Gustavus I. Vasa had Olaus Petri appointed preacher at Stockholm Cathedral (1524). He dispatched Archbishop Johannes Magnus, an opponent of Lutheran reformation, on a diplomatic mission to Poland; then he called the Synod of Västerås (1527) which adopted the Lutheran reformation.
Olaus Petri and his brother Laurentius had studied in Wittenberg; they were the driving force behind the reformation of Sweden. Olaus Petri married in 1525 (even before Martin Luther married). Work on the translation of the Bible into Swedish was begun in 1525 (the translation leaning on that by Martin Luther); in 1526 the New Testament was printed in Swedish, for the purpose of which the printing press had been imported to Sweden. The first complete bible in Swedish language was published in 1541.
In 1529 a Swedish synod was held at Örebro; many catholic holidays were abolished, in 1536 the rule that mass should be held in Swedish adopted. Catholicism was phased out, as Catholic bishops were succeeded by Protestant ones.
Olaus Petri published a catechism, which leaned on that by Martin Luther. In 1531 the (Lutheran) clergy of Sweden elected Laurentius Petri, younger brother of Olaus Petri, archbishop of Uppsala.
Gustavus I. was a pragmatic politician; the Lutheran reformation provided him with an opportunity to reduce the pressing national debt by confiscating church property; it also helped, on the long term, with strengthening Sweden's national identity. Yet Gustavus I. was sceptical of the reformers; in 1533 he fired Olaus Petri as chancellor (to which office he had appointed him in 1531); in 1540 he even had tried him for treason. The same year Gustavus I. created the office of a Superintendent of the (Lutheran) church, securing royal control. Gustavus I.'s policy slowed down the process of reformation. The church ordinance, written by Laurentius Petri, and indicating the end of the process of reformation, was approved only in 1572.
The Economy . The campaign to reestablish Sweden's independence, especially the Lübeck fleet, had been costly. In 1524 Sweden's national debt amounted to 114,500 marks of silver. Numerous policies were adopted to pay down the debt - additional taxation (causing an uprising in Dalarna and Bergslagen in 1525; another uprising took place in Småland and Västergötland in 1529, yet another one at Kopparberget in 1533), the cancellation of deeds by which financial revenues had been granted to noblemen, the confiscation of second church bells (1530). The Lutheran reformation provided an opportunity for the crown to gain the money needed and strengthen the economic position of the crown on the long term by confiscating church property, especially the vast landholdings of monasteries (since 1527). This policy in 1540 even caused Lutheran reformer Olaus Petri to strongly protest; King Gustavus I. Vasa responded by having him accused of high treason.
When Lübeck was at war with the (Habsburgian) Netherlands in 1532 and requested aid from Sweden, Gustavus I. Vasa not only refused such aid, but declared Sweden's debt paid and cancelled Lübeck's trade privileges.
The later decades of Gustavus I.'s reign were marked by a policy aiming at maintaining peace, strengthening the institution of kingship and securing the inheritance of his children. Gustavus I. promoted the exoansion of Sweden's mining industry; agents were sent to the mining regions of the continent to recruit immigrants. In this way, new techniques, such as forging (hammering) were introduced to Sweden.
Intellectual Life . Olaus Petri wrote numerous publications, among them theologian ones such as a Catechism and a Chronicle of Swedish History. On the other hand, Swedish educational institutions, so far run by the church, were hard-hit by far-reaching land confiscations. The University of Uppsala in the 1530es closed down, as her revenues no longer sufficed to operate her. As a consequence, Sweden lacked qualified men, in areas such as diplomacy, state administration etc.; the king had to rely on foreigners to an extent that the 1540es are referred to as "the German period".
Foreign Policy . In the 1550es the state of the Livonian Order fell apart, facing a Russian invasion. While most of Livonian Order turned to Poland for protection, the city of Reval and Northern Estonia accepted Swedish King Erik as their protector, an event which marked the begin of Swedish expansion in the Baltic region.
In 1563 Sweden found herself in war against Denmark, Poland and Lübeck (the Nordic 7 Years War, 1563-1570). The Danes conquered Älvsborg, Sweden's access to the North Sea, which Sweden regained by paying ransom.
A problem arose in 1587, when Swedish crown prince Sigismund Vasa was elected King of Poland (his mother was Polish; he had been raised a Catholic). In 1592 his father Johann III. died and Sigismund was crowned King of Sweden as well, uniting Poland and Sweden in Dynastic Union. However, the Swedish church and nobility feared that Sigismund might attempt to reintroduce Catholicism by force; he was deposed in 1600. Sigismund continued to rule in Poland until his death in 1632. He never gave up his claim on the Swedish throne; his mere existence was perceived a threat by Lutheran Sweden. So Sweden now had two archenemies, Denmark and Poland.
In 1595, a war with Russia was concluded with drawing a new Eastern border of Finland.
Domestic Policy . In 1527, Lutheranism had been introduced in Sweden, but the country's Lutheran identity had not been constitutionally secured.
In 1569, in the midst of the Nordic 7 Years War, King Erik XIII. was deposed.
In 1572 the Synod of Uppsala approved a church ordinance written by Laurentius Petri; it fixed sundays and 32 additional days as public holidays (by comparison : Denmark 1537 - sundays plus 16 holidays). In 1576 a gospel book, the so-called red book, was published, approved by King Johan, who converted to Catholicism in 1578. As the pope rejected the conditions under which he offered to reintroduce Catholicism in Sweden, he reconverted to Lutheranism in 1579.
When Sigismund Vasa - he had been elected King of Poland in 1587 and been raised as a Catholic (the faith of his mother) - inherited the Swedish crown in 1592, the Swedish Lutheran church felt threatened. In 1593 Sigismund guaranteed Sweden's Lutheran faith, the first time the Lutheran church being acknowledged as being Sweden's state church.
Nonetheless, the Lutheran clergy did not trust Sigismund and supported his cousin Karl; Sigismund was deposed (1599), and in 1604 Karl IX. was crowned. At Linköping in 1600, state council members who had supported King Sigismund were tried of treason; four of them were sentenced and executed (the Linköping Bloodbath).
The Economy . In 1570, Stockholm had a population of c. 9,000 inhabitants. Karl IX. founded cities, Karlstad, Mariestad, Göteborg (1607, later destroyed by the Danes and again founded in 1629). The latter city was to become Sweden's main port on the North Sea.
Sweden was still a mainly agricultural society. The technique was rather primitive, the crop rotation system still spreading. As the population density was extremely low - the population for Sweden proper (without Finland) in 1570 is estimated at 750,000, rather extensive use of the arable land provided, in normal years, sufficient food. Sweden produced iron and copper, much of it for export. International trade was mainly conducted by foreigners; yet Sweden had become less dependent on the merchants of the Hanseatic League, as Dutch and English merchants had appeared in the Baltic.
Intellectual Life . In 1566 Uppsala University was reopened (it had closed down in the 1530es). It was forced to close again in 1580, because it opposed the introduction of a gospel book sanctioned by King Johan in 1576. In 1593 it was opened again. The confiscation of church lands by the crown had seriously affected the institutions of education.
King Johan (1569-1592) had the castles at Kalmar and Gripsholm remodeled, turned into Renaissance palaces.
Foreign Policy . When Gustavus II. Adolphus was paid homage as King of Sweden in 1611, a new age began in Swedish history. The Swedish Riksråd was lead by the able chancellor, Axel Oxenstjerna. Parliament, administration, the church organisation were reformed, statutes for each edited, the University of Uppsala (founded 1464) reorganized, and most of all the military reformed. Sweden's army was modern and efficient.
In 1617 the ongoing war with Russia was ended in the Peace of Stolbova, which added Kexholm and Ingermanland, including the area around future St. Petersburg, to the Swedish Empire. When Poland went to war with Sweden over Livonia, the Swedes in 1621 conquered Riga; most of Livonia became Swedish. According to the Truce of Altmark in 1629, Sweden kept Livonia with Riga and also got the Prussian cities Elbing, Frauenburg, Braunsberg and Memel. These cities were important, because they contributed considerably to the Swedish state's revenue, the economy being Sweden's Akhilleus' heel (Sweden still was a largely agricultural nation, the largest city in Sweden proper, Stockholm, not exceeding 10.000 inhabitants).
Meanwhile, in Germany the 30 Years War had reached a dramatic stage. The Catholic (Habsburg) side had defeated the protestant side, which after Danish King Christian's defeat (1526/27) looked for a new champion. Wallenstein had been given the Duchy of Mecklenburg. The fear of a Catholic stronghold to be established on the shore of the Baltic Sea was too much for Sweden too take. In 1630, the Swedes landed in Pommerania. Soon they had concluded alliances with the protestant Duchies of Brandenburg and Saxony, defeated the Catholics at Breitenfeld. Gustav Adolf marched into central Germany, established himself at Mainz, assuming the title Protector Germaniae. In those days, warfare was financed by forcing contributions from the occupied territory/by plundering it. The Swedish army grew in size, having many non-Swedes in their ranks, and the occupied country suffered. Gustav II. Adolf fell in the Battle of Lützen 1632. The Swedes still were a major power, but suddenly without king. His only daughter, Christina, was merely 5 years old. Chancellor Axel Oxenstjerna ruled in her place. After a short war in 1643-45, Denmark ceded Gotland, Oesel, Halland, Jämtland and Härjedalen to Sweden. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) added Hither Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (all in Northern Germany) to the Swedish realm. Sweden had established a Dominium Maris Baltici, a Dominion of (the lands surrounding the) Baltic Sea.
Christina, the Philosopher Queen (she was educated by Descartes), abdicated in 1654, emigrated to Rome and converted to Catholicism.
Sweden found itself surrounded by states which had seen some of it's provinces conquered by the Swedes, and which waited for an opportunity to take revenge - Denmark, Brandenburg, the Emperor, Poland, Russia.
Domestic Policy . When Gotland, Halland, Jämtland and Härjedalen (1645), Blekinge, Scania, Bohuslän (1658) were acquired, these areas were integrated into the Swedish state. Lutheran authorities were charged with the policy of Försvenskning, i.e. turning the local population into loyal Swedes. As Sweden finally got a secure access to the North Sea, the city of G*ouml;teborg was founded (Gothenburg, in 1623, today Swedens second largest city). The universities of Abo (Turku) and Helsingfors (Helsinki) wrere established in 1640, creating cultural centres in Finland as well; Dorpat in Livonia had been given a university in 1632.
Other steps taken in order to develop Sweden were the introductioin of a postal system (1638/1663) and the school reform which introduced Swedish as school language (1649). In 1645, Swedens first newspaper was published. Sweden engaged in colonial policy as well. In 1637 the colony of New Sweden was established at Delaware, in 1652 another colony at Cabo Corso at the Bay of Guinea (Africa) by the Africa Company founded by Dutch immigrant Louis de Geer. New Sweden was conquered by the Dutch West Indian Company in 1655, Cabo Corso in 1659, terminating the project of a Swedish colonial empire at that time.
The Swedish cadastral office was established in 1628. An administrative reform reorganized Sweden in Läns in 1634.
Causes of Swedish Military Strength . Due to its position at the fringe of catholic-feudal Europe, Sweden had long been involved in border-conflicts with Novgorod, respectively Muscovy / Russia. These conflicts were different from conflicts between two catholic-feudal opponents, as no battle code was applied, and nobody hoped to cash in considerable sums of ransom for the release of noble prisoners. So the fighting was more brutal. In 1621 the Riksdag enacted the Articles of War, making Sweden the first country in the world to introduce universal compulsory military service. Another secret to Swedish military superiority lay in Swedish infantry, which could fire 3 shots in the time their opponents shot one. In times of war, Sweden was a formidable power, raising a strong army (financed off the occupied lands). In times of peace, that army had to be released because Sweden's economy could not afford a strong standing army. The army had been beaten in a few battles such as Nördlingen (1634), but only far away from home, never decisively. It was usually victorious, and during the 30 years war it occupied cities as far away as München (= Munich, 1632), Prague (1639) and even marched at Wien (Vienna, 1646).
Warfare at that time was expensive, and armies were disbanded immediately after a peace treaty was signed. In continental Europe, soldier was a profession, the soldier was willing to fight for anybody who would employ him. Of course, his main interest was not getting killed in battle. King Gustav II. Adolf (1611-1632) once explained to Dutchmen, the success of the Swedish Army :
This infantery does not consist of men who were enlisted for pay, they are also not ignorant of war and its imminent dangers, attracted by the words of a barman, they have been carefully selected from the farmers. They are in the prime of their years, used to work hard, to carry loads and endure cold, heat, hunger and guard duty, but they are not accustomed to delights. Jutikkala 1976 p.139
The Swedish army had a different footing. It was experienced, as it went from conflict to conflict, and highly disciplined. And Swedish soldiers were unscrupulous when they enforced contributions from the local population. Farmers or townspeople who resisted to Swedish demands were frequently treated with the so-called Schwedentrunk (= Swedish drink, i.e. urine), poured into the victims mouth by force. It was often fatal. When we look at the success of the Swedish armies, the French subsidies should not be underestimated. Like Prussia in the 18th century, Sweden in the 17th century was the country in which the army was the most important element in the state.
Christina's successor, Karl X. Gustav (of Pfalz-Zweibrücken), after a fruitless campaign in Poland (First Northern War, 1655-1660), in which the Poles avoided an open battle, the Swedes commanded much of the country but suffered setbacks such as at Czestochowa, Denmark entered the war by attacking the Duchy of Bremen (1657). Karl X. took the Swedish army to Jutland, crossed over the frozen Belt to Sjaelland. As Copenhagen had barely any landside defenses, Denmark had to sue for peace; Sweden gained Blekinge, Scania, Bornholm, the Stift Drontheim (Trondhjem) as well as a share in the Sound Levy (1658). Sweden had reached the peak of her power.
The turn of events brought the Danish state to the brink of collapse, but alarmed the Dutch and the English. They joined forces, dispatched their navies and defeated Sweden, forcing it to cede Bornholm, Stift Drontheim and it's share in the Sound Levy back to Denmark (Treaty of Copenhagen, 1660). In the Peace of Oliva (1660), King Johann II. Casimir Wasa of Poland (-1668) dropped his claim to the Swedish throne.In the Treaty of Kardis (1661) Russia agreed to return to Sweden the territories occupied by her.
Karl X. had died in 1660. Chancellor Magnus de la Gardie, responsible for Sweden's foreign policy, signed trade treaties with England (1661), France (1662), the Dutch Republic (1667). France continued to pay subsidies to Sweden, and Sweden's foreign policy in these years was generally pro-French. In 1674 France demanded a Swedish army to be shipped across the Baltic Sea to Swedish Pomerania; Sweden complied.The Scanian War (1675-1679) broke out, in which Sweden faced a coalition consisting of Denmark, Brandenburg and Russia. Sweden suffered a defeat from the Brandenburgians in the Battle of Fehrbellin (1675), Brandenburgian troops occupied Hither Pomerania and even appeared outside Riga, the capital of Livonia. Danish troops occupied Gotland (1676-1679). Due to diplomatic pressure from France (Sweden was excluded from participation in the peace negotiations), the peace treaty of St. Germain was signed following which almost all occupied territories were returned to Sweden.
Domestic Policy . As Karl X. Gustav was campaigning abroad for most of his reign, government of Sweden was entrusted to Riksråd.
In Scania the University of Lund was established (1668). Lund thereby was compensated for the loss of Denmark's archbishopric. In 1662 the Scanian estates were granted representation in the Swedish Riksdag.
Other steps taken in order to develop Sweden were the introductioin of a postal system (1638/1663).
From 1660 to 1672, chancellor Magnus de la Gardie and Drots Gustav Bonde were the most influential politicians. In 1672, Karl XI. was declared of age.
During the Scanian War (1675-1679) it turned out that the population of Scania still felt Danish; Scanians, irregular fighters, who supported the Danish side by attacks on Swedish posts etc. were referred to as Snapphanes.
C.) The Economy . When Karl X. acceded to the throne, most crown lands had been alienated, either sold under Gustav Adolf to pay for the 30 years war, or donated to nobles under Christina. Karl X. implemented the policy of reduction - the crown reclaiming alienated lands from the nobles, with some success (the policy was later pursued with much more success by Karl XI. after 1680). Drits Gustav Bonde, in the years of Karl XI.'s minority, reduced state expenses in order to cut down on the nation's debt, which amounted to 10 million Riksdalers in 1660.
In 1661, Sweden signed a trade treaty with England, in 1662 one with France, in 1667 with the Dutch Republic, based on the principle free ships make free goods.
In 1668 the Swedish state acquired Johan Palmstruch's bank, renaming it Riksens Staenders Bank, the predecessor of the Riksbank - Europe's first national bank. The colony of New Sweden was conquered by the Dutch West Indian Company in 1655, Cabo Corso in 1659, terminating the project of a Swedish colonial empire at that time.
Foreign Policy . Alliance treaties were frequently concluded, with the Dutch Republic in 1680 (which was joined by Spain in 1681), with the Emperor and Brandenburg in 1682 (all directed against France, to whom Sweden was indebted for a favourable peace in 1679), with Denmark in 1690 (being a renewal of the alliance of 1679), again renewed in 1693. In the late 17th century such alliances were of limited value, as they were frequently broken, if such a breach seemed opportune to the breaking side. The alliance with Denmark was particularly peculiar, as Sweden as late as 1689 applied pressure on Denmark to respect the integrity of tiny Holstein-Gottorp. It served the purpose of mutual assistance on the high seas, where the Anglo-Dutch fleets searched Danish and Swedish ships, at times confiscating goods, thus violating the principle that free ships make free goods held by the two Scandinavian kingdoms.
Sweden was surrounded by a string of potential enemies - Denmark, Brandenburg, Poland, Russia, waiting for an opportunity for taking a bite out of the Swedish Empire. France was a dubious ally, for it meant both French subsidies & diplomatic assistance and the Dutch, possibly the English as well, joining the ranks of the country's enemies.
When Charles XII. was crowned in 1697, he was merely 15 years old. In 1699, Denmark, Saxony and Russia signed an offensive alliance directed against Sweden. Charles XII., with Swedish troops, crossed over to the Danish island of Sjælland; in July Denmark signed the Peace of Traventhal and left the offensive alliance.
Im 1700 Charles XII. defeated a vastly superior Russian army at Narva, and then turned on Poland. Charles defeated and humiliated the Poles, deposing King August the Strong (1705), defeated and humiliated Saxony (Peace of Altranstädt 1706). Meanwhile the Russians had succeeded in taking Narva, and the foundations for St. Petersburg were being laid.
In 1708-1709 Charles XII. campaigned in Russia. The Russian scorched earth policy took its toll on the Swedish army, which was defeated by the Russians under Czar Peter the Great in the Battle of Poltava. Charles went to Istanbul, where he convinced the Sultan to give him command over the Ottoman Army. Charles defeated the Russians once again (1711), which gained the Turks the city of Azov (1713).
Charles found his way back (1715), leading another Swedish army into Norway, where he met his death while besieging the Norwegian fortress of Frederikshold (1718).
Meanwhile, in 1715 both Hannover and Brandenburg-Prussia had declared war on Sweden; Denmark (1709), Saxony and Poland (1715) reentered the war. During the war, Sweden was regarded a French ally, France simultaneously facing an alliance consisting of the Dutch Republic, Britain, the Emperor and Savoy in the War of Spanish Succession (1700-1714); Britain and the Dutch Republic, though not at war with Sweden, were not at good terms with her. In 1717, Swedish government official Baron von der Goertz, while in the Dutch Republic to procure a credit for Sweden, was arrested and held for 6 months.
As Charles XII. had ruled absolute - the Riksråd had been dissolved - Sweden was not prepared for a situation. In 1718, Sweden was without a successor to the deceased king and without an administration capable of filling in.
Domestic Policy . However, the war has made it clear that Sweden under the present administration had greatest difficulties to maintain its position, and arch-enemy Denmark had proven that under absolute rule it had recovered from the severe losses of 1645 and 1658. The Riksdag of 1680 annulled the Charter ofF Administration, thereby disempowering the Riksråd. In 1682 it conceded to king Karl XI. the right to raise additional taxes without asking the riksdag for approval, thus disempowering itself and so introducing absolutism in Sweden. Swedens position continued to be threatened.
The indelningsverk was introduced - the soldiers were given farmland, or groups of peasants supporting a soldier were freed from the obligation to pay taxes. Thus the Swedish king could dispose over a permanently available armed force without having to pay for its maintenance; the system was only abolished in 1901.
Another royal policy was reduction, i.e. the crown claiming land back that once had been given away in return for service etc. In Sweden proper, the percentage of land held by the nobility fell from c. 72 % in 1652 to 33 % in 1700, at which time the Swedish crown held 35.5 %. The reduction policy strengthened the royal treasury, but caused resistance, especially in Livonia; Livonian estate owner Johann Reinhold Patkul, spokesperson of the Livonian noblemen, was sentenced (in absence) of lese-majeste; he fled the country.
In 1680, Charles XI. founded a naval base at Karlskrona (Blekinge).
A policy to integrate the formerly Danish provinces (Försvenskning, Swedification) set in. Danish school books were replaced by Swedish ones.
In 1686 the Church Act was passed; the church was placed under royal authority. Non-Lutherans were banned from Sweden; among those who had to leave within two weeks was the country's small Jewish community.
In 1700, Stockholm had a population of about 60,000; by 1718, it had shrunken to 45,000, partially due to the bubonic plague which hit Sweden in 1710.
The Economy . The policy of reduction had greatly increased the royal domain and revenue; yet Sweden suufered from high debt. The indelningsverk was an ingenious solution, providing for a defensive force without having to raise money to pay for it; on the other hand, a considerable number of peasants were freed from taxation when taking on the obligation to support a soldier.
In 1685, coffee was first introduced to Sweden.
Sweden's iron industry flourished in the later part of the 17th century, which was a period of peace. Bergslagen became the center of the iron industry, as the region could supply sufficient wood. Ironworkers from Wallonia immigrated, bringing valuable skills.
After the defeat in the Battle of Poltava (1709) the situation in Sweden deteriorated fast. In 1716 Charles XII. appointed Baron von der Görtz with the administration of Sweden's economy. He introduced an emergency copper coinage (1716). On a journey to the Dutch Republic, where he intended to procure a badly needed credit for Sweden, he was arrested, held for 6 months (1717). Britain imposed a ban on trade with Sweden, as Sweden did not permit any trade, Swedish nor British, with the (now Russian-occupied) Baltic provinces.
Intellectual Life . In 1684 efforts were undertaken to prepare the codification of a new civil law; royal authority was derived from God's grace.
In 1686 work on a new bible translation was begun, to replace the edition of 1612; it was published in 1703. In 1695 a Swedish psalm book was published.
In 1697 Sweden's first technical school was established by Christopher Polhem. The same year, Tre Kronor, the royal castle in Stockholm, burnt down.
In 1710 the Kongliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i Uppsala (Royal Society of Science in Uppsala) was founded.
Domestic Policy . When Charles XII. died, Sweden found itself in a kind of political vacuum. Charles XII. had ruled from his camp. Unlike Gustav Adolf, he did not delegate authority on ministers, but decided mostly himself in a truly absolutist style. And so, government perished with him in 1718. Back in Stockholm were Baron Goertz, Charles XII. confidant, Ulrika Eleonora, Charles' sister, her husband Frederik of Hessen, then Karl Fredrik of Holstein-Gottorp, another candidate to the Swedish throne, and the Swedish Estates (Riksdag). Ulrika Eleonora had the unpopular Baron Görtz arrested and - after accepting a number of conditions - was payd homage by the estates. These conditions limited royal power; they are regarded being a contract between sovereign and people. Actually, power shifted to the Rigsrad which was responsible to the estates. The period dominated by Rigsråd, the estates and their parties is called Sweden's Era of Liberty (1718-1772). Two rival parties emerged, the hats and the caps. At first, the older Caps, a group around Arvid Horn, dominated Swedish politics until 1738. They generally were pro-Russian and pursued a policy of peace. From 1739 to 1765 the Hats, generally pro-French, mercantilist and aimed to regain Sweden's status as a great power. From 1765 to 1765, it was the caps again, from 1769 to 1772 the hats again. The age of liberty came into being, because the influential politicians in the estates - foremost the noblemen - took advantage of the power vacuum which appeared at Charles XII. death in 1718. There were several claimants to the Swedish throne, and the estates, by paying homage to Ulrika Eleonora, were kingmakers. They assured, that the future kings resp. queens would not rule absolute. The privileges obtained by the estates limited royal power so far, that Sweden in fact became what later historians described as an aristocratic republic . The king's say in politics was limited. The crown was passed on frequently, and every new king had to sign the estates' privileges before being paid homage. During Sweden's age of liberty (a more contemporary expression), the country's constitution was based upon the ideas formulated by Eric Sparre (-1600) : the constitutional principle, the democratic principle, the bureaucratic principle, the corporative principle, the secrecy principle. The constitution foresaw the separation of the branches of government, with clearly defined responsibilities. However, the corporative principle assured that only the property owning segment of population, organised by estate, could participate in political decisions, a principle which clearly favoured the nobility and clergy. The older caps (until 1738), aware of Russia's military power and Sweden's inferiority, preserved peace. When the hats took over in 1739, they looked for an opportunity to recover territories ceded to Russia in 1721. In the Russo-Swedish War of 1761-1743, the regiment from Dal had suffered extraordinary losses; here in May 1743 dissatisfied Dalecarls met and marched on Stockholm, demanding Prince Karl Peter Ulrich to be crowned King of Sweden. They camped on a market aquare in central Stockholm; violence erupted and the Dalecarls were suppressed. The event, under the name of Store Daldansen (great Dalecarl dance), entered the history books as Sweden's last peasant rebellion.
The wars showed that Sweden was too weak to defend itself without having a strong ally. Foreign states interfered in Sweden's politics, the Russians and English supporting the caps, the French supporting the hats - this support included bribes. Sweden's politicians increasingly became dependent on foreign subsidies, as an extraordinary source of income.
In 1766 the Riksdag enacted press freedom, which has been a pillar of Swedish society ever since.
In the late 1760es Swedish politics underwent a transformation. Traditionally the noble estate provided active leadership in Sweden's Riksdag (parliament). In 1772 the non-noble estates demanded that non-nobles and nobles alike should be appointed to higher office only on their merits and capability, an affront to nobility.
The last witch trial in Sweden was held in 1720. The Gregorian Calendar was introduced in 1753.
In 1774 the first Jewish family was permitted to take up permanent residence in Stockholm.
Foreign Policy . In the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, Sweden had acknowledged the loss of Livonia, Estonia, Ingria and Eastern Karelia to Russia. Sweden no longer was a great power, her situation being precarious. In the following years, the Caps, lead by Arvid Horn, pursued a policy which avoided antagonizing Russia. When the War of Polish Succession (1733-1735) broke out, Swedish sympathies were with Stanislaw Leszynski. Russia supported Augustus III., the other candidate. The French request, Sweden should join their side, did not lead to a change in Swedish policy.
Yet in the late 1730es the caps lost their hold on Swedish policy and the Hats, leaning toward a pro-French foreign policy, gained in influence. In 1735 Sweden was the first christian nation to establish diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire (which the Swedes regarded a potential ally against the Russians). In 1741 Sweden declared war on Russia, a Swedish army invaded Eastern Karelia, but was quickly defeated. The Russians occupied Finland, Helsingfors surrendered. Sweden had to cede Western Karelia to Russia in 1743.
Sweden also joined the 7 Years War against Prussia in 1757. In 1758 the Swedes suffered a defeat in the Battle of Fehrbellin; in 1762 peace was concluded, without any territorial changes.
C.) The Economy . During the 18th century, Sweden's population expanded. Both Sweden and Finland were predominantly agrarian, the cities being few and small (Stockholm 1718 : 45.000 inh., 1760 : 73.000). In 1724 the Product Decree was enacted which, like the British Navigation Act forbode foreign ships to import to Sweden goods from other than their own country or colonies. It stimulated Swedish shipping; places like Visby and the Aaland islands benefitted from it. Factories for manufacturing wall paper, ribbons, hats, even for porcelain were established (manufacturing being promoted by politicians). Production of iron, and, to a smaller extent, copper, had a long history in Sweden and these metals contributed considerably to Sweden's exports. In 1731 the (Swedish) East India Company was founded (until 1813), in 1738 a Levant Company to trade with the Mediterranean; Sweden had signed trade treaties with Algeria (1729), Tunisia (1736), the Ottoman Empire (1737).
After the lost war with Russia (1743), Sweden was technically bankrupt and masked this by introducing a paper currency, the consequence was of which was inflation. Inflation again caused problems in agriculture, as many farmers were unable to pay the rising wages of farmhands. Many farmers owned a large number of tiny strips of land (due to inheritance). Legislation in 1757 foresaw redivision of land, and by the end of the century Rutger MacLean was the first to enforce the redivision on his estate in Scania.
In 1739 Riksdag established a Manufacturing Office. An Iron Office, for the purpose of regulating iron trade, was established in 1748.
In the second half of the 1760es, the economic problem was deflation. A financial plan was adopted, according to which a silver-based currency was to be introduced in the year 1777. The harvests of 1771 and 1772 were poor, contributing to a tense political atmosphere.
Protecxted by a mercantilist policy, in 1742 a Swedish glass industry emerged (in Kosta in Smaaland). The first steam engine in Sweden is documented for 1734, utilized in the mining industry.
Intellectual Life . In 1732-1734, Olof von Dalin published an ethical weekly magazine, Then Swaenska Argus, which is regarded one of the first publications in Younger New Swedish. In 1736 a compilation of Swedish law, Sveriges Rikes Lag, was published.
In 1735 the Kungliga Akademien foer de Fria Konsterna (Royal Academy of Fine Arts) was founded.
In 1739 the Royal Swedish Academy of Science (Kongliga Vetenskapsakademien, seat Stockholm) was founded - a mercantilist measure as sciences were expected to contribute to the development of national welfare. Among Sweden's most brilliant scientists of the period were zoologist Linnaeus (Carl af Linne, 1707-1778, who published his System of Nature in 1735) and physicist Anders Celsius, who suggested a scale for measuring temperatures. Around 1772, pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a native of Stralsund, discovered "fire air" (oxygen).
In 1741 Anders Berch was appointed professor of economics at the University of Uppsala, the first professor of economics in Sweden.
In 1749 Pehr Wargentin established the Tabellverket which later became the Statistical Central Bureau; Sweden being the first nation to regularly conduct censi and establish population statistics.
In the 1750es, Carl Michael Bellman (1740-1795) began publishing his poems, many of which were about drinking and drunkenness.
In 1753 the Kongliga Svenska Vitterhetsakademi (Royal Swedish Academy of Letters) with seat in Stockholm was founded.
In 1771 the Kungliga Musikaliska Akademien (Royal Swedish Academy of Music), also with seat in Stockholm, was founded.
Domestic Policy . The coup of 1772 which restored royal rule was possible because only two weeks earlier the non-noble estates had demanded that appointments to high offices should be made exclusively on the basis of merit and capability, thus in disregard of noble status. The nobility was opposed to this; risings were orchestrated in Finland (lead by J.M. Sprengtporten) and in Scania (J.C. Toll); then the palace guard in Stockholm joined the aristocratic community; with Stockholm under control, Riksdag was called to assemble. A new constitution was passed, granting the king much wider authority. Royalist propaganda claimed the coup having saved Sweden from sharing Poland's lot - Poland, ruled by an inefficienmt parliament, the representatives of which were accustomed to accept foreign 'subsidies' (bribes), had just suffered the first Polish Partition.
Although Gustav III.'s rule generally is referred to as absolute, Riksdag remained an element of Sweden's political life, was again called to assemble in 1778/79, 1786 and 1789. And Riksdag by no means was merely an instrument of royal policy; in 1786 a heterogeneous opposition held the majority in all estates; most of the king's proposals were rejected (for various reasons).
Once in power, Gustav III., following the model set by Louis XIV., tried to tie nobility to the royal court; noblemen exclusively were permitted to join the king at the table. Yet, only a minority of noblemen was satisfied with their role in society (the court party), while, in the 1780es, a majority of noblemen (the land party, headed by Axel von Fersen) opposed royal policy.
In 1781 a law was passed granting Freedom of Religion, for foreigners willing to settle in Sweden, that is; for Lutherans who joined another religious community, the punishment of banishment was foreseen. Catholics had already previously been permitted to enter the country; this permission was now extended to Jews and other protestant groups. A Regulation for Jews was enacted in 1782. Already in 1772, c. 20 holidays were, by royal decree, moved to adjacent sundays.
Already in 1772 torture had been prohibited; for many offenses the death penalty was replaced by long-term prison sentences. In 1778 a Regulation Regarding Wages was enacted.
Many of these reforms, though enlightened, were resented; the farmers resented the licencing of distilleries, the Lutheran church a policy of religious toleration reaching too far, the burghers (and those who represented them were conservative, pro-guild and pro-privileges) a policy which tended toward the liberalization of trade.
A policy which seems less enlightened was the restriction imposed upon the freedom of the press.
As the constitution of 1772 explicitly outruled any war of aggression, in 1788 Gustav III. had had Swedish soldiers in Cossack uniforms attack a Swedish border post. The war did not develop as expected, and only increased resentment against royal administration in Finland, where many (ethnically Swedish) noblemen signed a document inviting Czarina Catherine the Great to assume rule of Finland as Grand Duchess (the Anjala Conspiracy, named after the place where the meeting was held), the noblemen obviously being envious of the treatment the nobility was given in Russia.
Because of the noble's stubborn resistance against royal policy on the Riksdag of 1786, the king had turned toward the non-noble estates which on the Riksdag of 1789 were hostile to the nobility. Thus, only in the noble estate the opposition was in the majority, but this majority was split in moderates (pro-French) and radicals (pro-Russian). An Act of Union and Security was passed (1789), an amendment to the 1772 constitution, which abolished the Riksråd (Council of the Realm), an institution which had lasted for 500 years; it was replaced by a Royal High Court (of appeal), half of the members were to be non-nobles. The king achieved a further widening of his competence. The farmers (bonde) were given equal status with the other non-noble estates. The peasants were freed of some obligations and given full ownership of their lands, with the right to take wood from the forest, hunt and fish.
Among the nobles, bitterness was widespread; many saw Gustav III. as a violator of the constitution, even as a tyrant. One such disgruntled nobleman was Jacob Johan Ankarström, Captain of the Guard; on March 16th 1792, at a masquerade ball in Stockholm's opera house, he assassinated the king.
Foreign Policy . After having reestablished royal power in the 1772 Coup d'Etat, Gustav III. had to be aware of potential Russian-Danish interference; both countries in 1769 had pledged to guarantee Sweden's (pre-coup) constitution. Both Denmark and Russia thus were potential enemies; in 1773 they renewed their pledge in a secret treaty.
When the War of American Independence broke out, Gustav III. initially sympathized with the British. However, repeated confiscation of Swedish-owned goods on Swedish (i.e. neutral) ships on the high seas caused Sweden, together with her traditional enemies Denmark and Russia, to declare Armed Neutrality (1780), in which they were later joined by Austria, Prussia, Portugal and Both Sicilies. In 1783 Sweden was the first neutral nation to recognize the United States.
In 1784, returning from a trip to Italy, Gustav III. visited Paris, where he acquired the Caribbean island of St. Bartholomy (Caribbean) from France, Sweden again becoming a colonial power.
In 1788 Sweden declared war on Russia, Gustav hoped to regain lost territory. Denmark-Norway entered the war against Sweden. A Swedish victory in the naval battle of Svensksund 1790 over Russian forces allowed Sweden to sign a peace treaty without losses.
Gustav III. was sceptical of the revolution in France; he refused to recognize the revolutionary regime and supported Axel von Fersen's attempt to help the French royal family flee France (Flight to Varennes). In 1791 he even contemplated an alliance of Europe's princes, with the purpose of invading France, and himself commanding the operation.
The Economy . In 1777/1778 the silver currency, long planned, was introduced.
Gustav III. pursued a late mercantilist economic policy. He reestablished Sweden as a colonial power with the acquisition of the Caribbean island of St. Bartholomy (1784) and the simultaneous establishment of a Swedish West India Company (1784-1805). Declaring a government license required for the operation of a distillery established a quasi monopoly, as the government operated some distilleries herself and cashed in on the licenses handed out.
The policy of religious toleration intended to attract immigrant investors, mainly of Jewish faith. In 1783 Sweden signed a trade treaty with the United States.
While Gustav III. did not interfere in the cities' and guilds' statutes of existing cities, newly founded cities such as Östersund (1786) were given much more liberal statutes. Trade in thrashed grain was liberalized (i.e. privileges restricting the trade to guild members abolished) altogether in 1775/1776, a step intended to improve living conditions for the peasants.
In 1789, the war against Russia proving costly, credit notes were issued, intented as obligations, which soon came to be used as paper money. Soon a difference in value between silver and paper currency appeared.
Intellectual Life . King Gustav III., not the least, himself was a part of cultural life, as his court became the stage for numerous balls etc. The scene where the king fell victim to an assassin in 1792, was a masquerade ball staged in Stockholm's opera house.
In 1783 Gustav III. visited Italy, accompanied by a number of artists, among them sculptor Johann Tobias Sergel, who in 1791 was to create a sculpture of the king, to be seen today on the square in Stockholm named after the sculptor.
In 1782, the Stockholm Opera House, designed by C.F. Adelcrantz, was opened; in 1788 the Royal Theatre opened. In 1786 King Gustav III. established the Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), with the purpose of establishing a dictionary and grammar of the Swedish language. The ROYAL BALLET had been founded in 1773.
In 1785, the medal of merit was awarded for the first time.
Domestic Policy . The Riksdag of 1789, still under Gustav III., had passed major reforms, which improved the status of the peasants and reduced the privileges of nobility. The Council of the Realm, a bastion of nobility, was abolished, replaced by a High Court only half of its members were noble. Many nobles regarded this a breach of the Swedish constitution and Gustav III. a tyrant. Disgruntled Finnish noblemen (of Swedish nationality) had conspirated at Anjala. Another disgruntled nobleman, Jacob Johan Anckarström, fatally shot Gustav III. during a masquerade at the Opera on March 16th 1792.
However, both the Anjala Conspiracy and the assassination of the king were condemned by Swedish public opinion who stood loyal to the popular king. The murderer was executed and his own family felt so disgraced by his act that it altered its name.
Gustav III.'s son, Gustav IV. Adolf, was 13 years old when his father was shot. During the years of his minority, Sweden's most influential politician was Gustav Adolf Reuterholm, a man who had spent several years abroad, partially in Paris where he had witnessed episodes in the French Revolution.
Reuterholm, who was in charge from 1792 yo 1796, lifted the restrictions imposed on press freedom by Gustav III., abolished book censorship (1792). Yet Reuterholm was suspicious both of nobles favoured by late King Gustav III. and of radical intellectuals; in 1795 he suspended the Swedish Academy. In 1794 the dress code (indicating the status of a person) was abolished.
In 1796 King Gustav IV. Adolf, now 16, took over government. In 1799/1800, riots caused by the famine occurred. When Riksdag was called to assemble in 1800. a group of radical noblemen, among them Hans Hierta and Georg Adlersparre, renounced their noble privileges - a step which was condemned by the king who had them arrested ("Jacobinism").
In 1806, Swedish Pomerania's autonomy was abolished, Swedish law, church ordinance, were introduced, the land reorganised in departments. Serfdom was abolished, the partition of domain land in plots was prepared. On the other hand, under Gustav IV. Adolf press freedom was restricted, the import of French newspaper forbidden.
A group of enlightened Swedes of noble background acted in consensus. Georg Adlersparre, commander of the Swedish forces at the Norwegian front, signed a standoff agreement and marched with his 2.900 men toward Stockholm, abandoning the front. On March 13th 1809, General Adlercreutz, accompanied by six officers, went to the king's room and arrested him. On March 22nd, Adlersparre entered Stockholm, on March 29th Gustav IV. Adolf abdicated. The Riksdag was assembled and a constitutional committee was formed, consisting of 15 members. Its driving force was Hans Järta, one of the so-called Jacobins of 1800 (who had renounced his status as a nobleman and changed the spelling of his name from Hierta), the secretary of the committee, but himself not a member. After 14 days a constitutional draft was presented to the Riksdag who approved it on June 5th. Sweden again was a constitutional monarchy.
The chairman of the committee is quoted as saying : We were 30 in the committee - fifteen members, and Hans Järta, our secretary, who was another fifteen . The constitution stayed in force until 1970, foresaw the separation of powers, defined the roles of the king and the estates. Duke Karl was crowned as King Karl XIII. The question now was who would become the next king, the heir apparent (Karl had no children). The choice fell on prince Christian August of Denmark, the leader of the Norwegian army. Many Swedes hoped that his candidature would bring with it the peaceful acquisition of Norway, thereby compensating for the loss of Finland. Prince Christian August was duly elected as heir-apparent Karl August, but the acquisition of Norway did not materialize. The new king died shortly afterwards in an accident - he fell of his horse (1810). Axel von Fersen, marshal of the realm (and close friend of Marie Antoinette) was to lead the funeral procession. During that procession, von Fersen's carriage was stoned and he himself wounded. He tried to flee into a nearby house, but was dragged out and beaten to death while soldiers and police looked on, remaining inactive (supporters of Christian August suspected him of having poisoned the deceased heir apparent). The Swedish throne was vacant again, and Duke Frederik Christian of Augustenborg, a relative of the deceased heir-apparent, was chosen as the candidate to succeed. Yet the Swedish politicians did not want to act without having consulted Napoleon Bonaparte. Lieutenant Otto Mörner, 29 years old, was dispatched to Paris.
It turned out that Napoleon was not pleased and suggested, Sweden should choose a French marshal instead; Mörner, acting on his own, suggested to French marechal Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte to become heir to the throne of Sweden. Napoleon gave his permission, and on August 21st 1810 the Riksdag elected him heir to the throne of Sweden (he chose the name Karl Johan).
King Karl XIII. (1809-1818) was king only in name; the function ascribed to the king in the constitution of 1809 was exercised by the heir-apparent; in August 1810 Bernadotte thus became the most influential man in Sweden.
Foreign Policy . In 1793 (revolutionary) France (i.e. Danton) and Sweden signed an alliance treaty in which France promised to pay Sweden considerable subsidies - shortly after Swedish nobleman Axel von Fersen twice had organized attempts to liberate the royal family (the Flight to Varennes); he had operated with the knowledge and approval of late King Gustav III. However the treaty was never ratified.
In 1793 war again broke out between France and Britain, the latter again confiscating Swedish goods on high seas. In 1794, Sweden and Denmark signed an Alliance of Armed Neutrality; Denmark and Sweden provided warships which guarded convoys of merchant ships. In 1795 a treaty with France was signed, Sweden being the first monarchy to diplomatically recognize the French Republic; in 1796 Sweden dropped her alliance with France and the future king visited St. Petersburg, where the attempted arrangement of a marriage to Russian princess Alexandra failed. Then Catherine II. died, the Russian marriage no longer discussed, in 1797 Gustav IV. Adolf married Frederika Dorothea Wilhelmina von Baden. The Danish-Swedish cooperation on high seas was continued (convoys to the West Indies, 1797-1799). In 1800 a Russo-Swedish League of Armed Alliance was formed, which soon was joined by Denmark and Prussia, all signatories being sceptical of Britain.
Gustav IV. Adolf succeeded Gustav III. as King of Sweden at the age of 16, was regarded a weak king. He undertook steps to improve relations with Russia, signing an act of armed neutrality with Russia, Denmark and Prussia. Britain interpreted this a hostile act and attacked Kopenhagen (1801); an attack on the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona was expected. However, Tsar Paul died, his son Alexander did not pursue the neutrality pact and, Sweden swung to the British side.
In 1805, Sweden (allied with Britain, Austria and Russia) attacked France (without accomplishing anything; in Sweden the war is called Pommerska Kriget - War of Pomerania). Napoleon met Alexander at Tilsit (1807), where Napoleon agreed on Russia taking (Swedish) Finland. When the Russians attacked Finland in 1808, Gustav IV. Adolf held back a part of his forces, fearing a Danish attack on Scania. The Swedish commander in Finland fought valiantly, but after the capitulation of Sveaborg castle Finland was lost to Sweden.
The Economy . Under Reuterholm, Sweden's economy profitted from good harvests and favourable trade conditions. The purchase and consumption of coffee was forbidden.
Young King Gustav IV. Adolf pursued an economic policy aiming at limiting government expenses and reducing the debt. All pay raises approved by the regency administration (Reuterholm) were cancelled. The ban on coffee was lifted, the customs revenues increased. Then came misharvests in 1798 and 1799, and the war influenced international trade negatively. Banknotes were issued. In order to establish a security for the paper currency, the Swedish city of WISMAR was pawned to Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1803); Sweden would never regain it, formally cede it in 1815.
While the War of Pomerania (1805-1807) by and large was paid for by British subsidies, the War of 1807-1808 was a Swedish affair (still in considerable part paid for by British subsidies); war costs were estimated at 23 million riksdalers, 7 million of which were accounted for by British subsidies. To make matters worse a misharvest added to the difficulties; lack of food caused inflation.
In Scania Rutger Maclean had begun, on his estate, the so-called Socio-Agricultural Revolution, which was extended nationwide by legislation of 1803 and 1807. The idea was to redistribute the land (forming cohesive plots) and the rural population so that little time was lost for going to and returning from the fields. At many places it meant breaking up the village community, which the latter resented. Yet the intended effect, increased food production, was achieved.
The Swedish West India Company went bankrupt in 1805.
Intellectual Life . In 1795 Reuterholm suspended the Swedish Academy, its secretary being regarded too crictical.
In 1796 the Svenska Krigsmanna Saellskapet (Swedish War Sciences Association) with seat in Stockholm was founded.
Around 1800 the University of Uppsala was regarded a center of Swedish Jacobinism. Here, since c. 1795 a club called Juntan was active, spreading radical opinions, a leading member being Hans Hierta (Jaerta).
Domestic Policy . Karl XIV. Johan early on attempted to expand the political authority given to the king (the function of whom he exercised as heir-apparent until crowned in 1818) by the constitution of 1809. Although neither the Riksdag nor the State Council were reduced in their respective authority. Karl XIV. Johan managed to find politicians obliging and cooperative. Swedish historian Sten Carlsson refers to the period of 1812 to 1840 as allenastyrandets tid" (solitary rule).
Karl XIV. Johan was 54 years old when he was crowned in 1818. Over time, he turned more and more conservative, supporting the nobility, a cameralistic economy. In 1833 an army reform was conducted, in 1834 the currency again set on a firm silver footing; Sweden pursued a protectionist economic policy. A new church ordinance in 1811 abolished exorcism.
A liberal opposition formed; the liberal Aftonbladet (evening gazette) was founded in 1830.
Foreign Policy . In 1810 the Swedes had elected Napoleon's general, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, heir to the Swedish throne. He took on the name Karl XIV. Johan and realized the Swedish dream of acquiring Norway (1814) as compensation for the loss of Finland (1809). Because of his military experience, he was given command over the victorious allied troops in the Battle of Leipzig (1813). Karl XIV. Johan, crowned king of Sweden in 1818, never mastered the Swedish language.
King Karl XIV. Johan pursued a policy of remaining in friendly relations with the Russian Empire. During the Polish Revolution of 1830, the King sympathized with the Czar (while the Swedish liberals sympathized with the Poles). Sweden was a member of the Holy Alliance. Karl XIV. Johan's position in the case of the Polish and Belgian Revolution may be explained by fears for a similar event in Norway.
Norway enjoyed political autonomy, based on her constitution of 1814; political tension thus was limited, although the union was not very popular among the Norwegians.
Karl XIV. Johan's foreign policy aimed at preserving peace and gaining international acceptance of the Bernadotte dynasty - in 1823 he had to marry his son and successor Oscar to Princess Josephine von Leuchtenberg, daughter of Napoleon's stepson Eugene de Beauharnais, as he had been unable to find a bride among Europe's traditional ruling families.
The Economy . Early on, Karl XIV. Johan, at the request of Riksdag, pursued a policy of Protectionism. The import of some 300 goods was prohibited, while tariffs were laid upon the import of others. The export for about 50 articles was also prohibited (1816). Some import barriers were abolished in later years, others undermined by bilateral trade treaties with foreign countries, such as with Britain in 1826.
In 1834 Sweden's economy had sufficiently recovered from the war years so that the currency again could be placed on a solid silver footing.
In 1811 the Agricultural Academy was established; the Göta Canal, connecting the Baltic with Göteborg and circumventing the Sound, was opened in 1832.
In 1810 Sweden had a population of 2.4 million, in 1820 2.57 million, in 1830 2.88 million, in 1840 3.12 million
The Industrial Revolution affected Sweden rather indirectly, as international demand for Swedish iron ore and pig iron increased.
Intellectual Life . In Swedish literature, Göticism, a branch of Neoromanticism, dominated, among the protagonists historian E.G. Geijer, professor at Uppsala University, and the Bishop of Växjö, Esaias Tegner. Göticism expressed patriotism and was to grow into Scandinavism. Geijers History of the Swedish People was published 1832-1836; soon it was translated into German by young Karl Marx.
In 1829, at the University of Lund in Scania (a province which had been Danish heartland until 1658), Scandinavianism was created, a version of partiotism that encompassed Swedes, Danes and Norwegians.
In 1837 the Swedish Temperance Society (Svenska Nykterhetssällskapet) was founded, predecessors dating back to 1831.
In 1810 the Karolinska Medico-Kirurgisca Institutet was founded in Stockholm, Sweden's medical college, since 1901 the institution deciding who is to win the Nobel Price in Medicine. Here Jöns Jacob Berzelius worked; in 1826 he published a table of atomic weights.
Domestic Policy . While public opinion, via the medium of the printed press, became increasingly dominated by Liberalism, King Karl XIV. Gustav, in 1840, 76 years old, lost his hold on power; he died in 1844, succeeded by his son OSCAR (1844-1859).
A period of reforms set in, beginning in 1840, still under the aging Karl XIV. Gustav. In 1841 a reform was adopted (implemented in 1846) according to which government was reorganized in a cabinet of 7 ministers, of justice, foreign affairs, the army, the navy, civilian affairs, finance and church affairs. Compulsory elementary schooling was introduced in 1842.
King Oscar I., who ascended to the throne in 1844 at the age of 45, was open to reform. Norway was granted equal status in the flag question in 1844; the factory and craft ordinance of 1846 abolished the guilds. The ancient mining privileges (bergsbruket) were also abolished.
The events of 1848 had an effect on King Oscar, who became more cautious; he rejected any further reform of the franchise and insisted in royal authority.
In 1848 there was widespread dissatisfaction, especially among the farmers who were disappointed by liberalism; in March 1848 there was unrest in Stockholm; among the demands of the apprentices and workers was the reintroduction of protectionist measures; here the government made concessions. King Oscar I. died in 1859; he was succeeded by his son, Karl XV.; he could not hold on to the strong influence on the nation's policy his father and grandfather had had. The State Council extended her authority, minister of justice Baron Louis de Geer being the dominant figure.
From 1856 Rikdsag passed a series of liberal reforms. The status of women was improved, as the age when they 'came of age' was established at 25 (1858) and women were given the opportunity to become teachers with the establishment of the seminary for female teachers (1861). In 1860 the law concerning those who apostatized from Lutheran belief was revised, the punishment of banishment abolished. Restrictions on the settlement of Jews also were abolished (1860). In 1862 the franchise was expanded, the electorate divided into classes according to the taxes they paid.
In 1863 the Riksdag approved a reform which replaced the traditional 4 estates by a bicameral parliament (introduced 1865); majority leaders were to be appointed cabinet chiefs by the king, which meant the introduction of Parliamentarianism. King Karl XV., initially adamantly opposed to the reform, gave in as he saw the strong popular support for the measure and for minister de Geer, who had threatened to resign if the policy was not adopted.
Foreign Policy . King Oscar tried to appease Norwegian patriots by a number of concessions, among them granting equal status to the Norwegian flag (1844) and by ceasing with the tradition of appointing Swedish officers to the office of Governor of Norway and appointing Norwegians instead.
The 1840es were a turbulent decade; in 1848 a conflict between Denmark and the German Federation arose over the territory of Schleswig. Technically a part of the Danish kingdom, in dynastic union with the German Duchy of Holstein, Schleswig had taken a separate historical development since the early 14th century. The diets of Schleswig and Holstein had merged centuries ago, their motto being 'up ewig ungedeelt' (for ever unpartitioned). Over time the larger part of the population of Schleswig had adopted a German identity, while there were still considerable segments of the population feeling and speaking Danish and Frisian, the latter tending toward Denmark.
In Denmark, as everywhere else, Liberalism had gained the upper hand, and the Danish parliament decided to introduce a unified helstat (centralized, unified state) that would include Schleswig; the national language would be Danish. The German-feeling population of Schleswig, together with the Holsteiners, revolted; the Frankfurt Parliament sided with the Schleswigers and ordered Prussian troops to aid the latter.
In Sweden, the ancient animosity toward Denmark had, over the last decades, been replaced by sympathy; Scandinavism went beyond this, recognized the Danes as the Swedes' brethren, regarded Scandinavian as a nationality encompassing the Swedes, Danes and Norwegians. Sweden decided to aid Denmark in the affair and sent 4,500 troops. A European conflict threatened; British diplomacy set in. Both the Prussian and Swedish troops were recalled. Danish troops ultimately defeated the rebels, Denmark, in the London Protocol (1850, followed by treaty 1852) had to guarantee that Schleswig would not be incorporated in the helstat. 243 Swedes as volunteers had entered into Danish service; they had actually seen fighting. The affair had shown that King Oscar did not regard himself bound to the Holy Alliance any longer.
In 1853 the Crimean War broke out, in which Britain and France, aided by Sardinia, fought Russia. While the war is remembered mainly for the events which took place on the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea also became a theater of operation. Here Sweden declared neutrality, a neutrality which was not as neutral as it sounds, for Sweden permitted the British Navy to operate from Fårösund on Gotland. A naval attack on St. Petersburg, contemplated by the British Navy, did not take place. It was prevented by sea mines produced by a Swede, Immanuel Nobel. The British and French had asked Sweden to join them and offered the prospect of regaining Finland; King Oscar resisted the temptation, and Finland remained Russian.
In 1857 the USA refused to pay the Sound Levy any longer; Sweden and Denmark agreed to its abolition in return for a singular payment.
When a second conflict erupted over Schleswig, between Denmark and Prussia/ Austria, King Karl XV. promised Swedish support for Denmark. Yet his minister J.A. Gripenstedt persuaded him to renounce that promise; Sweden remained a neutral observer. Although Sweden was justified to do so, as Denmark, by again attempting to impose the helstat on Schleswig, had violated the London Protocol, inaction was a critical blow to Scandinavism.
The Economy . The reforms introduced under Oscar I. in the 1840es meant a departure from the old society of status, based on privileges excluding competition, and from protectionism. The guilds were abolished, as were the mining privileges (1846), trade was liberalized in the 1840es, and after a period of renewed protectionism (1848-1856) again, gradually, in the late 1850es and 1860es. For Sweden, by comparison backward in regard to urbanization and industrialization, this had many consequences. Poverty was a serious problem already when the reforms were taken. In 1847, at the king's initiative, a poverty ordinance was published.
The emerging British steel industry required iron ore; Sweden's production rose from 261,000 metric tons in 1840 to 464,000 in 1864. Yet, before the invention of the Bessemer technique, British steel was inferior to Swedish, which thus still found a market. Demand grew, but Swedish production methods did not permit rapid expansion of production.
In 1857 the Sound Levy was abolished. Stockholm and Uppsala were connected by telegraph in 1853.
The first railway line was opened in 1856; by 1864 the nation had a combined length of 1,143 km of railroad (by comparison the UK 17,704 km). Urbanization set in; Stockholm had 93,000 inhabitants in 1850, 112,000 in 1860; Göteborg 26,000 in 1850, 37,000 in 1860. Göteborg emerged as Sweden's principal port for export and import. Emigration also set in, 17,000 Swedes leaving Europe in the decade between 1851 and 1860. Sweden's overall population rose from 3.12 million in 1840 to 3.46 million in 1850 and 3.82 million in 1860 (4,05 million in 1864).
The Decimal System was introduced in 1854. A tax reform of 1860 based taxation on income, as opposed to status which had formed the basis until then.
> Intellectual Life . Scandinavism was the dominant political stream of the 1840es. The movement had originated at the university of Lund (1829); student festivals were held at Copenhagen (1839, 1842, 1845), Uppsala (1843). Among the enthused poets was Norwegian Henrik Ibsen. Scandinavianism emphasized the close relation of Swedes, Danes and Norwegians, stressing a wider Scandinavian nation. The movement sympathized with Finnish efforts to achieve a higher degree of political autonomy, and with Danish attempts to incorporate Schleswig. It peaked in 1848 when Sweden dispatched troops to aid Denmark in the conflict over Schleswig.
Swedish entrepreneur Immanuel Nobel, without formal education, a self-made man, set up a business in St. Petersburg; here he produced sea mines which proved effective in preventing British naval attacks on Russian fortresses. He began experiments with Nitroglycerine, which would be successfully concluded by his son Alfred Nobel (1866).
With alcoholism traditionally being a problem in Sweden and the right to distill brandy granted to all owners of land in the countryside, the Swedish Temperance Society (established in 1837) saw a rapid growth of her membership figures, peaking in the mid 1840es at over 100,000. In 1855 the right to distill brandy at home was limited in 1855 and cancelled in 1860.
Lars Johan Hierta, publisher of the liberal Aftonbladet, got in conflict with censorship. He simply renamed his paper every time it was banned; in 1845 press censorship finally was abolished.
In 1860 the Marksmen's Movement (skarpskytterrörelsen) was founded, which soon grew to a membership of about 40,000.
Poet and women's rights activist Fredrika Bremer published the novel "Hertha" (1856); reforms were passed, in 1861 a seminary for female teachers established at Stockholm.
In 1845 Lars Levi Laestradius, the Apostle of the Lapps, founded the Swedish Revivalist movement; he preached that the consumption of alcohol was a sin.
Swedish soprano Jenny Lind became an international star; she performed in New York in 1850.
The New Constitution . Under Karl XV. in 1863-1866 Sweden adopted constitutional reforms, largely to the credit of liberal prime minister Louis de Geer. The four estates (nobility, priesthood, burghers, farmers), tracing back into the middle ages, were abolished, replaced by a bicameral parliament, a system that would remain until 1971. The reform basically turned Sweden into a constitutional monarchy, with policy being made by the cabinet, decided by parliament, and the king being largely a representative figure.
The electors were grouped in several classes, according to the amount of taxes they paid annually, the better off favoured by being given additional votes. Another distinction was made between voters in the cities and voters in the countryside; the franchise favoured landowners, while landless peasants and most workers still were excluded from participation in the political process.
In 1876 the office of statsminister (minister of state) was defined as that of the cabinet chief, corresponding to the British prime minister.
Domestic Policy . A predecessor of trade unions was the typographic union founded in Stockholm in 1846. A strike in Sundsvall in 1879, with c 5,000 participants, marked the beginning of mass organizations of workers. Trade unions were established and consolidated themselves through merger and federation. In 1881 the social democratic movement was established, initiated by August Palm; Sweden's Social-Democratic Workers' Party (SAP) was founded in 1889. Older parties included the Lantmannapartiet (farmers' party, 1867-1887), the Center (1873-1882), the Neoliberal Party (1868-).
The import tariff debate of 1887 proved that divisive in the Riksdag, that supporters and opponents organized themselves into new political parties - the Protectionist Majority Party (1888-1909) and the Moderate Free Trade Party (1888-1904). The Lantmannapartiet split into the protectionist Nya Lantmannapartiet (New Farmers' Party, 1888-1894) and the free trade supporting Gamla Lantmannapartiet (Old Farmers' Party, 1888-1894).
In 1870, Sweden's Jews were granted emancipation.
Foreign Policy . The second war over Schleswig in 1864 for Sweden had ended in a foreign policy fiasco, as King Karl XV., a supporter of Scandinavism, had to take back his promise to militarily support the Danes.
Sweden now pursued a cautious foreign policy, which emphasized neutrality - Sweden was neutral during the wars between Prussia and Austria resp. the smaller countries allied to one of these powers in 1866 and during the Franco-German War of 1870 to 1871. The other policy emphasized was Scandinavian cooperation; the Scandinavian Monetary Union of 1875 was a step in that direction.
The changes in warfare had an effect on Sweden, which adopted a defense policy modelled on Swiss Armed Neutrality.
In 1878, Sweden ceded her Caribbean colony, St. Barthelemy, back to France - it had become deficitary long ago, and Sweden now saw the emergence of a beet sugar industry; Caribbean cane sugar was thus superfluous.
In 1884 a major constitutional reform introduced parliamentarism in Norway; the country thus was enabled to make much better use of her now widened political autonomy.
The Economy . In 1873 the Swedish currency, the Riksdaler, was renamed Krone, and the Gold Standard was introduced. In 1875, Sweden-Norway and Denmark established the Scandinavian Monetary Union, based on the Krone, the Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns (of 100 Öre each) on par. The union was successful, dissolved only in 1924 after World War I had caused disparate developments in the various member countries.
Weights and measures had been set on the decimal system in 1855; in 1875 Sweden was among the nations who signed the Meter Convention and subsequently introduced the metric system (1878).
The process of European Industrialization continued to have a great impact on Sweden. Exports of timber rose more than fourfold between 1860 and 1890, Swedish paper began to find an international market in the 1890es. Sweden's output of iron ore rose from 464,000 metric tons in 1864 to 616,000 metric tons in 1870, 775,000 metric tons in 1880 to 941,000 metric tons in 1890 (yet only a third of Luxemburg's output at that time).
The country's railway network continued to expand, from a combined total length of 1,143 km in 1864 to 1,727 km in 1870, 5,876 km in 1880 to 8,018 km in 1890. The population, having risen from 4.05 million in 1864 to 4.16 million in 1870, 4.57 million in 1880, to 4.77 million in 1890, thus gained much greater mobility. Steamboats added to that mobility (Sweden has many at least partially navigable rivers).
As a large segment of the population, both in the countryside and among the emerging, fast-growing working class lived in utter poverty, emigration now picked up fast. In 1860 only about 300 Swedes had permanently left the country; in 1864 the emigrants numbered 5,200, in 1869 the number peaked at 39,100, to drop to 7,600 in 1877, peak again at 50,200 in 1882, 50,800 in 1887. Urbanization also continued; Göteborg - Sweden's main port for ex- and import, grew from 37,000 inhabitants in 1860 to 105,000 in 1890, capital Stockholm from 112,000 in 1860 to 246,000 in 1890; Sweden's cities of course in no way matched the industrial and political centers of the continent.
In the 1880es, many Swedes demanded a more protectionist economic policy, following Germany's model, in part in reaction to the extraordinarily high emigration figures and cheap imports of American grain. A beet sugar industry developed. In 1887, the question of import tariffs was divisive, splitting supporters and opponents in the Riksdag in two rival camps unwilling to compromise; King Oscar II., himself in favour of free trade, dissolved the lower chamber (where the supporters of protectionism had a slight majority) and called for new elections, which were won by the supporters of Free trade. In 1888, import tariffs were imposed over a number of products, most notably grain, causing the prices for grain and bread to rise. Yet politicians supporting free trade continued to dominate the Swedish political arena.
The average workday in factories was between 10 and 12 hours; Åmmeberg's zinc mine, which introduced the 8 hour workday in 1885, was a rare exception.
Electric manufacturer ASEA (now ABB) was founded in 1883; telecommunications manufacturer L.M. ERICSSON in 1876.
Intellectual Life . Sweden long was oriented toward Paris as the world's cultural capital. Stockholm city planners established boulevards after those created in Paris by Haussmann. After the German victory over France in 1871 and the coronation of King Oscar II., an admirer of Germany, a reorientation toward the latter set in.
In literature, August Strindberg pointed at Sweden's social ills, the country's greatest representative of Naturalism.
The country's education system underwent a change, as the Realgymnasium, a high school focussing on natural sciences and modern languages, now offered an alternative to traditional high schools emphasizing classical languages. In 1877 Stockholm's technological institute (est. 1827) was elevated into a Polytechnical College. In 1868 the first Folkhögsskol ('people's high school', an evening school open to everybody at low cost) was established.
In the 1870es, many sports were introduced into Sweden, due to the activity of the 'father of Swedish sport', Victor Balck. In 1878-1880, Finland-born Swede N.A.E. Nordenskjöld was the first to sail through the Northeastern Passage, i.e. along the northern coast of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.
Domestic Policy . In Swedish politics in the 1890es, economic policy - free trade or protectionism, was the dominating matter; in the late 1880es, old parties had split, new parties being formed, based on their stand on this matter.
In 1889, following Germany's model, a law against agitation and disobedience, was passed, directed against socialism (due to the complex franchise, the SAP was ill represented in the Riksdag (the first SAP representative being elected to the second chamber in 1897) and her operations were undertaken outside the parliamentary arena). Social policy measures included a 1900 law that forbade the employment of women in mines and during the first 4 weeks after giving birth. In 1889 a law to protect workers against accidents at work was passed. A law of 1891 provided state support for voluntary health insurance. Attempts to introduce obligatory insurances against accidents and for retirement failed; the matter, however, was repeatedly debated. In 1913 a pension law was passed, providing a small pension for citizens over 67, partially paid for by fees, partially by subsidies to be provided in part by the state, in part by the community.
Major political demands of the political left included social issues such as the shortening of the workday, and a reform of the franchise law. The voting right in Sweden was complex, as it permitted the rich multiple voting (which, in case of rural districts, at one instance was 'limited' to 5.000 votes !). In 1909 liberal prime minister Karl Ståff got parliament pass a reform introducing universal manhood suffrage based on the principle one man one vote (after Finland had introduced universal suffrage for both genders in 1906). The minimum age for voting was raised from 21 to 24, and citizens who had not completely paid their taxes over the 3 years preceding the election were excluded from participation. Proportional Representation was introduced.
In 1895 the Lantmannapartiet (Farmers' Party, 1895-1911) reunited, the Folkpartiet (People's Party, 1895-1899) formed. In 1900 the Liberala Samlingspartiet (LSP, United Liberal Party, 1900-1923) was formed. In 1912 the First Chamber's National Party (1912-1934) and the Farmers' and Burghers' Party (1912-1934) were founded.
In 1903 the Landsföreningen foer kvinnornas rösträtt (Union for Women's right to vote) was established.
In 1901 mandatory military service was extended from 90 to 240 days.
While there had been a strong political movement to strengthen the army (supported, among others, by popular explorer-scientist Sven Hedin), pacifism had many supporters in the country. Pacifist entrepreneur-inventor and business tycoon Alfred Nobel, in his testament, had established the Nobel Peace Price, which he entrusted Norway's Storting (parliament) to administrate (at the time of his death in 1896, Norway had not yet seceded from her union with Sweden). Klas Pontus Arnoldsson, member of Sweden's second chamber of parliament, in 1883 proposed permanent neutrality of the Scandinavian countries (not adopted); in 1907 he published a pamphlet titled : "Is world peace possible ?"; in 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Foreign Policy . Formally Sweden pursued a policy of neutrality, emphasizing good relations to neighbour Denmark (co-member of the Scandinavian Monetary Union). The dynastic union which combined Sweden and Norway proved unpopular in Norway, and in 1905 it was dissolved peacefully, Norway then proclaiming independence.
King Oscar II. had sympathies for Germany; the German constitution provided the monarch with a larger degree of political influence than the constitutional monarchies of western Europe. The Swedish army employed a number of German advisers. German policies, such as a protectionist economic policy, social policy and anti-socialist laws, served as a model for Swedish parties and politicians. Furthermore, Germany was Sweden's most important trading partner. Even the Swedish Social Democrats looked up to the German Social Democratic Workers' Party.
Free traders and free thinkers objecting to German autoritarianism and militarism looked to Great Britain for inspiration, as most of the Norwegians did.
However, Sweden's foreign policy was dominated by the country's prime ministers, such as Liberal Karl Ståff, who were aware of the nation's military weakness and were intent to keep the military budget in check; they avoided an adventurous foreign policy.
The Russification policy in Finland, the effects of the Russian Revolution of 1905 on Finland concerned the Swedes.
In 1908 the Baltic Sea Treaty and North Sea Treaty were signed by the adjacent nations.
Sweden was among the signatories of the Hague (Den Haag) Peace Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
The Economy . The later 19th century saw an upswing in the emigration to the United States, and from the 1890es onward the industrialization of Sweden, in which the generation of hydroelectric power was important. Sweden always has been a supplier of iron; from 1890 onward, exports of iron ore, timber, paper increased dramatically. New iron ore open-cast mines were taken in operation far north in Kiruna, to become the largest of their kind worldwide, connected with the Norwegian port of Narvik by railway (taken in operation in 1903). At the same time the number of iron ore open cast mines declined drastically, the traditionally operated smaller ones not able to compete with large-size ventures.
In 1906 a Swedish-German Trade Treaty to a large degree eliminated protectionist barriers between the two countries and rekindled the import tariff debate in Sweden.
In Dynamit Nobel Sweden had an international company of world fame based in Sweden. SKF, founded in 1907, had a monopoly on ball-bearings, indispensable in trains, cars and a lot of machinery. In 1912, Axel Wenner-Gren produced the first electric vacuum cleaner. Other export industries included match production. Svania began truck production in 1902.
Sweden's population rose from 4.77 million in 1890 to 5.12 million in 1900 and 5.50 million in 1910. Göteborg's population rose from 105,000 in 1890 to 168,000 in 1910, Stockholm's population from 246,000 in 1890 to 342,000 in 1910. Emigration had peaked in 1892 with 45,500, reached a low of 13,400 in 1894, stayed below 20,000 until 1900, then peaked again in 1903 at 39,500, to drop to 22,400 the following year, to stay around or beyond the 20,000 mark.
Intellectual Life . Since 1885, Sven Hedin explored central Asia (Persia, China's western provinces, Tibet), gaining world fame through his many publications.
In 1891 Skansen was dedicated as an open air museum.
In 1901 the Nobel Prizes were awarded for the first time. The Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 1903 was awarded to Swede Svante Arrhenius. The 1908 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Swede Klas Pontus Arnoldsson. The Nobel Prize for Literature for 1909 went to Swedish childrens' books author Selma Lagerlöf. The 1911 Nobel Price for Physiology/Medicine went to Swede Allvar Gullstrand, the 1912 Physics Prize to his countryman Nils Dalen.
In 1905, the union with Norway dissolved, Sweden adopted her national anthem Du gamla du fria (you old, you free), a revised version of Richard Dybeck's 1844 poem Du gamla du friska (you old you fresh).
In 1906 the orthography of written Swedish was reformed.
The Swedish Sports Federation was founded in 1903. The Olympic Games of 1912 were held in Stockholm.
The first moving pictures, or cinema screening, was shown in Sweden in 1896, barely six months after first being shown by the Lumiere brothers in Paris. Soon after the first cinemas opened, such as the Saga in Kalmar, in 1906.
In 1904, Denmark and Sweden were the first countries in the world to raise funds for the fight against tuberculosis by the sales of Christmas Seals.
Foreign Policy . On December 21st 1912, Sweden, Norway and Denmark had declared their neutrality and defined the latter in an agreement on its principles. Poet Birger Sjöberg, in his collection of poems published in 1922, has Frida express the prevailing sentiment : Jag vill vara neutral intill min död (I want to remain neutral until I die). This sentiment had risen out of the recognition of Sweden's weakness and out of sympathy with oppressed people living under imperialist rule, most notably the Finns. On August 3rd 1914 the Swedish government declared absolute neutrality and took precautious military steps (armed neutrality).
There were influential persons who not only sympathized with the German side, but openly advocated to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers. They included scientists Sven Hedin and Rudolf Kjellen, Queen Victoria von Baden, among professional politicians most notably Conservative Arvid Taube, and, surprisingly, a number of social democrats (admirers of German social democracy).
In November 1915 Prince Max von Baden (an influential politician, German chancellor Oct.-Nov. 1918, and a close relative of the queen) visited Stockholm and invited (the King of) Sweden, in the name of the German government, to join the Central Powers. Germany offered to Sweden the Åland Islands, autonomy for Finland and for Sweden the leadership in a Scandinavian Federation to be formed. Swedish supporters of the German cause pleaded to the king to act in order to prevent "the victory of republicanism and parliamentarism". The king was not unaffected, yet cautious and hesitant.
Prime minister Hjalmar Hammarskjöld pursued a policy of keeping Sweden out of the war. Yet his sympathies tended toward Germany. In 1916 Sweden had the Kogrundsrännan mined, the main shipping passage through the Sound; thus the Baltic Sea virtually was blocked for the Entente fleet.
Social Democrat Hjalmar Branting in summer 1915 visited social democrat and socialist party leaders in belligerent nations in order to establish contacts and positions which might lead to negotiations ending the conflict - without success.
Other Swedes, such as Elsa Brandström (the 'Angel of Siberia'; daughter of the Swedish ambassador in St. Petersburg, as a nurse she took care of German and Austro-Hungarian P.O.W.s in Siberia) and Uppsala's Archbishop Nathan Söderblom actively tried to improve the lot of the victims of the war.
In the course of 1916 public sympathy in Sweden began to shift from tending slightly to the Germans to tending toward the Entente, factors influencing this shift being the German u-boat-warfare, the execution of British nurse Edith Cavell. A Stockholm Peace Conference, prepared for 1917, did not convene. In September 1917 the German minister in Argentina, Graf K.L. von Luxburg, used the assistance of the Swedish embassy to send a message to Berlin, in which he called for Argentinian merchant ships carrying supplies for the Entente to be sunk without a trace. The message was intercepted by the Entente and published, an embarrassment for the Hammarskjöld administration, right before elections to Sweden's second chamber. Hammarskjöld stepped down.
Sweden was in negotiations with the Entente Powers in order to secure her shipping route through the northern Atlantic to be opened; Britain arbitrarily forced Swedish ships to dock in British ports, confiscated certain shipments declared contraband etc.
Sweden also served as a forum where the belligerents could establish contacts, openly and secretly; Stockholm was referred to as Paxopolis (city of peace). Among those who, when passing through, made use of Stockholm as a base for international contacts, was Lenin; here he deposited the credit of 40,000,000 gold marks goven to him by Germany's government; from here he had financed the October Revolution.
Since the February Revolution in St. Petersburg (March 1917), the main foreign policy focus in Sweden was Finland, especially the Swedish-inhabited Åland Islands. On January 4th 1918, Sweden recognized the newly independent Finnish Republic. Soon after, the Finnish civil war broke out; in Sweden, sympathies were split, the conservatives leaning toward the whites, many social democrats toward the reds. A brigade of Swedish volunteers fought in the Finnish Civil War, on the side of the whites.
In February 1918 7,000 Ålanders petitioned to the Swedish king and people for protection. Swedish troops replaced the Russian troops still there. From March to December the islands were occupied by the Germans. Then Finland, Sweden and the USSR signed an agreement according to which Åland was to be de-militarized. The question of the islands' political future remained, for the moment, unsolved.
When it turned out that at the Paris Peace Conference maximalist conditions would be demanded of the Central Powers, Sweden's ex-prime minister Hjalmar Hammarskjöld warned that this might have disastrous consequences.
Domestic Policy . The far right branch of the conservatives, through openly advocating for Sweden to join the war on Germany's side, ultimately discredited herself. This considerably weakened those who supported a constitution in which the king still exercised some political influence; the king himself had lost political credit. Hjalmar Hammarskjöld was the last prime minister without party affiliation; as Arvid Taube had predicted, parliamentarianism had won in Sweden.
At the beginning of the war, the political parties had agreed to cooperate in the interest of the state (Borgfreden). With food rationing being introduced in 1916 and the interpretation of neutrality being hotly disputed, this cooperation broke up early in 1917. The Hammarskjöld administration stepped down, a new administration was formed under Prime Minister Carl Swartz. Elections resulted in major gains of the left, and late in 1917 a government was formed under Prime Minister Nils Eden, a liberal; the government included four social democrats.
In 1917, the left wing of the social democrates split off and founded Sverges socialdemocratiska vänsterparti (Sweden's Social Democratic Leftist Party). The principle of parliamentary responsibility was introduced in 1917.
In 1916 insurance against accidents at work in the industry was made obligatory.
No major reforms were passed, as the administration had to focus on momentary problems such as securing the food supply. The "Spanish Disease" (the influenza epidemic of 1918), which dramatically raised the mortality figures, only aggravated the government's troubles.
The Economy . Armed neutrality was costly; state expenses rose considerably throughout the war. The British blockade and the German u-boat-warfare sharply reduced Sweden's overseas exports and imports. 290,000 register tons of Swedish shipping and about 800 lives were lost. On the other hand, trade with Germany greatly increased, and Sweden, during the first two years of the war, lived through an economic boom which caused the government to introduce an extraordinary war boom tax.
In 1916 the war began to take a toll on Sweden's economy; food rationing set in, a consequence of poor harvests in 1916. As the government paid for extraordinary expenses by printing money, the central bank was freed of her obligation to exchange banknotes for gold. The country experienced inflation, a factor which undermined the Scandinavian currency union (since 1875, formally dissolved 1924). War profiteers were strongly criticized by those who suffered, and may unwillingly have contributed to the gains of the social democrats in the election of 1917.
In 1917 the sale of alcoholic beverages was made a state monopoly, entrusted to AB Vin- och Spritcentralen. The basic idea was to discourage excessive consumption of alcohol and to use profits made from its sales to finance combatting the social ills caused by it (the Bratt System, in force until 1955).
Intellectual Life . Sven Hedin published Från fronten i väster (from the western front, 1914) and Kriget mot Ryssland (war against Russia, 1915); both publications enthusiastically supported the German side.
Poet Birger Sjöberg expressed the political sentiment of wartime Swedes in his poems published in 1922. Another Swedish poet, Verner von Heidenstam, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916; most of his works, however had been published before the war and he was known for supporting a society in which the king had political influence and nobility played an important role in society (the "Junkers' poet").
The policy of the Nobel Prize Committee, which selected French Communist and Pacifist Romain Rolland for the literature prize of 1915, Karl Adolph Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan of neighbouring, equally neutral Denmark, was in line with the Swedish government's policy and the Swedish people's political sentiment.
In 1914, the Vinterpalatset (Winter Palace) cinema in Stockholm opened, providing 1750 seats.
Domestic Policy . Once World War I was over, in Sweden political debates again focussed on a revision of the discussion. The left wing of the social democrats, among them Per Albin Hansson, sympathized with the German Revolution, demanded the abolition of Great Capitalism, of the monarchy, of parliament's first chamber, of mandatory military service and of restrictions on the right to vote. They held a Revolution Festival in Stockholm on which they turned against moderate social democrates such as Hjalmar Branting.
Having potential civil unrest (massive strikes, even a revolution) in mind and with reports from revolutions going on in Russia, Germany and Hungary, the political right conceded to a constitutional reform demanded by the left and the center. This reform included universal suffrage for both men and women (who were given the right to vote in 1919), with property restrictions still in force for elections to the first chamber. In 1919, 54 % of the population had the right to vote, as compared to 19 % in 1911.
In 1921 Sweden abolished the death penalty (the last execution had taken place in 1910). The 8-Hour-Workday and the 48-Hour-Workweek were introduced by law in 1919.
The economic crisis following World War I caused deflation and soaring unemployment (163,000 on Jan. 1st 1922). The state employed many of these in road construction and maintenance, and unemployment figures decreased, (to which an improbing economy also contributed).
In 1922 the Swedish parliament decided to introduce, following the Swiss model, the Referendum as a constitutional instrument of direct democracy. One early referendum on outlawing the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages was rejected by a narrow majority.
The school reform of 1927 established the six-year elementary state school as the standard school throughout Sweden, preparing for higher education. Many private high schools were gradually taken over by the communities.
The constitutional reform of 1919 strongly altered the political landscape; the traditional parties lost in significance, while the social democrates established themselves as a major political force, yet inexperienced in government. The years after World War I are characterized by a frequent change of short-lived administrations; in 1920, for the first time a social democrat, Hjalmar Branting, was appointed prime minister.
In 1921 a radical part of the left social democrates split off and established the Swedish Communist Party. The liberal party split over the question if to ban alcohol; in 1924 the Frisinniga Folkpartiet (Free-spirited People's Party, pro ban, -1934), Sveriges liberala parti (Sweden's Liberal Party, -1934) and Liberala Riksdagspartiet (Liberal Riksdag Party, -1934) were established.
Foreign Policy . When the Russian Revolution broke out and the former Czarist Empire was in turmoil, Swedish forces occupied the Åland Islands, administratively a part of Finland, but with an entirely Swedish population, which wanted to join Sweden. Newly independent Finland made it's claim. The League of Nations decided the issue in favour of Finland, which granted the Åland Islands (ca. 20.000 inhabitants) a high degree of autonomy.
In 1920 Sweden decided to join the League of Nations. In 1924 Sweden diplomatically recognised the USSR. In the many disputed territories after the Paris peace treaties, international mediators were needed; Sweden served on that behalf in the Saar region and in the Corfu dispute.
Nathan Söderblom, archbishop of Uppsala, promoted the ecumenical movement, designed as a contribution of the various Christian communities to world peace. He was awarded the 1930 Nobel Peace Prize.
The Economy . The economic boom of the war years ended, and in 1921-1922 the country went through a period of deflation - prices fell to a level almost half of their wartime level, and unemployment peaked at 163,000 in 1922.
With the state engaging in a scheme hiring unemployed to work on the roads etc., unemployment was reduced. The economy picked up in 1922 and in 1924 Sweden was the first nation in Europe to reestablish the gold standard; however, the 49-year-old Scandinavian Monetary Union was dissolved.
In 1918, household appliances manufacturer Electrolux was formed, among the owners Axel Wenner-Gren, the inventor of the electric vacuum cleaner. In 1926 car manufacturer Volvo was founded; car production began in 1927. Bofors produced an anti-aircraft gun that would play an important role in World War II (outside of Sweden); the company has been a leading arms exporter ever since.
In 1926, the railway line Stockholm-Göteborg was the first in Sweden to be electrified, marking the beginning of the end of the steam era.
Intellectual Life . In 1924, Manne Siegbahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 1926 Theodor Svedberg the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Nobel Peace Prize of 1921 went, a.o., to Hjalmar Branting, the Peace Prize for 1930 to Nathan Söderblom.
In the 1920es Maurice Stiller was Sweden's most famous movie director (Gösta Berlings Saga); actress Greta Garbo went with Stiller to Hollywood in 1924. In 1924 the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation was founded.
Domestic Policy . The Great Depression had a serious impact on Sweden; unemployment rose from 11.2 % in 1929 to peak at 23.7 % in 1933. In 1932, Sweden's "Match King", believed to be a millionaire, committed suicide in Paris; it turned out that his financial empire had collapsed. In 1932 a social democratic cabinet was formed under Per Albin Hansson; with the exception of a few months in 1936, the social democrats would hold on to power for the next four decades. They combined an economic policy of reducing unemployment by launching state-run programs with the vision of a Folkhem (people's home), i.e. an egalitarian society which provided for everybody's welfare. The longevity of social democratic rule in Sweden is unparalleled by any political party in the history of democratic nations and gives evidence of the success and popularity of this policy (of course aided by the fact that Sweden managed to stay out of World War II).
In 1935 a voluntary unemployment insurance, state-supported, was introduced. The pension law of 1935 added to the pension adapted in a 1913 law, which was regarded insufficient. In 1936 the 8-hour-day was expanded to the agricultural sector, exceptions for seasonal events included. In 1938 the Saltsjö Accord established regular cooperation between Sweden's employers and labour organizations, thus reducing the danger of costly labour conflicts. Paid Vacation was introduced in 1938.
In 1934 three Riksdag members split off the Conservative Party and formed Nationella Gruppen, a nationalist organization seeking to emulate the success of fascist parties abroad. None of them was reelected in 1936, nor was any other candidate representing a ultraright nationalist organization elected into parliament. In reaction against fascist tendencies, a 1933 law forbade political organizations to wear uniforms.
In 1934 the Folkpartiet was formed, which united a number of progressive liberal groups.
Sweden observed the development in neighbouring European countries such as Germany and the USSR with concern. In 1936 Sweden adopted a rearmament policy; fortifications were established on Gotland. Sweden accepted many refugees from Germany; only in 1938, when the numbers of refugees increased drastically, was a more reluctant asylum policy adopted.
A program of involuntary sterilization of persons regarded 'genetically inferior' was introduced in 1935. It was applied, with little publicity, until 1976; an estimated 63,000 persons were subjected to it.
Foreign Policy . Per Albin Hansson had been a supporter of disarmament since his early days. Sweden continued her policy of neutrality. When a plebiscite was held in the Saar region, deciding over her political future (with Germany or France), Swedish troops were there to monitor the event.
Sweden joined the boycott of Italy proclaimed by the League of Nations after the Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935). During the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, Sweden pursued a policy on non-intervention; Swedish volunteers fought on the side of the Republicans. In this situation, Sweden in 1936 passed a defense ordinance; the defense policy was to prepare for a potential military threat - a concession the social democrats had to make under the circumstances.
The Economy Unemployment peaked in 1933 at 183,000. The Swedish government was influenced by the theory of Bertil Ohlin and Gunnar Myrdal, who emphasized that in times of an economic depression the state should hire many unemployed to give an incentive for the economy to pick up again.
The Swedish state created c. 40,000 jobs, paying less than the lowest wages offered on the labour market. They were to maintain or build roads, to create soccer grounds etc. In 1931 Sweden went off the gold standard.
Germany continued to be Sweden's most important trading partner; with Germany's economy picking up in 1933, so did German-Swedish trade. Germany's armament policy was of concern to Sweden; still, both Swedish iron ore and ball-bearings, necessities for Germany's industry, continued to be exported southward across the Baltic Sea. Swedish iron ore production doubled in the 1930es.
A 1939 law decided the nationalization of the railroads, a process that took several decades.
Despire a massive government budget deficit ever since the social democrats took power in 1932, prices remained below the 1929 level throughout the 1930es.
Intellectual Life . In 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1929, Hans con Euler-Chelpin had been awarded the prize for chemistry, in 1930 Archbishop of Uppsala Nathan Söderblom the peace prize.
German writers Kurt Tucholsky and Nelly Sachs, fleeing Nazi Germany, were given asylum in Sweden.
In 1937 Swedish actress Zarah Leander became an international movie star, featuring in "La Habanera" and "Zu neuen Ufern", movies filmed in Berlin by Danish director Detlef Sierck (later known under the name Douglas Sierck).
In architecture, in 1930 a new style, Swedish Modernism or Functionalism dominated.
In World War II, Sweden again declared neutrality. When Russia attacked Finland in the Winter War (1939/40), more than 8,000 Swedes volunteered to fight for Finland's liberty; the Swedish government, however, strictly kept to it's neutral course.
In 1940 Germany occupied Denmark and Norway. Germany's ally Finland included, the Germans surrounded Sweden and could dictate conditions, such as free passage for German troops from Finland to Norway or vice versa, Sweden supplying the German industry with iron ore and ball bearings etc.
Later in the war, Sweden could take a tougher stand. In 1944, when the Holocaust was in full progress, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg went to Hungary, where he placed many of the country's Jews under Swedish protection, distributing blank passports. He is credited with saving between 60.000 and 100.000 lives. Sweden also gave shelter to many refugees, among them most of Denmark's Jewish population, as well as to political refugees such as Germany's future chancellor Willy Brandt.
In 1944, the Swedish ship 'Hansa' was torpedoed by a Soviet submarine. in 1945, several hundred German military personnel fled from Kurland to Sweden, together with a number of Baltic Germans; upon Soviet demand, they were handed over to the latter in December 1945 and January 1946..
Count Folke Bernadotte (nephew of King Gustav V.), as representative of the Swedish Red Cross, during WW II, acted as a mediator in the exchange of German and British P.O.W.s. Heinrich Himmler in April 24th conveyed his offer of a German surrender to Britain and the US through Count Bernadotte, who on this occasion achieved the release of 30,000 Danish and Norwegian prisoners from Germany's concentration camps.
IKEA was established in 1943, as a mail order supplier of farm implements, later to become a major international furniture producer and retailer.
In 1944 Ingemar Bergman began his career as a movie director. In 1939, Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman arrived in Hollywood, starring in Casablanca (1942), For whom the bell tolls (1943) etc.
Foreign Policy . Sweden was all the more determined to continue its political neutrality, and being preprared, in case of necessity, to defend itself. Not admitted as a founding member (Sweden had been neutral in WW II), Sweden joined the UN in 1946. Sweden donated food to countries with severe shortage. Many Swedes adopted orphans from abroad, especially from Finland.
Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, after having saved the lifes of thousands of Hungarian citizens of Jewish religion, had been arrested by Soviet authorities on dubious charges, and died in prison. The Swedes would ask Soviet representatives at any given opportunity after Wallenberg, and, for decades, receive no answer. Stalin's demand for Sweden to cede Gotland also was not forgotten. Another Swedish diplomat, Count Folke Bernadotte, was assassinated in Palestine.
Sweden interpreted her position as that of strict neutrality. In 1946 the country agreed to supply the USSR with a number of industrial products on a loan basis, in return for Russian deliveries in raw materials, a deal criticized by the U.S. In 1948, cooperation between Scandinavian countries was intensified; it would later result in the establishment of the Nordic Council in 1952. In 1949, Sweden was a founding member of the Council of Europe. Sweden was concerned by the integration of Denmark and Norway into NATO, the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. The treatment Finland received by the USSR was interpreted as 'being let off easy' and encouraged Sweden in her policy of sticking to her course of strict neutrality, frequently criticized by both the U.S. and the USSR.
The Economy . The Swedish economy, in contrast to the economies of her European neighbours, had not suffered any direct damage due to aerial bombardment, the recruitment into the army of skilled labour, interference in production by state-ordered switch to production of war essentials. Thus, in 1945-1949 Sweden exported sought-after quality products such as ball-bearings, high quality steel, glass etc. A comparison of cars produced in Sweden and in Germany produced in 1949 may serve to illustrate the difference. However, Sweden suffered from the lack of consumer goods such as food, a lack of raw materials and the inability of many of her trading partners to pay in hard currency.
The war had created havoc in the economies of Sweden's traditional trading partners. In view of the fact that the financial malaise of her trading partners was temporary and in order to avoid endangering her political neutrality to become jeopardized by economically becoming too dependent on the U.S., Sweden pursued a trade policy based on trade restrictions, financial control mechanisms and bilateral trade agreements. Sweden also donated food to countries in need, while food was still rationed in Sweden itself; the poor harvest of 1947 even required a further cut in daily rations.
In the years 1945 to 1949, the imbalance between state expenses and state revenues was reduced to a considerable extent, but not abolished. Statistical figures show a rise in the GNP by 45 %; here, inflation has to be taken into account. In 1948, measures were undertaken to combat inflation; Sweden took part in negotiations regarding the implementation of the Marshall Plan.
Domestic Policy . In 1946, PM Per Albin Hansson died; he was succeeded by another Social Democrat, Tage Erlander. Regional and local elections in 1946 saw the Social Democrats losing seats, the Communists gaining, but the Social Democrats maintained their position of being, by far, the largest political party. The elections of 1948 saw the Communists again losing ground.
In 1946, regular flights connecting Stockholm with New York and Moscow were taken in operation.
Sweden received a number of immigrants (195,000 by 1949), many of whom were refugees, mainly Germans and refugees from the Soviet-annexed Baltic countries.
Administration . From 1907 to 1950, Gustaf V. was king; he was succeeded by Gustaf VI. Adolf (1950-1973). Tage Erlander (SAP) held the position of PM from 1946 to 1949. Parliamentary Elections were held in 1952, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1964, 1968.
Foreign Policy . Sweden was very suspicious of the Soviet Union; the country pursued a policy of armed neutrality; Sweden had a small, but advanced arms industry. In 1960, Sweden joined EFTA (European Free Trade Organization).
Swede Dag Hammarskjöld was secretary general of the United Nations 1953-1961; he died in a plane crash while trying to negotiate a settlement in the Congo Crisis. Swedish peacekeeping troops got involved wherever there was demand for a neutral force to separate enemies. Sweden sent a military hospital to the Korean battleground, but did not otherwise get involved. After the armistice was signed in 1953, Swedes were selected as members of the NNSC (Neutral Nations Supervisory Council) created to supervise that both sides after the Korean War keep the armistice.
Political History . From 1936 to 1976 the Social Democratic Party dominated political life, a feat unparalleled in the history of modern European multiparty democracies. Sweden did not have to undergo a reconstruction period, could instead focus on the perfection of the Swedish welfare state.
The Economy . During the post-war boom, Sweden's industry (car industry : Saab, Volvo, Scania; paper industry, SKF bearings, Swedish furniture industry) were export-oriented. In 1967 Sweden switched from driving on the left to driving on the right side of the road. In 1963, the first Swedish nuclear power plant was built.
Over the years it became obvious that the welfare state was a great burden on the economy. One consequence was heavy taxation on the wealthy, the maximum tax rate reaching 102 % for the highest earners. Another consequence was inflation.
Social History . The population of Sweden rose from 6.96 million in 1949 to 7.97 million in 1969.
During the post-war boom, the Swedish welfare state was expanded. Universal compulsory health insurance was introduced in 1955. Sweden experienced a period of remarkable political stability; throughout the entire period of 20 years, the prime minister (Tage Erlander) did not change. In 1964 the regulation preventing bars to open was revoked. The sales of licquors was monopolized by the non-profit Systembolagets; high sale taxes were placed on alcohol, tobacco and sweets; the systembolaget was to ensure that alcohol was neither advertized nor sold to minors. In 1977, the sale of beverages low in alcohol content was also included in the systembolaget monopoly. As the systembolagets are closed over the weekend, long queues form in front of them on Friday afternoon. The ruling increased the popularity of the Baltic Sea ferries, which opened their duty free shops once outside the 3 mile zone.
Cultural History . In 1956 the equestrian events of the Olympic summer games were held in Stockholm; Sweden hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1958, the home team being defeated by Brazil in the final game 5-2. Sweden hosted the Ice Hockey World Championships in 1949, 1954 and 1963; the Swedish team took the championship in 1953, 1957 and 1962, took second place in 1951, 1963, 1964, 1967 and 1969.
In 1956, Swedish Television began to broadcast. In 1963 the Swedish Film Institute was founded. The "WASA", a sailship which sunk in Stockholm harbour in 1628, was raised in 1961; a separate museum was built to display it, opening in 1990.
Administration . Gustaf VI. Adolf was king from 1950 to 1973, Carl XVI. Gustaf since 1973. The office of PM was held by Olof Palme (SAP) 1969-1976, by Thorbjörn Fälldin (CP) 1976-1982, by Olof Palme (SAP) 1982-1986 and by Ingvar Carlsson (SAP) 1986-1991. Parliamentary elections were held in 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1985 and 1988.
Foreign Policy . Sweden had joined the EFTA in 1960 and followed a strict course of neutrality. Sweden continually was actively engaged in UN peacekeeping missions, among others on the Sinai peninsula (1973ff). The Swedish government actively supported the ANC struggle against Apartheid in South Africa.
In 1973 Chile (following the coup d'etat there) declared the Swedish ambassador in Santiago unwelcome.
Political History . In 1971 Sweden switched from a bicameral to a unicameral parliamentary system. 40 years of Social Democratic rule ended in 1976 with the formation of a coalition government led by Thorbjörn Fälldin (Center Party). The Social Democrats returned to power in 1982. The assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme (SAP) in 1986 made Sweden realize that they were not living on an island of harmony, that terrorism could also affect their country.
In 1979 Sweden was one of the first countries in the world to opt out of nuclear energy; the country can afford to, because of its abundant resources of hydroelectric power.
The Economy . The Oil Crisis of 1973 significantly changed the economic situation. Sweden's welfare state had become too costly by far, financed in part by exorbitant tax rates for the earners of high incomes, many of whom emigrated for that reason (for instance tennis players such as BJörn Borg, who became a citizen of tax paradise Monaco). In 1976, after 40 years of Social Democratic rule, Thorbjörn Fälldin (Farmers' Party, heading a center-right coalition) was elected prime minister. Attempts to scale down taxes and the welfare programme were confronted by the labour organization; in a 1980 labour conflict 700,000 Swedish workers were locked out by their employers. In 1981 the Swedish currency was devalued by 10 %. In the late 1980es it had become apparent that the Welfare State had become too expensive; Sweden's industry threatened with emigration, and a general reform was agreed upon (1989-1992). Benefits were cut down to a sustainable level.
Social History . The population of Sweden rose from 7.97 million in 1969 to 8.59 million in 1990. Until the mid-1970es, unemployment was negligible; from 1976 to 1983 it almost tripled, the Swedish welfare state proving no longer capable of providing full employment. In the early 1970es Sweden continued to register an influx of labour immigrants; throughout the period Sweden accepted asylum seekers. Late in the 1980es certain circles of Swedish society began to oppose further immigration, some of them with violent means. In the Swedish Lutheran church, the first female priests were ordained in 1958, the first female bishop in 1997.
Cultural History . Tennis players Björn Borg, Mats Wilander and Stefan Edberg, alpine skier Ingemar Stenmark were leaders in their respective sports. Sweden's national men's ice hockey team took 2nd place in world championships in 1969, 1970, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1986 and 1990 and won the world cup in 1987; Sweden hosted the ice hockey world championships in 1969, 1970, 1981 and 1989, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championship in 1974 and 1980 (Falun).
Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, actor Max von Sydow enjoyed/enjoy worldwide recognition. Swedish pop-group ABBA dominated the charts from 1972 to 1982.
Administration . King Carl XVI. Gustaf rules since 1973. The office of PM was held by Inger Gösta Carlsson (SAP) 1986-1991, by Carl Bildt (MS) 1991-1994, by Inger Gösta Carlsson (SAP) 1994-1996, by Göran Persson (SAP) 1996-2006, by Fredrik Reinfeldt (MS) since 2006. Parliamentary elections were held in 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010. The capital is Stockholm.
Foreign Policy . Sweden applied for EU membership in 1990 and was admitted in 1995 (which meant Sweden left EFTA). In 2001 Sweden implemented the stipulations of the Schengen agreement and abolished regular controls at her borders with Norway, Finland and Denmark. Sweden did not introduce the Euro when it was launched in 2002.
Sweden is actively involved in international affairs, supported the ANC during the Apartheid Era, regularly contributes forces to UN peacekeeping missions. At the same time Sweden stays out of multinational military operations, remains true to her longstanding policy of neutrality. Sweden cultivates good-neighbourly relations with her Nordic neighbours.
Swede Hans Blix, as IAEA inspector searching for WMD in Iraq, made headlines as he proposed an extension of inspections, as opposed to the U.S. administration which planned, and then implemented, military action against Iraq.
Political History . From 1936 to 1976 Sweden had experienced 40 years of uninterrupted Social Democratic rule; the SAP would continue to be an important force in Swedish politics, providing PMs for 1982-1991 and 1994-2006; during the years 1976-1982, 1991-1994 and since 2006 parties other than the SAP provided the PM. The policies of modern Sweden, from the welfare state aspect to her traditional neutrality, her diplomacy, her treatment of asylum seekers and labour immigrants, are widely associated with social democracy. The competitors of the SAP, emphasizing alternative political philosophies, occasionally were successful in winning elections, but when in government for a few years alienated voters who felt more comfortable with a Social Democratic-led administration. Sweden long had been a one-big-party-and-a-number-of-second-rate-parties-lacking-profile-system. Only in the 1990es did MS (the Moderate Coalition Party, former Conservatives) emerge as an alternative to the SAP, did Sweden move toward a two-party system.
Crisis of the Welfare State . Sweden, widely regarded the archetype of a welfare state, in the early 1990es experienced a crisis. The welfare state, as it was, had become unsustainable; unemployment rose drastically. The government mediated an agreement of the political parties, trade unions and employers' federations regarding cuts in the welfare state; Sweden applied for EU membership. Sweden is still a welfare state, but the scope of the benefits has been reduced.
Rising Xenophobia . Scandinavians in the 1960es were under the impression that urban terrorism in central, western and southern Europe were phenomena of only partially democratized societies where the state still exercized a degree of suppression, for instance laws in the FRG banning Communists from taking employment as teachers; they thought that Scandinavia was immune to such violence; Sweden in the 1960es actually had received immigrants from the FRG and other European countries who had come to live in a free society. Unemployment rose in the 1980es and 1990es, and with it xenophobia emerged as some Swedes blamed the presence and influx of foreigners for the lack of jobs. The assassination of PM Olof Palme in 1986 and of Foreign Minister Anna Lindh in 2003 destroyed the myth of Scandinavia being an island of harmony.
The Economy . In the early 1990es Sweden experienced a severe recession, in 1996 to 2000 a period of solid economic groth, a short recession 2001-2003 and a period of further solid economic growth since 2004. In the early 1990es Sweden underwent reforms which were to reduce the excessive costs of the Swedish welfare state, and to increase the competitiveness of the country's industries. Sweden in 1995 joined the EU and WTO, but did not introduce the Euro when it was launched in 2002. Swedish brands such as Volvo, Saab, Scania, Ericsson, SKF and IKEA enjoy recognition worldwide.
Since 2000, Sweden is connected by a combination of bridge and tunnel with Copenhagen, Denmark.
Social History . A 1990 census counted 8.59 inhabitants of Sweden; the number for July 2007 is estimated at 9.03 million.
Sweden traditionally has accepted asylum seekers as well as labour immigrants (which, in many other European countries, were labelled by the euphemistic term 'guest workers'. The number of refugees and asylum seekers from Iraq in Sweden was reported at 25,900 in March 2003, at 60 to 70,000 in April 2004, at 79,200 in Dec. 2006. Those who enter Sweden with the purpose to stay are enrolled in Swedish language courses.
Cultural History . Golfer Annika Sörenstam, alpine skier Anja Pärson, tennis player Stefan Edberg were/are leaders in their respective sports. Sweden always was competitive in the Nordic sports, such as cross country skiing and ice hockey. The Swedish men's national ice hockey team won Olympic gold in 1994 and 2006, the world championships in 1998 and 2006.
Historical Encyclopedia Entries : Lapps 1809-1905
Historical Atlas, Sweden Page
Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, The History of Winter Sports until 1936 (2008)
Student's Paper : Park, Jihyeon : Sweden's Neutrality in Two World Wars (2008)
Student's Paper : Sim, Chi-Kyu : Sweden and World War I (2007)
Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources .
Bibliographic and Print Sources |
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
from BBC Country Profiles;
from World Desk Reference ;
from Nations Encyclopedia;
from Index Mundi;
from CIA World Factbook, countries - Sweden |
Fact Sheets about Sweden, from the Sweden.SE, on many topics, including history and related topics, many as pdf-files
J. Robinson, An account of Sweden together with an extract of the history of that kingdom
1717, IA |
E. Adams-Ray, Sweden : a short handbook on Sweden's history, industries, social systems, sport, art, scenery, etc. 1906, IA
H.W. Wheelwright, Ten years in Sweden: being a description of the landscape, climate, domestic life, forests, mines, agriculture, field sports, and fauna of Scandinavia, 1865, GB
from Library of Congress, Portals to the World;
from BUBL |
List of Sweden-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
from Virtual Library History;
from Univ. Greifswald, in German;
from Virtual Library Labour History;
from Virtual Library Women's History;
from Virtual Library Economic and Business History |
Resources on European History : Scandinavia, from Carnegie Mellon Univ., numerous links
Category History of Sweden, from Wikipedia
Links on Samiland, from Dept. of Scandinavian Studies, Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison
essays.se, search for Sweden History, Swedish History etc.
European History Primary Sources : Sweden, from Virtual Library History
Vitterhetsakademien / Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and
Svenska Historiska Föreningen
Swedish History Teachers Association , from Euroclio
Genealogiska Föreningen; Swedish Heraldry Society
SSPD - Swedish Postal History Society; Swedish Numismatic Society
Archaeology : Sweden, from CIRS
Riksantikvarieämbetet (Office responsible for historical monuments)
Forum för levande historia
Skåne's Historisk Lexikon, from Fotevikens
Museum, in Swedish; organized by historical periods, not by keywords and names; under construction |
Nordisk Familjebok 1st edition 1876-1899, 2nd edition 1904-1926, posted on Project Runeberg
H. Haar et al. (ed.), Kirke-leksikon for Norden 1900, in Danish, posted on Internet Archive
Svenskt Konversations-Lexicon, vol.1, A-G, 1845, vol.2, H-N, 1847, vol.3, N-S, 1848, vol.4, T-Ö, 1851, in Swedish, GB
KarlXII.se, en webplats om Svensk Stormakthistoria |
from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US
newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century;
from BBC News, 1905- |
Category : Years in Sweden, from Wikipedia
|Accounts of History||General, Modern||
from Univ. Borås |
S. von Pufendorf, The compleat history of Sweden : from its origin to this time
1702, IA |
S. de Pufendorf, Histoire de Suede, avant et depuis la fondation de la monarchie vol.1 1748, vol.2 1748, vol.3 1748, in French, GB
A. Botin, Utkast Till Svenska Folkets Historia vol.1 1757, vol.2 1764, in Swedish, GB
Book III : Sweden, pp.429-676 in vol.1 of John Williams, The rise, progress, and present state of the northern governments, 1777, GB
D.F. Rühs, Geschichte Schwedens vol.s 1-2, 1803, in German, GB
D.G. von Ekendahl, Geschichte des schwedischen Volks und Reichs vol.1 1827, vol.2 pt.1 1828, in German, GB
E.G. Geijer, Svenska folkets historia vol.1, 1832, GB, vol.3, 1836, GB
A. Fryxell, The History of Sweden, 1844, GB
Anders Fryxell, Berättelser ur svenska historien, vol.1 : Hedniska Tiden, 1866, GB, vol.2 : Katolska Tiden, 1866, GB, vol.3 : Lutherska Tiden : Gustav I. och Erik XIV., 1851, GB, vol.4 : Lutherska Tiden : Johan III och Sigismund, 1864, GB, vol.5 : Carl den Nionde, 1863, GB, vol.6 : Gustav II Adolf, 1857, GB, vol.7 : Drottning Kristinas Förmyndare (I), 1864, GB, vol.8 : Drottning Kristinas Förmyndare (II), 1864, GB, vol.9 : Drottning Kristina (I), 1862, GB, vol.10 : Drottning Kristina (II), 1861, GB, vol.11 : Konung Karl den Tionde Gustaf, Pt.1, 1868, GB, vol.12 : Konung Karl den Tionde Gustaf, Pt.2, 1868, GB, vol.13 : Konung Karl den Elftes Förrmyndare (I), 1863, GB, vol.14 : Konung Karl den Elftes Förrmyndare (II), 1867, GB, vol.15 : Karl den Elftes Historia. Ungdoms- och Krigsaren, 1867, GB, vol.16 : Karl den Elftes Historia. Gunstlingarna, Enväldet och Förmyndarräfsten, 1861, GB, vol.17 : Karl den Elftes Historia : Reduktions-verken, 1862, GB, vol.18 : Karl den Elftes Historia : Om In- och Utrikes-Ärenderne, 1862, GB, vol.19 : Karl den Elftes Historia : Karl den Elftes och hans Samtida af Konungahuset och af Högadels- och Rådspartierna, 1863, GB, vol.20 : Karl den Elftes Samtida, sista Regeringsår och Död, 1863, GB, vol.21 : Karl den Tolftes Historia. Karl den Tolftes Ungdom och Första Krigsår samt Afsettningsfelden mot Konung August, 1868, GB, vol.22 : Kriget mot Ryssland 1701-1709, 1868, GB, vol.23 : Karl den Tolftes Regering : Karl den Tolftes i Turkiet, 1856, GB, vol.24 : Karl den Tolftes Regering : Sverige och Svenskarna under Konungens Frånvaro 1700-1712, 1857, GB, vol.25 : Karl den Tolftes Regering : Magnus Stenbocks Sista Fälttåg, Fångenskap och Död, 1857, GB, Karl den Tolftes Regering : Vistelse i Stralsund samt In- och Utrikes-Ärenderna, 1858, GB, vol.27 : Karl den Tolftes Regering : Karl den Tolfte och hans Samtida, 1858, GB, Karl den Tolftes Regering : Görtziska Tiden. Inrikes Styrelse, 1859, GB, vol.29 : Karl den Tolftes Regering : Görtziska Tiden, Krigsrörelse och Fredsunderhandlingar samt Konungens sista Fälttåg och Död, 1859, GB, vol.30 : Ulrika Eleonoras Regering, 1862, GB, vol.31 : Fredriks Regering : Tiden från 1720 til 1734, 1863, vol.32 : Fredriks Regering : Arvid Bernhard Horn och hans Samtida, 1863, GB, vol.33 : Fredriks Regering : Sveriges inre Tilstånd Åren 1720-1738 , 1864, GB, vol.34 : Fredriks Regering. Striden mellan Arvid Horn och Karl Gyllenborg samt Ulrika Eleonora Horns sista år, 1864, GB, vol.35 : Fredriks Regering. Hattpartiets Styrelse 1739-1743 och Finska Kriget, 1866, GB, vol.36 : Fredriks Regering. Efterrättning med Hattarna, Dalkarls-Upproret, Tronföljare-Valet och Dyningarna efter Stormen, 1866, GB, vol.37 : Fredriks Regering : Tiden från 1743 til 1751, 1868, GB, vol.38 : Konung Fredrik och hans Sednare Samtida. Rikets inre Styrelse 1743-1750 och Konungens Död, 1868, GB, vol.39 : Adolf Fredriks Regering. Striden mellan Hofvet och Frihetspartiet 1751-1758 , 1869, GB
N.N. Cronholm, A history of Sweden from the earliest times to the present day 1902, IA
R. Svahnstrom, A Short History of Sweden 1934, IA
C. Grimberg, A History of Sweden 1935, IA
|Specific Periods||Viking Era|
|High Middle Ages, 1050-1250||
Article : Early Swedish History (800-1521), from Wikipedia |
Article : Sverige under äldre medeltiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Later Middle Ages
(Folkunga Era, 1250-1389)
Article : Early Swedish History (800-1521), from Wikipedia |
Article : Folkungatiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
|Kalmar Union, 1397-1520||
Article : Early Swedish History (800-1521), from Wikipedia |
Article : Sverige under Kalmarunionens tid, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
C.F. Allen, De tre nordiske rigers historie under Hans, Christiern den Anden, Frederik den Første, Gustav Vasa, Grevefejden 1497-1536, vol.1, 1864 vol.2, 1865, vol.3 pt.1, 1867, vol.3 pt.2, 1867, in Danish, GB
|Older Vasa Era, 1520-1611||
Article : History of Sweden (1523-1611), from Wikipedia |
Article : Äldre vasatiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Anon., The history of Gustavus Vasa: king of Sweden, 1852, GB
|Sweden a Great Power, 1611-1718||
Article : History of Sweden (1611-1648), from Wikipedia |
Article : Stormaktstiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Walter Harte, The history of the life of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden,, 1759, GB
A. Cronholm, Sveriges historia under Gustaf II Adolphs Regering vol.1 1857, vol.2 1857, vol.3 1861, vol.4 1864, vol.5 1857, vol.6.1 1872, in Swedish, GB
B. Chapman, The history of Gustavus Adolphus and of the thirty years' war: up to the king's death; with some account of its conclusion by the peace of Westphalia anno 1648 1856, GB
Article : Swedish Empire (1648-1718), from Wikipedia
J. Lacombe, The history of Christina: queen of Sweden, 1766, GB
Kort Verhael van het Leven van Christina Koninginne van Sweden, tot der tijdt dat zij afstandt van haer Croon heeft gedaen, en tot Bruyssel is gekomen, 1655
H. Woodhead, Memoirs of Christina, queen of Sweden vol.2 1863, IA
F.H. Gribble, The court of Christina of Sweden and the later adventures of the queen in exile 1913, IA
Voltaire, The history of Charles the Twelfth, king of Sweden, 1835, GB
|Age of Liberty, 1718-1772||
Article : Age of Liberty (1719-1772), from Wikipedia |
Article : Frihetstiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
R.A. de Vertot d'Aubeuf, Histoire des Revolutions de Suede, 1722, in French, GB
Era of Freedom, in Holmiensis, The History of Stockholm, click Era of Freedom
Swedish History : Era of Freedom, from ufb.boras
|Gustavian Era, 1772-1809||
Article : History of Sweden (1772-1809), from Wikipedia |
Article : Gustavianska tiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Ch.F. Sheridan, A history of the late revolution in Sweden 1778, GB
An history of the late revolution in Sweden: which happened on the 19th of August 1772, by a gentleman who was a Swede, 1776, GB
Article : Union between Sweden and Norway 1814-1905, from Wikipedia |
Article : Sveriges historia 1809-1866, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
1800-talet och nationalismen i Sverige (19th century and nationalism in Sweden), from Univ. Stockholm
Article : Sweden during the late 19th century, from Wikipedia |
Article : Sveriges historia 1866-1905, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article : Sveriges historia 1905-1914, from Wikipedia Swedish edition |
Article : Sverige under första världskriget, from Wikipedia Swedish edition |
Den Svenska Revolutionen 1917-1918 (The Swedish Revolution, 1917-1918), from arbetarmakt.com, in Swedish; a tendentious site; still a concise description of events in that time
Article : Sverige under mellankrigstiden, from Wikipedia Swedish edition |
Article : Sweden during World War II, from Wikipedia |
Article : Sverige under andra världskriget, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article : History of Sweden (1945-1967), from Wikipedia |
Article : Sveriges historia 1945-1967, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article : History of Sweden (1967-1991), from Wikipedia |
Article : Sveriges historia 1968-1991, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
|Sweden since 1991||
Article : History of Sweden (1991-present), from Wikipedia |
Article : Sveriges historia från 1991, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Swedish Political Culture : Historiography, blog |
Political Resources on the Net : Sweden;
Governments on the WWW : Sweden |
Category : Politics of Sweden, from Wikipedia
Article Politics of Sweden, from Wikipedia;
Fact Sheets Government & Politics, from
Articles : Riksdag of the Estates,
History of the Riksdag, from Wikipedia |
Articles : Sveriges ståndsriksdag, Adelsståndet i Sverige, Prästeståndet i Sverige, Borgarståndet i Sverige, Bondeståndet i Sverige, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
N. von Steyern, Bidrag till svenska riksdagens historia, 1600-1650 1863, in Swedish, GB
Article : Swedish Labour Movement, from Wikipedia |
Article : Arbetarrörelsen i Sverige, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Category : Political Parties in Sweden , from Wikipedia
Sweden, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
A. de Miltitz, Manuel des Consuls, vol.2 pt.2 : Des Consulats a l'Etranger par les Principaux Etats de l'Europe et les Etats-Unis de
l'Amerique du Nord, bk.3 : Etablissement des Consulats a l'Etranger,
Section VIII : Suede et Norvege, pp.1109-1185, 1839, in French, GB |
G. Jones, The diplomatic relations between Cromwell and Charles X. Gustavus of Sweden 1897, IA
Sarah Hale, Relations between Russia and Sweden, 1801-1814. Napoleon Bonaparte's Role in Finnish, Swedish and Russian Foreign Policy, 1801-1814, from Nordic Notes
WHKMLA List of Wars of Sweden |
Article Military History of Sweden, from Wikipedia; The many Swedish Wars, by Hans Högman
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sweden, from ODM
G. Adlerfeld, The military history of Charles XII, King of Sweden, vol.1, 1740, vol.2, 1740, vol.3, 1740, GB
Snapphanar - frihetskaempar eller skurkar ?, from Skaanelands Historia, in Swedish and Danish (Snapphanes - freedom fighters or criminals ?)
"Snapphane"-Kriget 1675-1679, by Gunnar Olsson
Friskytter og Snaphaner, from http://www.skaanskfremtid.dk/hist/skfri.html, in Danish
Rysshaerjningen 1719 (Russian raid of the Swedish coast), from Oerregrund foerr och nu, in Swedish
Om interneringen av tyska soldater under 2a Världskriget (On the interning of German soldiers in WW II), from RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, in Swedish
Om Gränsbeväkningen under 2a Världskriget (On Border Guarding in WW II), from RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, in Swedish
Invalidtransporterna (Transports of Invalids); website on the transit of exchanged prisoners of war between Germany and Russia, via neutral Sweden; in Swedish language, illustrated
"Sibiriens Aengel". Svenska hjälpinsatser bland krigsfängar i Ryssland under första världskriget (The Angel of Siberia. Swedish aid campaign among P.O.W.s in Russia), from Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliothek, in Swedish, illustrated
Svenska Brigaden i Finland 1918, from RA Stockhol, Krigsarkivet, in Swedish, illustrated
|Economy & Finances||general||
Fact Sheet Economy & Trade, from Sweden.SE |
The Economic History of Sweden, by Thayer Watkins; from Ekonomifakta
Article : Economy of Sweden, from Wikipedia; Category : Economy of Sweden, from Wikipedia
A.W. af Sillen, Svenska Handelns och Näringarnes Historia vol.1 1851, vol.2 1855, vol.3 1859, vol.4 1865
The National Gain (Den Nationnale Winsten) a treatise by Anders Chydenius, 1765
History of the Nordic
History and Organization, from Swedish Chambers of Commerce
|Currency & Finances||
A Global History of Currencies :
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Skandinavien
De svenska skatternas historia, from RSV (History of Taxation in Sweden) in Swedish
On the Scandinavian Monetary Union : Sam Vaknin, Deja V-uro : History of Previous Monetary Unions, scroll down
L. Müller, Swedish-Portuguese Trade and Swedish Consular Service, 1700-1800 |
Leos Müller, Swedish Consular Reports
as a Source of Business Information, 1700-1800, IEHC 2006 |
Chris Evans, Göran Ryden, Iron Marks as Early Brand Names : Swedish Iron in the Atlantic Market during the 18th Century, IEHC 2006
Ola Honningdal Grytten, Economic Policy and Labour Markets in Nordic Countries during the Great Depression of the 1930es, IEHC 2006
Mats Morell, Gendered Technology in Swedish Agriculture in the Interwar Years : Images of Masculinity and Femininity in Milking Machine Advertisements, IEHC 2006
Lars Svensson, Mother's Time. Technology, Institutions and the Allocation of Time between Household Activities and Market Work in Sweden in the Short Twentieth Century, IEHC 2006
Leif Wegerman, Women's Duty to Work. Women's Economic Citizenship in the Swedish Unemployment Relief in the Interwar Period, IEHC 2006
Lili-Anne Aldman, Textile Merchants Facing Institutional Changes in Stockholm, c.1720-1740, IEHC 2006
Christina Dalhede, Early Modern Merchant Families. Foreign Intermediaries in Swedish Cities. The Gothenburg Market in the 17th Century, IEHC 2006
Klas Nyberg, Financial Networks, Migration and the Transformation of the Merchant Elite in 18th Century Stockholm (draft, IEHC 2006)
Karin Ågren, Marriage and Credits in a Network Perspective : Merchants in Stockholm in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century, IEHC 2006
Kersti Ullenhag, Swedish Industry in the European Movement, IEHC 2006
Maria Stanfors, Educational Segregation and the Meaning of Education to Women in Twentieth Century Sweden, IEHC 2006
Mats Morell, Institutional Change and Growth in Swedish Agriculture in the Late 18th and Early 19th Century, IEHC 2006
Patrick Svensson, Land Market and Agricultural Transformation in Sweden, 1680-1870, IEHC 2006
Ryden, Kjellson and Olofsson, Pre-Industrial Exploitation of the Forest in Northern Sweden, IEHC 2006
Sven Gaunitz, Product Choice in Wood Industries with Growing Demand for Forest Resources : Some Aspects of Growth in the Frames Given by the Wish for Sustainability in Sweden and Fennoscandia 1850-2000, IEHC 2006
Martin Dribe and Patrick Svensson, Changing Migration Patterns and Social Mobility in Southern Sweden, c.1815-1895 IEHC 2006
The Continental system and its relations with Sweden, translated from the French, 1813
|Mining, Metal Industry||
The History of Mining and Inroads in Samiland and Their Effect on the Sami, from
Sami Culture; Stora Kopparberget, from
Showcaves; Sweden Index, from Showcaves,
lists several historic mines |
Sweden Energy Profile, from Energy Information Administration
Henning Hamilton, Slash-and-Burn in the History of Swedish Forests (1997) |
History : Firewood - Timber - Biodiversity, from Skogsstyrelsen (Swedish Forest Agency)
Volvo History, from Volvo Owners Club;
Company History, from Swedish Match;
History, from SKF |
Company History : Nobel Industries AB, Sandvik AB, Aktiebolaget Electrolux, Electrolux AB, Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson, AB Volvo, Saab Automobile AB, Atlas Copco AB, Aktiebolaget SKF, Holmen AB, Swedish Match AB, IKEA International AS, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB), Svenska Handelsbanken AB, from Funding Universe
Cochran, Sherman. Losing Money Abroad: The Swedish Match Company in China during the 1930s. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 16 (1987): 83-91.
Articles : Ståndssamhälle,
Adelsståndet i Sverige,
Prästeståndet i Sverige,
Borgarståndet i Sverige,
Bondeståndet i Sverige, from Wikipedia Swedish edition |
|Crime & Punishment||
W. Coxe, Account of the prisons and hospitals in Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 1781, GB |
Sweden, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour Around the World
Article : Torsåker Witch Trials, from Wikipedia |
Witch processes at Torsaker, 1675, by Hans Högman, in Swedish
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Sweden |
The Welfare State, from Swedish History - The Modern Age, from ufb.boras |
Undermining the Welfare State in Sweden, by Tor Wennerberg, from Z Magazine 1995
The Civil Society in the Welfare State, by Karin Busch Zetterberg, from ValueScope
The Ups and Downs of the Swedish Welfare State, by H.L. Ginsburg and M.G. Rosenthal
Swedish History, 1945- : Social Security, 1945-1960, from Nordic Usenet
Article : Welfare in Sweden, Wikipedia
N. Faher, European Wekfare States, Country Cases and Links : Sweden
A. Bergh, The Rise, Fall and Revival of the Swedish Welfare State: What are the Policy Lessons from Sweden ? 2011
U. Klas et al., Social Rights and Social Security: The Swedish Welfare State, 1900-2000, Scandinavian Journal of History, 26:3 2001, pp.157-176
Hjordis Levin, Neo-Malthusianism in Sweden, from Populatique
Languages of Sweden, from Ethnologue |
Minority Languages of Sweden, from Wikipedia
The History of Mining and Inroads in Samiland and Their Effect on the Sami, from Sami Culture
Articles Saami, Swedes, Scandinavian Peripatetics (Roma), from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sweden
E. Dooner, Sweden's Saami Policy 1550 - Present: Racist ?, Sami Culture
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sweden, from
Kirken i Norge |
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Sweden, from Jewish Virtual Library; Sweden, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Sweden, from Wikipedia
Patron Saints Index : Sweden
Church History, from Svenska Kyrkan (Church of Sweden)
J. Lumsden, Sweden : its religious state and prospects, 1855, GB
L.A. Anjou, The history of the Reformation in Sweden, 1859, GB
Sweden - Index, from Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy
History of the Swedish Jews, from Judiska Museet (Stockholm's Jewish Museum
|History of Regions||
Tacitus, Sveriges landskap, in Swedish |
History of Scania (Skåne), from Wikipedia
Gotland, from Wikipedia; by Eve Andersson
History of Norrland, from Wikipedia
A Bit of Dalarna History and Culture, by Rosalie Sundin
Counties of Sweden, from www.statoids.com
History of Stockholm, from Lonely Planet,
from photo.net, illustrated;
from K-Nytt, in Swedish |
History of Gothenburg (Göteborg), from Wikipedia
History of Malmö, from Wikipedia
History of Uppsala, from Wikipedia
History of Kiruna, from Kiruna Community
History of Flight : Sweden, from Flight 100;
Sweden, from Airline History |
History of Broadcasting in Sweden, from The Broadcast Archive; Sveriges Radio, from Wikipedia; Sveriges Television, from Wikipedia
History of Rail Transport in Sweden, from Wikipedia
Sweden, from Bruse's Funiculars.net
History of Uppsala University; History of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Structurae : Sweden
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Sweden
Article Sweden at the Olympics,
Sport in Sweden,
Swedish Ice Hockey Champions,
Swedish National Men's Ice Hockey Team,
Vasaloppet, from Wikipedia |
History of Sweden's Athletic Movement, from Univ. Boras
|Biographies||Standard Works of Reference||
Svensk Biografiskt Handleksikon (1906, in Swedish), from Project Runeberg |
J.F. af Lundblad, Svensk Plutark, 1820, 1823, in Swedish, GB
|Web Compilations, General||
click here |
List of Swedes, from Wikipedia
Paper Industry International Hall of Fame Inductees; a number of Swedish entries |
Svensk Biografi, pt.1 : Medeltidens märkvärdigaste personer, 1818, GB
Sveriges statsministrar genom tiderna, in Swedish, with biographies on every statsminister
Disaster History by Country : Sweden, from Relief Web,
Category : Disasters in Sweden, from Wikipedia |
History of the Swedish Vegetarian Societies, from ivu |
The Swedish Order of Freemasons, from Masonic Travels; History, from Frimurarorden
Die Zensur in den Niederlanden und in Skandinavien, in : J. Hilgers, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher. In seiner neuen Fassung dargelegt und rechtlich-historisch gewürdigt, 1904, in German, IA
Oklarheter kring Axel von Fersen's død, by Per-Erik Karlsson
WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES |
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
|Historical Data||Lists of Statesmen||
from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon);
from Rulers (B. Schemmel);
from Regnal Chronologies;
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated) |
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Sweden
|Lists of Ambassadors||
List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Sweden, from
Wikipedia 1653- ;
Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Stockholm (Schweden), from
Wikipedia German edition |
Article : United States Ambassador to Sweden, from Wikipedia; Embajadores de Mexico en Suecia, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Chinese Ambassadors to Sweden, from PRC MOFA
List of French representatives in Stockholm, of Sweden in France pp.ix-xiv in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
|Lists of Consuls||
Political Graveyard : Sweden - Consuls (incomplete list of U.S. consuls) |
|Lists of Bishops||
Liste der Bischöfe und Erzbischöfe von Lund, from Wikipedia German edition |
List of Archbishops of Uppsala, from Wikipedia
Listor öfver svenska biskopar, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
|Statistical Data||Responsible Institution||
Statistics Sweden |
Historical Population Statistics : Sweden, from Population Statistics, J. Lahmeyer |
Sweden : Demographic Characteristics, from Swedish Social Science Data Service
Historical Abortion Statistics - Sweden, from Johnston's Archive
Demographic Data Base : Population Statistics Tabellverket, data 1749-1851 covering all of Sweden
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile : Sweden
|Economic Statistical Data||
Lund University Macroeconomic and Demographic Database |
Swedish Social Science Data Service, Univ. Göteborg
Sweden, State Revenue 1722-1809, from ESFDB
Historical Monetary Statistics of Sweden 1668-2008
Swedish Historical National Accounts 1800-2000
Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990 |
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000 |
Global Rates : Inflatie Zweden, graph has data since 1955
from Psephos (since 1998);
from IFES Election Guide |
Elections and Electoral Systems around the world : Sweden, from Area Studies, at Keele
Lijphart's Elections Archive : Sweden
|Documents||Historical Newspapers||Official Gazette||
Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Sweden |
Article : Författningsamling, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Post- och inrikes tidningar 1821-2006, in Swedish, posted by Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm
Article : Post- och inrikes tidningar, from Wikipedia
Digitaliserad Dagspress, KB |
Digitaliserade svenska dagstidningar, from KB Stockholm
History of Sweden, from World History
Archives, a number of 1995 to 1997 newspaper articles |
Life Magazine, 1936-1972,
Search for "Sweden", search all issues; 1430 Sweden articles, GB |
links from Online Newspapers,
from World Newspapers |
Indexes and Guides to Western European Periodicals: Language Specific-Swedish, from Wess Web
P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat du Roy du Suede, in French,
1613, pp.791-811, GB;
1614, pp.789-809, GB;
1616, pp.789-809, GB;
1617, pp.789-809, GB;
1621, vol.2 pp.53-74, GB;
1628, pp.791-811, GB;
1630, pp.562-576, GB;
1633, pp.791-811, GB;
1659, pp.515-525, GB |
Die Durchlauchten Häuser in Europa : Der König in Schweden 1702 pp.49-53, 1705 pp.92-69 [!], 1708 pp.102-110, 1716 pp.130-138, 1725 pp.108-116, in German, GB
Die Durchlauchtige Welt : König in Schweden, 1710 pp.217-241, 1739 pp.230-257, in German, GB
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : von Schweden 1730 pp.107-110, 1732 pp.84-86, 1737 pp.87-89, 1738 pp.86-88, 1741 pp.86-89, 1742 pp.86-89, 1745 pp.94-100, 1746 pp.98-104, 1747 pp.101-107, 1749 pp.106-114, in German, GB
M. Gottlieb Schumanns genealogisches Handbuch : von Schweden, 1758 pp.77-84, 1760 pp.79-86, in German, GB
Neues genealogisch-schematisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Schweden, siehe Hessen-Cassel 1748 pp.72-73, p.257, 1750 pp.97-98, 304, 1752 pp.118-119, 350, 1756 pp.139-140, 358, 1758 pp.136-137, 357, 1759 pp.140-141, 366, 1760 pp.139-140, 370, 1761 pp.134-135, 377, 1762 pp.136-137, 383, 1764 pp.129-130, 374, 1765 pp.146-147, 414, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : von Schweden, 1756 pp.79-86, 1766 pp.90-97, 1768 pp.92-100, 1770 pp.93-101, 1772 pp.89-96, 1774 pp.87-95, 1776 pp.87-96, 1780 pp.91-101, 1782 pp.92-102, 1784 pp.91-102, 1786 pp.94-105, 1788 pp.90-100, 1790 pp.93-104, 1792 pp.86-98, 1794 pp.83-94, 1800 pp.94-107, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... : Danemarck vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.202-213, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.225-237, in French, GB
Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Schweden 1799 pt.2 pp.108-110, 1800 pt.2, pp.120-127, 1802 pt.2, pp.424-433, 1803 pt.2, pp.190-200, in German, GB
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch : Schweden und Norwegen, vol.65 pp.220-235, 1827, vol.66 pp.261-276, 1835, vol.67 pp.275-291, 1839, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, Schweden, vol.1 : 1824 pp.334-337, 1824, vol.2 : 1825 pp.334-337, 1824, vol.3 : 1826 pp.366-369, 1826, vol.6 : 1830 pp.463-470, vol.7 : 1831 pp.466-474, vol.8 : 1832 pp.534-543, vol.9 : 1833 pp.534-543, 1832, vol.10 : 1834 pp.547-557, 1833, Schweden und Norwegen vol.11 : 1834 pp.565-574, 1834, vol.12 : 1835 pp.654-663, 1835, vol.13 : 1836 pp.631-641, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.587-597, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.719-733, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.740-754, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.740-754, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 pp.635-648, 1846, in German, GB
Almanach de Gotha : Suede et Norvege vol.86 pp.72-73, 1849, vol.87 pp.73, 1850, vol.89 pp.72-73, 1852, vol.90 pp.73, 1853, vol.94 pp.78, 1857, vol.95 pp.78, 1858, vol.97 pp.82, 1860, vol.102 pp.96-97, 1865, vol.106 pp.107-108, 1869, in French, GB
Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Sweden and Norway, Sweden vol.1 1864 pp.457-472, 477-478 GB, vol.2 1865 pp.445-470, 475-476, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.463-479, 485-486, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.455-468, 474-475, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.455-468, 474-475, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.455-468, 474-475, GB, 1870 pp.417-429, GB, 1871, pp.417-429, IA, 1872, pp.417-430, IA, 1873, pp.408-420, IA, 1874, pp.408-420, IA, 1875, pp.408-420, IA, 1876, pp.411-423, IA, 1877, pp.415-427, IA, 1878, pp.423-435, IA, 1879, pp.423-435, IA, 1880, pp.423-435, IA, 1881, pp.423-435, IA, 1883, pp.423-435, IA, 1884, pp.444-457, IA, 1885, pp.452-465, IA, 1886, pp.463-476, IA, 1887, pp.479-492, IA, 1888, pp.481-495, IA, 1889, pp.487-501, IA, 1890, pp.946-961, IA, 1891, pp.951-966, IA, 1892, pp.961-976, IA, 1894, pp.962-978, IA, 1895, pp.963-978, IA, 1896, pp.963-978, IA, 1898, pp.963-978, IA, 1899, pp.1025-1040, IA, 1903, pp.1105-1121, IA, 1913, pp.1270-1287, IA, 1919, pp.1271-1289, IA, 1921, pp.1299-1316, IA
GenWiki : Staatskalender : Schweden |
Article : Sveriges Statskalender, from Wikipedia Swedish edition; from Project Runeberg
Sveriges Statskalender Wikipedia Swedish edition (1728-), Project Runeberg has editions 1877, 1881, 1905, 1915, 1925, 1955, 1963, 1964, 1984
Sveriges och Norges stats-kalender 1864, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, GB
Svensk Rikskalender 1908, from Project Runeberg
Administratif och statistisk handbok, såsom bihang till Sveriges statskalender 1872, IA
Article : Journalfilm, from Wikipedia Swedish edition;
see SF-journalen |
George C. Marshall Motion Pictures |
|Films on History/Society||
Swedish Film Institute;
Swedish Royal Library,
Filmarchive Grängesberg |
Tom McSorley, from A Brief History of Swedish Film, Article : Cinema of Sweden, from Wikipedia
Historical Movies in Chronological Order : V.2 : Reformation and Religious Conflict (mostly Swedish films); Historical Movies by Nation : Sweden (previous site has more Swedish history movies than this one)
Sweden, from Cinema of the World; film.fm : Genre History, Swedish
Digitalt Museum |
Historical Postcards : Stockholm, Wasagatan, c. 1905,
Karlskrona 1895 from L.O. Stenborg's Old Postcard Homepage |
Yelah Bildarkivet (Yelah image archive), collection of images on history of the labour movement in and outside of Sweden, 20th c, comment in Swedish
Scandinavian Seals (all Swedish), Seals of Secular Individuals (many of them Swedish), posted by the Medieval Institute Library
Wikimedia Commons : Category : Historical Images of Sweden |
Items on Sweden
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports; scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Sweden
WW II propaganda posters No.1, calling for Swedes to volunteer for fighting in Finland; No.2, posted by Old Eagle's Poster Archive
Swedish Merchant Marine Losses in WW II, posted by Lars Bruzelius
Poster Olympic Games Stockholm 1912, from Treasures from Europe's National Libraries
Olympic Summer Games Stockholm 1912, from Olympic Website
Official Report, Olympic Summer Games Stockholm 1912, posted by LA 84 Foundation
|Archival Deposits||in Sweden||
Digitaliserade Samlingar, Universitetsbibliotek Lund |
Svenska Ostindiska Kompaniets Arkiv, posted by Univ. Göteborg
U.S. : Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Sweden |
U.K. : National Archives; search for Sweden
NL : Nationaalarchief, Inventories of the archives of : Legaties in Zweden, Pruisen, Polen en Saksen, 1674-1810; Nederlands Gezantschap in Zweden, Noorwegen en Denemarken, 1863-1910; Nederlands Gezantschap in Zweden en Noorwegen [1814-1864]; vice-consulaat te Visby (Zweden), 1890-1950; Consulaat (sinds 1883 Consulaat-Generaal) te Stockholm (Zweden), 1821-1920; Vice-Consulaat Skelleftea, 1901-1905; Vice-Consulaat Drammen, 1868-1892; gezantschappen te Zweden (Stockholm) (1868) 1910-1946 (1948) (tot 1919 mede-geaccrediteerd bij de regeringen van Noorwegen en Denemarken) en te Finland (Helsinki) 1919-1940; Consulaat-Generaal te Stockholm (Zweden) [1896-1946]; gezantschap te Zweden (1944) 1946-1954; vice-consulaat te Malmö (Zweden); Vice-Consulaat te Öxelösund (Zweden), 1898-1942
handrit.is, database of manuscripts including Arnamagnaeiska Samling, Copenhagen; National Library Iceland, Stofnun Arna Magnussonar
Verfassungen des Königreichs Schweden (Constitutions of the Kingdom of Sweden), from
verfassungen.eu, in German |
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Sweden, from
ILO, 90 docs. since 1919 |
Internet Law Library : Sweden
Corpus iuris Sueo-Gotorum antiqui : vol.1 : Westgötalagen, 1827, GB, vol.2 : östgötalagen, 1830, GB, vol.3 : Upplandslagen, 1834, GB, vol.4 :Södermanna-lagen, 1838, GB, vol.5 : Westmannalagen, 1841, GB, vol.6 : Helsingelagen, Kristnu-Balken af Smalandslagen, BJörkoarätten, 1844, GB, vol.7 : Gotlands-Lagen, 1852, GB, vol.8 : Visby Stadslag og Sjorätt, 1853, GB, vol.9 : Skånelagen, 1859, GB, vol.10 : Konung Magnus Erikssons Landslag, 1862, GB, vol.11 : Konung Magnus Erikssons Stadslag, 1865, GB
Samling utaf Kongl. bref, stadgar och förordningar &c. angående Sweriges Rikes Commerce, Politie och Oeconomie, vol.3, 1753, GB, vol.6 1775, GB
Forme du gouvernement de Suede : ratifiee par le roi et les Etats du royaume a Stockholm le 21 Aout 1772, avec les Discours prononcee a la diete, a l'occasion de sa cloture, 1772, in French, GB
J. Hadorph, Gothlands-Laghen, 1687, GB
AM 52 4to, The Law Book of Sweden 1390-1410
AM 53 4to, Magnus Eriksson's National Law of Sweden 1250-1299
lagrummet.se : alla våra rättskällor
|Treaties||General Treaty Collections|
|Bilateral Treaty Collections||
Australian Treaty series :
Bilateral Treaties - Sweden |
Schweden, pp.216-219 in Johann Vesque von P?tlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Suede, pp.130-133 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
J.G. Liljegren, Svenskt Diplomatarium, comment in Swedish, documents mostly in Latin,
vol.1 : 817-1285, 1829, IA,
vol.2 : 1286-1310 1837, GB |
Svenskt Diplomatarium, search engine for Swedish medieval documents; in Swedish
E. Brate, Runic Inscriptions in Sweden |
Kategori : Krönikor, from Wikipedia Swedish edition |
Sverige krönika, eller Prosaiska krönikan efter Holm D 26; Wikipedia Article (Engl.)
Erikskrönikan, posted by Project Runeberg; Wikipedia Article (Engl.)
AM 899 4to Old Swedish Chronicles, Sweden 1500-1600
Chronicle Excerpts on the Battle at Brunkeberg, posted by Nationalismen - dess historia och nutida roll, Stockholm University, in Swedish
British Library, Social Sciences Collection Guides,
Swedish Government Documents |
Ch.29 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Sveciae, pp.731-746 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
European History Primary Sources : Sweden |
Documents on Swedish History, from Eurodocs
Documents on Sweden's Naval History, posted by Lars Bruzelius
Bibliotheca historica Sueo-Gothica; eller Förtekning uppå så väl trykte, som handskrifne Böcker, Tractater och Skrifter, hvilka handler om Svenska Historien, vol.1, 1782, GB, vol.2, 1783, GB, vol.3, 1787, GB, vol.4, 1788, GB, vol.5, 1790, GB, vol.6, 1791, GB, vol.7, 1793, GB, vol.8, 1801, GB, vol.9, 1803, GB, vol.10, 1805, GB, vol.11, 1805, GB; scroll down, vol.12, 1815, GB, vol.13, 1816, GB, vol.14, 1817, GB, vol.15, 1817, GB
Documents on and around Sten Sture the Younger, posted by Nationalismen - dess historia och nutida roll, Stockholm University, in Swedish
C.G. Silverstople (ed.), Förordningar rörande banko-werket
1817, in Swedish, GB |
The declarations of their majesties the king of Sweden, the emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia and the King of England which demonstrate that the Restoration of general Tranquillity is retarded only by the Flagrant Injustice and the Instatiable Ambition of the Common Enemy, 1806, GB
Reglemente för arbets- och korrektionshusinrättningen uti Carlstads län, 1812, GB
Ihro Koenigl. Majest. zu Schweden erneuerte Wechsel-Ordnung (1747), 1749, in German, GB
Isaac de Pas, Propositie Van de Fransche Ambassadeur, mijn Heer de Marquis van Feuquieres gedaen aan zijn Majesteit de Konink van Sweden op den 17 Augusti 1674, 1674, in Dutch, GB
Maarten Triewald, A Short Description of the Fire- and Air- Machine at the Dannemora Mines (= steam engine), Stockholm 1734, posted by Rochester Univ.
Besattningens loner i daler silvermynt pa batarna Cronprinsen Adolph Friederic 1749 och Cron Prins Gustaf 1767 (sailor's wages on the ships .. 1749, 1767) from Ostindiska Kompaniet
King Gustav III.'s proclamation declaring St. Barthelemy a free port, Sept. 7th 1785, posted by Pauli Kruhse
Kongl. Maj:ts och Riksens Standers faststalte Regerings-Form (the 1772 constitution), from A selection of events and documents on the history of Finland, in Swedish
Etude sur les troupes de Suede en 1805, from Histofig
L'armee suedoise a la bataille de Gross-Beeren le 23 Aout 1813, from Histofig
Report from the H.M.S. Implacable on the Swedish Fleet, August 1808
Reports from H.M.S. Implacable off Helsingborg, April 23td 1808 and May 5th 1808
Report from off the Koll, on the fall of Sveaborg, from May 11th 1808
Proclamation of Gustav IV. on the fall of Sveaborg, from A selection of events and documents on the history of Finland
Treaty between the Kingdom of Hawai`i and the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, 1852, from Hawaiian Independence Home Page
UN General Assembly 1946 Resolution No.34, Admission of Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden
Emily Greene : Peace Delegates in Scandinavia and Russia, from How Did Women Peace Envoys Promote Peace by Touring European Capitals in 1915 ?, from Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1830-1930 (open letter to many govts., on Copenhagen, Christiania, Stockholm)
French propaganda postcard featuring neutral Sweden : There are certainly some leakages, 1915, from WW I Propaganda Postcards, scroll down; Artist Emil Dupuis
The 1917 Stockholm Peace Conference, from Labour History; intro in English, documents in German
Soldiers' Contract of 1895, Södermanland Regiment, from Svenska Krig, scan, in Swedish
|Historical Maps||Responsible Institution||
Lantmäteriet (Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority) |
WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Sweden Page |
Swedish National Heritage Board, Digital Historical Maps
Sveriges National Atlas
Atlas of Sweden, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Sweden, Maps of the History of Sweden, Wikimedia Commons
David Rumsey Map Collection : Sweden
Sweden Maps, PCL, UTexas
Järnvägskartor (Historical Railroad Net Maps)
Digital Historical Maps, has Swedish and Danish local maps, mostly of the 18th and 19th centuries. Comment available in English
Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps of Yesteryear : Sweden
U.S. Army Map Service, Northern Europe 1:250,000, 1951-, PCL, UTexas
Sveriges landskap 1560, from Wikimedia Commons |
Swedish Empire in Early Modern Europe 1560-1815 , from Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, from Euratlas
Sverige 1050-1389, Kalmarunionen, Vasatiden, Stormaktstiden, 1719-1905, from Historisk Atlas Skandinavien (Tacitus)
Sweden and Norway 1884,
1938, Probert Encyclopedia |
City Panoramas 19th Century, from
Historic Maps, Stockholm 1850 |
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Stockholm, Upsala
Map of Stockholm, 1893, from National Library of Russia
from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German |
Articles Sweden, Gotland, Eskilstuna, Falun, Gothenburg, Kalmar, Karlstad, Linkoping, Lund, Malmo, Motala, Norrkoping, Orebro, Stockholm, Sundsvall, Upsala, Vexio, Visby, from EB 1911
H. Haar et al. (ed.), Kirke-leksikon for Norden 1900,
in Danish, posted on Internet Archive |
Articles Sweden, Ancient See of Linköping, Lund, Ancient See of Skara, Stockholm, Ancient See of Upsala, Ancient See of Vexiö, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Article Sweden, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Stockholm, posted by DTBSWS |
Of the Trade to Sweden, pp.719-722 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Suede, pp.246-251 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Suede, pp.255-288 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Sweden, pp.401-407 in P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor , 1811, GB
Gottenburgh, p.102, Stockholm pp.252-255, in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns, 1818, GB
Sweden and Norway, pp.208-236 in C.W. Rödansz, European commerce; or, Complete mercantile guide to the continent of Europe, 1818, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Gothenburg oder Götaborg, Schweden, Stockholm, posted by DTBSWS
Stockholm, in : Ch. Vere, The pocket cambist, containing tables of monies of the principal cities in all parts of the world, 1836, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Schweden und Norwegen, vol.1 1830 pp.438-454, vol.4 1844 pp.310-322, posted by DTBSWS
Schweden und Norwegen, pp.476-478 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Sweden pp.124-127
Schweden, pp.507-539 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen
von Europa, 1698, in German, GB |
De la Cour de Suede, pp.729-746 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Suede, pp.688-709 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books; the section "Description of the Particular Parts that Compose the Kingdom of Sweden pp.255-293 : Upland pp.255-259, Sudermania pp.259-260, Westmania pp.260-261, Nericia p.261, Gestricia pp.261-262, Helsingia p.262, Dalecarlia pp.262-263, Medelpadia p.263, Angermania pp.263-264, Jemptia p.264, West Bothnia p.264, Gothia pp.264ff, East Gothland pp.264-265, Smaland pp.265-266, West Gothland pp.266-267, Vermeland p.268, Dalia p.268, Halland pp.268-269, Schonen pp.269-270, Blekinge p.271, Livonia pp.271-277, Estland pp.277-279. Letten/Litland pp.279-280, Ingria pp.280-287, Finland pp.287-291, Gothland pp.291-292, Oeland p.292, Oesel pp.292-293, Dago p.293, Aland p.293
La Suede, pp.78-101 in vol.1 of J. Vaissete, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB |
The Kingdom of Sweden, pp.249-377 in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Entry : Lapland, pp.189-214, The Particular Districts of Swedish Lapland pp.214-217, Sweden pp.218-293, in : Die Skandinavische Halbinsel, pp.229-246 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Sweden and Norway pp.226-236 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
Sweden, pp.286-290 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Scandinavian Region, pp.433-439 in Th. Lavallee, Physical, historical and military geography, 1868, GB
Sweden, pp.74-77 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Royaume du Suede et de Norwege, pp.215-222 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique
ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB |
Sweden, pp.4777-4814 in vol.7A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
De Regno Svediae, pp.365-380 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB |
Louis Ellies Du Pin, L' Histoire Profane Depuis son commencement jusqu'la present vol.5 : 1000-1700, p.48 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pp.97-98 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord, p.126 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pendant le treizieme siecle, pp.168-169 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.186- : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusques vers l'an 1450, pp.207-208 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusqu'an 1600, pp.255-259 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusqu'an 1600, 1717, in French, GB
Chapter III : Sweden, pp.320- in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
Sweden, pp.651-686 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Sweden, vol.33 of An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1761, GB
Schweden pp.454-518 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Schweden pp.568-642 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Schweden, pp.183-297 in vol.4 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte dere letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1817, in German, GB
Schweden, pp.696-798 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Histoire de Suede, depuis 1618 a la paix de Nystadt (1721), pp.33-381 [on 1618-1721] in vol.33, pp.1-149 in vol.34 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Sweden, pp.1031-1033 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time, 1856, GB
Sweden pp.186-193, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Article : Schwedische Eisenbahnen, from Röll,
Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German |
Kammarens protokoll, 1971-, posted by Sveriges Riksdag, in Swedish
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS FOR SALE
Sveriges Riksdag : Historiska riksdagsprotokoll (list of titles of volumes for sale)
SCANS OF PRINT EDITIONS
Svenska Riksdagarne imellan åren 1719 och 1772 ...: med ett Bihang Första Riksdagen År 1719, 1825, GB, Bihang til Riksdagen i Stockholm År 1719, 1826, GB
Protocoll, hållna hos högvördiga prest-ståndet vid urtima riksdagen 1817 (vol.1), 1817, 1817-1818 vol.3, 1818, in Swedish, GB
Högloflige Ridderskapets och Adelns Protocoll 1789, 1809, 1789 vol.2, 1809, 1792, 1792, 1800, 1800, 1800 vol.2, 1800, 1809 vol.2, 1809, 1810, 1810, 1817-1818 vol.6, 1818, 1823 Bilagor vol.1, 1823, 1823 Bilagor vol.3, 1823, 1823 Bilagor vol.4, 1825, 1823 Bilagor vol.5, 1825, 1823 Bilagor vol.6, 1823, 1823 Bilagor vol.7, 1823, 1823 Bilagor vol.8, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.8 pt.2, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.9 pt.2, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.10, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.10 pt.2, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.11, 1824, 1823 Bilagor vol.11 pt.2, 1824, in Swedish, GB
Protokoll hållna hos Vällofliga Borgareståndet vid Riksdagen 1823 vol.1, 1823, 1823 vol.4, 1823, in Swedish, GB
Hedervärda Bonde-ståndets protokoller vid lagtima Riksdagen 1853-1854 vol.7, 1854, in Swedish, GB
Kammarens protokoll posted by Sveriges Riksdag, in Swedish
Prästeståndets Riksdagsprotokoll 1740-1741, from Sveriges Riksdag, in Swedish
|Postal Routes etc.||
E.G. Guillot, Dictionnaire des postes: contenant le nom de toutes les villes,
bourgs, paroisses, abbayes, & principaux ch?eaux du royaume de France & du duch?de Lorraine ... les principales villes de l'Europe ...,
1754, in French, GB |
F.J. Heger, Tablettes des Postes de l'Empire d'Allemagne et des Provinces Limitrophes, 1770, in French, GB
Livre des Postes d'Europe 1788, in French, GB
H.A.O. Reichard, Guide des voyageurs en Europe vol.1 1793, in French, GB
F. Gandini, Itineraire de l'Europe, 1819, in French, GB
H.A.O. Reichard, An Itinierary of France and Belgium, 1816, Germany, 1819, Denmark, Sweden, Norway & Russia, 1820, GB
Itinraire general des postes et relais: ?l'usage des personnes qui voyagent sur le continent europeen : comprenant la France, les Pays-Bays, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, le Danemarck, l'Espagne, l'Italie, le Portugal, la Prusse, la Saxe, la Su?e, la Russie, la Turquie d'Europe, etc., etc. : suivi des routes principales de la Suisse 1822, in French, GB
F. Gandini, Itin?aire postale et de commerce de l'Europe, 1829, in French, GB
J.M.V. Audin, Guide classique du voyageur en Europe vol.1, France, Belgique, Bords du Rhin, Italie, Espagne et Portugal, 1829, vol.2, Allemagne, Suisse, Danemark, Suede, Norvege, Russie, Pologne et Angleterre, 1829, in French, GB
K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Innsbruck, Bozen, Meran
F. Gandini, Nouvel itin?aire postal de l'Europe, 1838, in French, GB
Richard, Guide classique du voyageur en Europe, 1854, in French, GB
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Innsbruck etc.
|Historic Tour Guides||
Sweden, pp.242-248 in J. Carver, The New Universal Traveller 1779, GB |
Karl Baedeker, Norway, Sweden and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers, 1892, 1895, 1899, 1903, posted on Internet Archive
Athole Burnett, The vade mecum; or, A, B, C guide to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, 1880, posted on Internet Archive
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapter XIII pp.210-217 on Sweden, Norway, Denmark
M. Consett, A tour through Sweden, Swedish-Lapland, Finland and Denmark,
1789, GB |
I.F.H. Drevon, A journey through Sweden, 1790, GB
Th. Thomson, Travels in Sweden, during the autumn of 1812, 1813, GB
S. Lang, A tour in Sweden in 1838, 1839, GB
H. Marryat, One year in Sweden including a visit to the isle of Gotland vol.1, 1862, vol.2, 1862, GB
Sweden and Norway, pp.1348-1354 in vol.4 of Official descriptive and illustrated catalogue, Great Exhibition of 1851, 1851, GB |
Official catalogue of the New York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations. 1853, Sweden and Norway pp.222-223
W. Hamm, Illustrirter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Ausstellung von 1867, 1868, GB; 3 Sweden entries
World Exhibition Philadelphia 1876, Swedish Catalogue, IA
|Institutions||Archives||Lists of Archives||
Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Sweden, from
Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 80 entries |
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Sweden, 69 entries
National and Regional Archives of Sweden
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Sweden, from Consilium Europa
Riksarkivet Stockholm; website also responsible
for Landsarkivet i Göteborg, i Visby etc., Krigsarkivet |
Categories : Museums in Sweden,
History Museums in Sweden, from Wikipedia |
Falu Mine - Stora Kopparberg Museum, in English
Gothenburg Radio Museum
Tentative List : Sweden,
World Heritage List, scroll down for Sweden; from UNESCO World Heritage |
Denmark, from Showcaves; lists several historic mines
Windmills in Sweden, from Windmill World
Category : Watermills in Sweden, Windmills in Sweden, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Forts, Castles, Crown Palaces, Cathedrals, Churches in Sweden, from Wikipedia
Libraries in Sweden, from LibDex, 64 entries |
History of the Swedish National Library, from The European Library
|National Symbols||Flags, Coats of Arms||
Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from
International Civic Heraldry;
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net |
Banknotes of Sweden, from World Currency Museum,
from Ron Wise's World Paper Money |
Swedish Coins, from World Coin Dot Net (1970s/1980s set), from Ingemars Myntsida; from the Royal Coin Cabinet, general information
Numismata : David Ruckser, Coins of Sweden
Rare Swedish Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery;
Catalogue of Swedish Stamps 1856-1910, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920
by Evert Klaseboer |
H.V. Lund, De arabiske Geografers Kjendskab til Norden,
Geografisk Tidsskrift 8 1885-1886, posted by tidsskrift.dk, in Danish |
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES |
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Search ISBN Database |
|on Sweden||survey of bibliographies|
Svensk Historisk Bibliografi, from Kungliga Biblioteket, in Swedish
(titles since 1977) |
pp.244-310 in Irene Scobbie, Historical Dictionary of Sweden, Methuen : Scarecrow 1995; KMLA Library R 948.5 S421h |
pp.269-316 in Irene Scobbie, Historical Dictionary of Sweden, 2nd edition, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2006; KMLA Library R 948.5003 S421h
Klemming, Sveriges bibliografi, 1481-1600 1889, IA |
Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien, Publikationskatalog |
Historia Sueciae, pp.344-345 in J. von Sartori, Catalogus bibliographicus librorum in Bibliotheca Caes. Reg. et Equestris Academiae Theresianae exstantium (Austria) 1805, GB |
Historia Sueciae, pp.470-494 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Historia Sueciae, pp.80-82, 196-201, 115-119 [!] in vol.3 of J. Meerman, Bibliotheca Meermanniana, 1824, GB
Histoire Scandinave : Danemarc, Suede, Norvege, pp.105-108 in Bibliotheca historico-geographica 1853, GB
Histories of Scandinavia, pp.422- in the 1882 edition, pp.452- in the 1888 edition of C.K. Adams, A manual of historical literature, IA
History of Scandinavia, p.459 in W.S. Sonnenschein, A Bibliography of History and Historical Biography 1897, IA
Gutenberg Library Online;
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Elektronische Angebote; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen; Gallica
Scandinavian Digital Libraries and Projects,
from Wess Web |
Project Runeberg; Internet Archive
Sveriges Nationalbibliotek : Digitale Samlingar
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Sweden |
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Swedish University Dissertations
|Online Journals||full text online||
Directory of Open Access Journals |
Historisk Tidskrift, Sweden, 2002-2011 issues online, free access
Chr. Molbech, Nordisk tidsskrift for historie, literatur og konst, 1827-1836, in Danish, GB
Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 1866-1869, in Danish, GB
Skogshistoriska Sällskapets årsskrift 1992-2006
Scandinavian Journal of History Index 1985-1995, from
Scandinavian Journal of History, Contents of all volumes, from Taylor and Francis
Cumulative Index of Historisk Tidskrift (Sweden) 1881-2010
Article : Scandinavian Historiography, by B.J. Nordstrom, pp.811-813, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G] |
Franklin D. Scott, Sweden : A Nation's History, Univ. of Minnesota 1977; KMLA Lib. Sign. 948.5 S425s |
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia : Sweden, Vol.28 pp.321-341; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 032 B862n v.28
Sten Carlsson, Jerker Rosen : Svensk Historia, Vol.1, (1962) 4th edition, Stockholm : Esselte 1981, Vol.2 3rd edition Stockholm : Esselte 1970 [G]
Neil Kent, A Concise History of Sweden, Cambridge : UP 2008 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.5 K37c
C.L. Krause & C. Mishler, Standard Catalogue of World Coins, 1601-1700, 2nd ed. 1999, Sweden : pp.1138-1155,
KMLA Lib. Sign. 737.4096 K91s;
1701-1800, 2nd ed. 1997, Sweden : pp.993-1006, KLMA Lib. Sign. 737.4097 K91s;
1801-1900, 3rd edition 2001, Sweden : pp.1025-1036, KMLA Lib. Sign. 737.4098 K91s |
Sten Lindroth, Svensk Lärdomshistorie, 4 vol.s, Södertälje 1975 (History of Swedish Learning) [G]
Gösta Bergman, Kortfattad Svensk Språk Historia, Stockholm : Prisma (1968) 1988 (Brief History of the Swedish language) [G]
Svend Gissel e.a. (ed.), Desertion and Land Colonization in the Nordic Countries c. 1300-1600, Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell 1981 [G]
Jan Glete, War and State in Early Modern Europe. Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States, 1500-1600, London : Routledge 2002, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 355.0094 G558w
L.A. Anjou, The History of the Reformation in Sweden, trsl. by H.M. Mason, Gorgias Press (1859) 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 948.5 A599h
Philip Line, Kingship and State Formation in Sweden 1130-1290, Leiden : Brill 2007 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 946.5 L754k
Selma Stern, The Court Jew, A Contribution to the History of Absolutism in Europe, NY (1950) : Transaction Books 1985, especially pp.105-114 (on the financial aspects of Christina's abdication; Diego Texeira)
Lis Granlund, Queen Hedwig Eleonora of Sweden : Dowager, Builder, and Collector, pp.56-76 in : Clarissa Campbell Orr, Queenship in Europe, 1660-1815. The Role of Consort, Cambridge : UP 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign. 940.09 076q
Chapter 20 : Scandinavia - The Outer Bastion, pp.273-286 in : John Gunther, Inside Europe Today, NY : Harper & Bros. 1961 [G]
Chapter XXXV : The Notable Neutrals, pp.496-506 in : John Gunther, Inside Europe, 1940 war edition, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Rodney Lowe : The State and the Development of Social Welfare : Sweden, in : Martin Pugh (ed.), A Companion to Modern European History, 1871-1945, Oxford : Blackwell 1997, pp.63-65
A concise account of Sweden's policy in the depression years and its effect on the economy is given by Patricia Clavin, The Great Depression in Europe, 1929-1939, Basingstoke : MacMillan 2000, pp.142-143.
Irene Scobbie, Historical Dictionary of Sweden, Methuen : Scarecrow 1995; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 948.5 S421h |
IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G] |
|Yearbook Entries||Britannica Book of the Year||
Sweden, 1913 pp.1139-1143, 1944 pp.679-680, 1945 pp.678-679, 1946 pp.715-717, 1947 pp.733-735, 1948 pp.707-708, 1949 pp.610-612, 1950 pp.652-653, 1950 pp.652-653, 1951 pp.657-658, 1952 pp.660-661, 1953 pp.669-670,
1954 pp.672-673, 1955 pp.721-722, 1956 pp.659-660, 1957 pp.723-724, 1958 pp.663-664, 1959 p.663, 1960 pp.663-664,
1961 pp.663-664, 1962 pp.656-657, 1963 pp.772-773, 1964 pp.793-794, 1965 pp.785-786, 1966 pp.719-720, 1967 pp.711-712,
1968 pp.721-722, 1969 pp.705-707, 1970 pp.711-713, 1971 pp.691-693, 1972 pp.649-651, 1973 pp.642-643, 1974 pp.641-642,
1975 pp.648-649, 1976 pp.637-638, 1977 pp.638-639, 1978 pp.651-653, 1979 pp.645-646, 1980 pp.644-645, 1981 pp.639-640,
1982 pp.645-646, 1983 pp.641-642, 1984 pp.641-642, 1985 pp.541-542, 787, 1986 pp.535-536, 786, 1987 pp.507-508, 754,
1988 pp.462-463, 706, 1989 pp.463, 706, 1990 pp.478-479, 722, 1991 pp.462-463, 707, 1992 pp.442, 707, 1993 pp.456, 722, 1994 pp.455-456, 722,
1995 pp.477-478, 722, 1996 pp.474-475, 722, 1997 pp.477, 720, 2002 pp.497, 734 [G] |
Sweden, 1878 pp.423-435, 442-444 [G] |
Sweden and Norway - Sweden, 1895 pp.963-978, 993-994, 1898 pp.963-978, 994-995, 1901 pp.1071-1086, 1101-1104, 1905 pp.1161-1177, 1194-1197 [G]
Sweden, 1910 pp.1231-1247, 1918 pp.1287-1305, 1919 pp.1271-1289, 1924 pp.1304-1322, 1925 pp.1312-1330, 1926 pp.1275-1292, 1928 pp.1315-1333, 1929 pp.1290-1307, 1932 pp.1305-1322, 1937 pp.1336-1353, 1943 pp.1284-1298, 1970-1971 pp.1328-1342, 1975-1976 pp.1332-1347, 1976-1977 pp.1331-1345, 1978-1979 pp.1125-1141, 1979-1980 pp.1134-1150, 1980-1981 pp.1130-1146, 1981-1982 pp.1136-1152, 1983-1984 pp.1135-1151, 1984-1985 pp.1131-1147, 1985-1986 pp.1133-1148, 1986-1987 pp.1132-1147, 1987-1988 pp.1137-1152, 1988-1989 pp.1141-1156, 1989-1990 pp.1149-1164, 1990-1991 pp.1148-1163, 1990-1991 pp.1148-1163, 1991-1992 pp.1151-1166, 1992-1993 pp.1239-1250, 1993-1994 pp.1243-1254, 1994-1995 pp.1243-1254, 1995-1996 pp.1231-1241, 1996-1997 pp.1208-1218, 1997-1998 pp.1208-1217, 1998-1999 pp.1320-1329, 2000 pp.1483-1493, 2001 pp.1451-1461, 2002 pp.1505-1516, 2003 pp.1503-1514, 2004 pp.1522-1533, 2005 pp.1531-1543, 2006 pp.1540-1552 [G]
Sweden, 1927 pp.813-815, 1928 pp.742-744, 1930 pp.732-734, 1931 pp.723-724, 1932 pp.677-678, 1933 pp.729-731, 1934 pp.561-562,
1935 pp.680-682, 1936 pp.690-692, 1937 pp.664-666, 1938 pp.658-660, 1939 pp.721-723, 1940 pp.737-739, 1943 pp.688-690, 1944 pp.664-666, 1945 pp.680-682, 1946 pp.702-704, 1947 pp.686-688, 1957 pp.759-761, 1961 pp.739-740, 1962 pp.744-745, 1963 pp.661-662, 1964 pp.643-644,
1965 pp.670-671, 1967 pp.663-665, 1968 pp.652-653, 1969 pp.663-664, 1970 pp.663-664, 1971 pp.654-655, 1972 pp.653-654, 1973 pp.653-654, 1974 pp.571-572, 1976 p.528, 1988 pp.506-507, 1989 pp.514-515, 1990 pp.503-504, 1992 pp.506-508, 1993 pp.517-518, 1994 pp.519-520, 1998 p.524, 2006 p.361 [G] |
Article : Sweden and Norway, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.809-810 [G] |
Article : Sweden and Norway, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.731-734 [G]
Article : Sweden and Norway - Sweden, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1902 pp.660-661 [G]
Article : Sweden, in : International Year Book 1898 p.763, 1899 pp.760-761, 1900 pp.849-850 [G]
Article : Sweden, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.754-755, 1908 pp.675-677, 1909 pp.679-682, 1913 pp.662-663, 1914 pp.677-680, 1916 pp.667-669, 1918 pp.627-630, 1919 pp.654-656, 1920 pp.659-662, 1921 pp.684-685, 1923 pp.625-627, 1925 pp.676-678, 1928 pp.724-725, 1930 pp.742-743, 1932 pp.773-775, 1933 pp.775-777, 1934 pp.677-679, 1935 pp.692-693, 1938 pp.712-714, 1939 pp.745-746, Events of 1940 pp.722-724, 1941 pp.631-634, 1942 pp.668-673, 1943 pp.620-623, 1944 pp.601-605, 1945 pp.590-593 [G]
Article : Sweden, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.218-222, 1980 pp.208-212 (Bertil Häggman) [G]