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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Sailendra Mataram
First posted on January 10th 2010, last revised on December 16th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Regional history : Malaya until 1895, History of Sumatra

Srivijaya was a Malay thalassocracy centered on Palembang (Sumatra), existing from the 7th to the 13th century. Historical evidence is scanty, consisting of a number of inscriptions, a few reports by mostly Chinese visitors, archaeological evidence. It is believed that Madagascar was settled by Sumatrans before the arrival of Indian religions on Sumatra. Srivijaya expanded, annexing Melayu (Jambi) c.680, taking control of the Malacca Straits. A Chinese visitor around that time describes Palembang as a center of Buddhist learning.
Srivijaya at its climax controlled Sumatra, Western Java, the western and northern coast of Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. In the Malay Archipelago it had a rival in Sailendra, another thalassocracy centered on Central Java, and after the latter's fall in 852, in the Kingdom of Mataram, also centered on Central Java. When the Sailendra Dynasty was ousted from Java in 852, they moved to Palembang and took over the rule of Srivijaya.
By 1200 Srivijaya was still a major regional power, but the center had moved from Palembang to Jambi. In the course of the 13th century Srivijaya disintegrated. The Kingdom of Palembang continued to be identified with the name of Srivijaya; its territory was limited to southeastern Sumatra without Lampung (to Pajajaran). In the north it bordered on Jambi. In 1290 it was conquered by Singhasari.
Jambi, Palembang, Pajajaran and Malacca may be regarded successor states of Srivijaya, indirectly also Brunei and the Sultanates of North Sumatra such as Aceh.

Alternative spellings : Crivijaya, Sriwijaya, Shrivijaya

Students' Papers : Lee, Hye Jin, Maritime History : The South China Sea until the later 19th Century (2012)

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Article : Srivijaya, from Wikipedia
Links on History startpagina - Sumatra, Dutch language site
Category : Srivijaya, from Wikipedia
Shawn Selby, Srivijaya Resources on the Internet, Antara Kita 2008
Organizations Nalanda Sriwijaya Centre, Singapore
Portals Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Antara Kita. Indonesia and East Timor Studies Committee
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Srivijaya, click Timeline
Timeline of Indonesian History, from Sejarah Indonesia , 11 sub-timelines, illustrated, very detailed
Accounts of History on Sumatra J.P. Parraud, Histoire de Sumatra, 1788, in French, from Internet Archive
William Marsden, The history of Sumatra, 1784, posted on Internet Archive
Salomon Müller, Bijdragen tot de kennis van Sumatra : bijzonder in geschiedkundig en ethnographisch opzigt 1846, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
on Srivijaya Article : Srivijaya, from Wikipedia
Article : Srivijaya, from WikiPilipinas
F. Bosch, Crivijaya, de Cailendra en de Sanjaya-vamca, BTLV 108 1952 pp.113-123
K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Sri Vijaya, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 40 1940 pp.239-313, in English
Crivijaya Kingdom, from Melayu Online
Gabriel Ferrand, L'empire sumatranais de Çrivijaya, 1922, in French, posted on Internet Archive
George Coedes, Le Royaume de Çrivijaya, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 18 1918 pp.1-36
R.W. Bottenberg, Sriwijaya: Myth or Reality ?, thesis Leiden 2010
P.Y. Manguin, Srivijaya, an Introduction, 2009
K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Sri Vijaya, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1940 vol.40 no.40-2 pp.239-313
T. Suzuki, The History of Srivijaya under the tributary trade system of China, 2012
Specific Periods Malay Kingdom of Srivijaya Palembang, Buddhism in Palembang, The Maritime Influence, from Network Indonesia
A.O. Zakharov, Constructing the polity of Sriwijaya in the 7th-8th centuries: The view according to the inscriptions, Indonesian Studies Working Papers 9 2009
F. Sumio, The Rise of Tambralinga and the Southeast Asian Commercial Boom in the Thirteenth Century, 2006
Historiography N.H. Shuhaimi et al., Verifiable Memories of Historical Events in the Malay Classical Literary Sources, Asian Social Science vol.9 no.6 2013
Military The Cholas, from Sejarah Melayu
Economy & Finances Hans-Dieter Evers, Traditional Trading Networks of Southeast Asia, Archipel 1988 vol.35 pp.89-100
Claudine Salmon, Srivijaya, la Chine et les marchands chinois (Xe-XIIe s.). Quelques reflexions sur la societe de l'empire sumatranais, Archipel 63 2000 pp.57-78
D. Qin et al., Sri Vijaya as the Entrepot for Circum-Indian Ocean Trade. Evidence from Documentary Records and Materials from Shipwrecks of the 9th-10th Centuries, Etudes Ocean Indien 46-47, 2011
J. Guy, Rare and Strange Goods. International Trade in Ninth-Century Asia (on Belitung shipwreck, sank after 826)
G. Wade, An Early Age of Commerce in Southeast Asia, 900-1300 CE, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 40(2), pp.221-265 June 2009
B.D. Averbuch, From Siraf to Sumatra: Seafaring and Spices in the Islamicate Indo-Pacific, Ninth-Eleventh Centuries C.E., thesis Harvard 2013
Religion E. Edwards, The Archaeology of Buddhist Sumatra, announcement of a lecture
History of Regions Sumatra Articles Sumatra : History, from Wikipedia
Borneo (Kalimantan) Articles History of Brunei, from Wikipedia
Malay Peninsula Buddhist Empires, from Sejarah Melayu, A History of the Malay Peninsula
Pamela Sodhy, The "International Relations" of the Malay Peninsula from the Seventh to the Fourteenth Century, Akademica 23 1983 pp.21-36
Articles Malaysia : Early History, from Wikipedia
West Java Articles West Java : History, from Wikipedia
others Stuart Robson, Srivijaya and Southern Thailand : Some Questions, Songklanakarin Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 4/2 1998 pp.226-237
The Kingdoms of Thailand : The Kingdom of Srivijaya
N.O. Sippanan, Srivijaya Influence and Hidden Heritage around Ban Don Bay: Cultural Landscape Associated with Cultural Tourism, thesis Silpakorn 2010
Article : Hinduism in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Local History B. Bronson et al., Palembang as Srivijaya. The Lateness of Early Cities in Southern Southeast Asia, Asian Perspectives, XIX(2), 1976
P.I. Manguin, 'Welcome to Bumi Sriwijaya' or the Building of a Provincial Identity in Contemporary Indonesia, Asia Research Institute Working Paper no.102, 2008
Culture The Passage of Malay Scripts : The Sacred Knowledge of Writing, Scripts of the Malay Archipelago
Azibaza, Srivijaya Art of Buddha Images
Environmental History SPAFA, Final Report. Consultative Workshop on Archaeological and Environmental Studies on Srivijaya, 1983
Others J. Wisseman Christie, State formation in early maritime Southeast Asia. A consideration of the theories and the data., BTLV 151 1995 pp.235-288
H. Claessen, How unique was Srivijaya ?, BTLV 151 1995 pp.443-445
Pierre-Yves Manguin, Sriwijaya, entre texte historique et terrain archeologique : un siecle a la recherche d'un Etat evanescent, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 88 2001 pp.331-339

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Image Databanks
Inscriptions Claudine Salmon, A Tentative Interpretation of the Chinese Inscription (1231) Engraved on a Bronze Gong Recovered in Muara Jambi {Central Sumatra) , Archipel 66 2003 pp.91-112
Articles : Kedukan Bukit Inscription, Kota Kapur Inscription, Laguna Copperplate Inscription (Philippines), Sojomerto Inscription, Talang Tuwo Inscription, Telaga Batu Inscription, Wikipedia
P.E.E. Fernando, Sri Vijaya and Malaysia in Simhala Inscriptions
Heritage Society, The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China
B.J. Chatterjee et al., India and Java II : Iscriptions, 2nd ed. 1933, Gretil
H. Krishna Sastri, Danavulapadu Pillar Inscription of Srivijaya, in Epigrahia Indica vol.X 1909, pp.147-153
Document Collections
Historical Maps Map : Srivijaya Empire, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Sri Vijaya, from Picasa
R. Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History, Likely extent of Srivijaya's maritime empire, Hinduism and Buddhism in the archipelago, 4th-13th centuries
Institutions Archives
Musea Buyang Valley Museum (Malaysia), from Photodhgarma
Sri Vijaya Art in Thailand, from Thailand's World
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins Sri Vijaya Money, from Bank of Thailand Museum

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Search ISBN Database for Srivijaya, Crivijaya etc.
Search RHS Bibliography Srivijaya, Crivijaya etc.
Search DBNG Srivijaya, Crivijaya etc.
Nalanda Sriwijaya Centre, Singapore, Publications
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Search Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands) for Srivijaya, spelling varieties
GRETIL - Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages and related Indological materials from Central and Southeast Asia
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore
Malaysian Theses Online
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel 1971-2004
BTLV 1853-1908, 1950-2009
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1991-2003
Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology (BSEAA) 2007-
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
John Villiers, Südostasien vor der Kolonialzeit (South East Asia prior to the Colonial Era), Frankfurt : Fischer 1965, especially pp.93-109; in German [G]
on Indonesia, Malaysia, Sumatra Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard V. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, Honolulu : Univ. of Hawai'i Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.5 A 543h, pp.21-36
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
on Srivijaya Sumatra and the Srivijaya Kingdom, in : The History Atlas of Asia, from MacMillan, edited by Ian Barnes, NY 1998, pp.78-79, KMLA Lib.Sign. 911.5 B261t
Keith W. Taylor, The Early Kingdoms : Srivijaya, pp.173-176 in : Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol.I.1, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Kenneth R. Hall, Economic History of Southeast Asia : The Age of the Srivijayan Maritime Empire (670-1025), pp.196-202 in : Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol.I.1, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]

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