Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1906, Retrospective
on Kamerun's Development in 1905
Kamerun's Development in 1905
(p.10) In Kamerun in 1905 there has been unrest among the indigenous at several
locations. The Ndsimu and Njem tribes of the Ssanga-Ngoko region, attracted by
the large stores of wares brought into the country, have raided whites and their
settlements. But the murder of a white merchant in November 1904 near Molundu,
in the extreme southeastern corner of the protectorate, has been punished
energetically. Still, the situation in the protectorate's south is not yet
cleared up. The station Lomie still has to work on securing communication with
the coast. In January 1905 the station chief of Jaunde was compelled to react on
raids by the Bapea. In the Cross region peace has been restored and the new
station Ossidinge is being reconstructed. In this year's first months Col. Müller,
the Schutztruppe commander, undertook an expedition into the Manenguba
Mountains. He brought back many detailed maps, so that another white spot on
Kamerun's maps can be filled. Economic results are the following : despite the
lack of political unity the tribes populating the Manenguba Mountains trade
intensely with each other. Because of the difficult terrain the tribes
inhabiting the plateau do not trade with those living to the south of it. But
among themselves the peoples inhabiting the Manenguba have many connecting trade
routes, as do the peoples in the plain and on the plateau. The many markets and
the many paths concentrating there bewitness it. The list of export articles is
topped by palm kernels; the area between Manenguba and Nlonako has rich stands
of oil palms. Ivory takes second place. Kola and peanuts could be of higher
importance, if their cultivation would be promoted with more emphasis. With the
exception of the Ngoko Plain and the border stretch along the Nun the area to
the northeast of the Manenguba Mountains is well-cultivated on average, in
certain stretches (p.11) even cultivated excellently. In the southern part of
the Bamenda region farm touches farm, and where the area under cultivation ends,
pasture land with fertile grass begins, where numerous herds graze. In order to
exploit the blackish soil of the lands in front of the Manenguba Mountains, the
yellow clay of the Ngoko Plain, the reddish clay of the plateau,
Col. Muller suggests the cultivation of rice, rubber and cotton. On the plateau
and, during the dry season also in the plain, communication by ox-cart seems
possible, under the condition that appropriate draught animals are broght in.
The indigenous cattle, including the buckle cattle, does not suffice. But the
question of immunization against the Tsetse Fly has to be solved beforehand.
In Adamaua, concerning violent acts of the pagan tribes dwelling in the
highland, peace was soon restored.
In July there had been an incident on the border to the French Congo. In Missum-Missum
a German factory had been terminated and robbed by French Senegal-soldiers, in
violation of the law. The chief of the border district, Captain Scheuermann, was
shot at when he marched into Missum-Missum. During the defense, his men shot 5
attackers and made 4 prisoners. The governor of Kamerun filed a protest and sent
the Schutztruppe commander, Col. Müller, to Gabon, the seat of the
French government. The matter has been solved by preliminary talks in Paris
and soon afterwards to commissions of both stations were dispatched to clarify
the conditions along Kamerun's entire southern and eastern border.
We have extensively described the economic conditions of the Manenguba Region,
because it is planned to become the end of the railway beginning at
Duala. The plan has been handed in to the Reichstag in spring 1905, but was not
accepted during the session in May when it was debated for the third time,
because of lack of quorum; so several months of 1906 will pass, until the
pickaxe will take action in Duala. The line is planned to be 160 km long. Of the
17 million Mark capital, the construction corporation has raised 6 million; for
the remainder of 11 million, lent from banks, the Reich is asked to guarantee
payment of the interests. In addition for economic and strategic purposes, the
railway also serves hygienic purposes, as it can easily transport officers from
the coastal areas prone with fever into the healthier mountain regions.
The services of the floating dock installed by the Woermann Line in Duala in
fall 1904, with a capacity of 1200 t, have been called upon intensely, both by
ships of the line itself as well as by government steamers, and even more by
ships of foreign nations. The Woermann line further constructed a pier at
Victoria, of 180 m length, on 53 cast-iron screw poles.
In Victoria the government installed a water pipeline, feeding seven
fountains and two hydrants. The establishment of pipes supplying the houses is
considered. This would not only contribute to raising the hygienic conditions,
but also facilitate to supply the large steamers with potable water; a strong
branch pipe will reach the pier, currently under construction, and will
facilitate the loading, via two lighters, of the entire amount of water needed
for the back journey.
The conditions of production and marketing have changed little> An
official sent into the districts Kribi, Lolodorf, Ebolowa, Jaunde and Lomie
verified that the fear, the caoutchouc stands could be damaged by
overexploitation, were not unfounded. So strong measures have been taken to
prevent it. On plantations, now, next to cocoa Kickxia is planted. In the report
year the cocoa harvest did not entirely meet expectations. The result may be
described as tolerable, despite the fact that excessive humidity caused damage
(according to the last annual report by the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce).
The botanical garden in Victoria has been split up into a botanical and a
botano-chemical department. From now on it operates under the name
"Versuchsanstalt fur Landkultur" ("Experimental Station for Land Cultivation").
The Mining Corporation founded last year, which has discovered
subterranean layers containing petrol on the left bank of the Wuri, has
installed to drilling towers. Final successes have not yet been made, but the
corporation has announced to have found petrol in five mining sectors.
Trade in Kamerun still largely is barter trade. The government strives to
introduce coins and, during the past year, has pais government workers not in
kind, but in money, which went without difficulties. Also in the Cross Region,
against expectations, the use of money has settled and blacks who did not know
money just months ago, now ask for it instead of tobacco, which used to be asked
for in addition to foodstuffs and cloth, as pay. This is
releaving for the stations of the interior, as the transport of tobacco is
expensive and difficult.
In the protectorate's south, population movements have been observed,
where the jungle tribes of the Ndsimu (p.12) and Jaunde slowly move westward. In
the Kusseri District strong immigration has been observed, because of the
stabilization of the political conditions. Based on estimates the indigenous
population (men, women and children) in the following districts is believed to
be : Duala 65 000, Kribi 20 000, Lolodorf 40 000, Jaunde 70 000, Lomie 94 000,
Kampo 5800, Viktoria 3800, Johann Albrechtshohe 61 000, Rio del Rey 30 000,
Ossidinge 19 000, Bamenda 154 000.
The increase of the white population from January 1st 1904 to January 1st 1905
from 710 to 826 amounts to 16 %, i.e. one-sixth. The increase was even larger
among the women and has strengthened the dominant position of the Germans among
the whites. By occupation the strongest element are the merchants (268),
followed by state officials (110), then planters etc. (108), missionaries (90),
Schutztruppe dependants (73), craftsmen (33) etc.
The increase in the white population is caused by the increase in trade and the
extension of the plantations, in the installation of the dock service at Duala
and the drilling activities of the mining corporation. It promises to be a
lasting one, what we wish for the protectorate, which always has been somewhat
neglected by the motherland.
of 1905. (main titles) (p.12)
Rene, C. Kamerun u. die Deutsche Tsadsee-Eisenbahn, (Kamerun and the German Lake
Chad Railroad), with 3 maps. E. S. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1905. 6 M.
Schkopp, E. v. Kameruner Skizzen. (Kamerun sketches) Winckelmann & Sohne,
Berlin 1905. 2,25 M.
Storz, Chr., Reisebriefe aus Westafrika u. Beiträge zur Entwicklung der
deutschen Kolonien in Togo und Kamerun. (travel letters from West Africa and
contributions to the development of Germany's colonies in Togo and Kamerun)
edited by v. J. Hess, Stuttgart 1906. 0.50 M.
Togo und Kamerun. Eindrücke und Momentaufnahmen. Von einem deutschen
Abgeordneten, (Impressions and snapshots by a German member of Reichstag) m.K.
W. Weicher, Leipzig 1905. 2.80.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with
Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial
Society). Berlin 1906, p.10ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher