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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1907, Retrospect on the Protectorate Kiautschou in 1906
Retrospect on the Protectorate Kiautschou in 1906

The most important event for the Protectorate of Kiautschou was the agreement with the Chinese government taking effect on January 1st 1906, which establishes a customs union of the protectorate with China, of which a small customs free district is exempted. As far as we can evaluate, the agreement has been advantageous for both parties involved. On one hand, the German government received a payment of 237,000 M. in customs revenues for the first six months of 1906 (for the coming five years, 20 % of the import customs revenues are to be transferred). Further the regular revenues of our government have increased; revenues from the basic tax, rents, all kinds of fees collected in the port have all increased.
The relation between both races has continually become more amiable. The fact that the last troops have been withdrawn from the hinterland in 1906 certainly has contributed to this development. The closure of German post offices along the Schantung railroad complied with Chinese wishes. Chinese move to Tsingtau and Tapautau in order to settle down there in ever increasing numbers. Among them are many from Southern China, which establish their own clubs with theatres etc. We mention as signs of good relations between Germans and Chinese the fact that German medical doctors work in the large hospitals of Tsinanfu and Ventschoufu, where they earned the respect of the Chinese, and that the former chief of Tsingtau police, Welzel, has been appointed police chief at Wutschang.
Tsingtau gains in the eyes of foreign nations. Several large houses from Shanghai, Chefoo, Tientsin and Korea have established branch offices here in 1906. The Americans show their interest in our colony and have opened a consulate here this year - the first official representation of a foreign nation. Important petrol firms have chosen Tsingtau as the center of their business in Schantung. One such firm has purchased an area of 40,000 square m in order to place their tanks there and has contacted the Chinese government in order to place such large tanks at various railway stations along the Schantung railroad.
Construction in Tsingtau was extraordinarily busy, as in the previous year. To new town districts have emerged. Overall, 32 plots have been auctioned off, a third of which are located near the great port and 6 in the industrial and villa district. The total size of the area sold by the government amounts to about 10 ha, for which a sum of 77,000 Mexican pounds was collected, double the amount of the previous year. The government therefore has been able to buy back plots from Chinese owners, of a total of 13 ha, for the purpose of reforestation. So the area in government ownership has increased to c. 2300 ha, while c. 240 ha are registered as in private ownership.
The publics willingness to purchase has vitalized construction. Not less than 48 residential houses have been built in Tsingtau and Tapautau, the larger part of which in the Chinese town. Among larger government buildings, the slaughterhouse and one house each to lodge European policemen and foresters have been completed. The new governor's residence and the government school are under construction. Planned respectively just begun are the field battery barracks neat Taitungtschen and the fourth Bismarck barracks.
Excavation and filling works in the great port and in the shipyard area have reached a stadium, so that the port probably will be completed in 1908. In this part of town all kinds of workshops and storage facilities have emerged; a 150 ton crane has been mounted, with a capacity exceeding that of any other along the East Asian coast. Since its completion late in 1906, the large swimming dock has been used by 24 ships on 216 days. The number of customers of the electric power station has quadrupled over the last two years. Main articles of export in the port of Tsingtau are straw products, bean cake, skins, sweet potatoes, fish, bean oil and peanut oil, pepper, wheat, fruit and jute. Imported are cheap watches, ironwares, cheap umbrellas, yarn, buttons, cheap caps, sweets etc. 
This could be overlooked on the occasion of the exhibition held on September 29th and 30th at Litsun, which has been a success. It was especially dignified by a number of Reichstag members which had arrived to study the protectorate. The newspaper issued here in the protectorate values this visit as a proof for the growing interest of the motherland in the further development of our colony, and states that the visitors on the occasion of various tours and conferences have proven genuine interest and undefatigable effort as well as knowledge, for which they have earned the gratitude of the inhabitants of Tsingtau.
The mentioned articles of ex- and import form the freight of the Schantung railroad, which in the previous year carried 24,000 waggon loads (p.28), the larger part of which inland. The number of passangers transported has exceeded 800,000. The value of imports for the first 6 months of 1906 was 11.7 million Haikwam-Taels, i.e. compared to the first 6 months of 1905 with 7,6 Millionen H.-T. an extraordinary increase. The same can be stated for exports, for which the respective figures for 1905 and 1906 are 3,5 and 3,8 million H.-T. By the way, 75 % of the export business is in the hands of Europeans, in the import business only 30 %.
As the Railroad Corporation, so the Schantung Bergbau Gesellschaft has continued to develop. In Shanghai and elsewhere in China, markets have been opened for Fangtse coal. A factory for briquets has been established, the products were sold on the market in Tsingtau at the end of the year. The Gesellschaft employs 86 European and 3300 Chinese employees. On October 15th a German school was opened in Fangtse, with 15 children.
The government school in Tsingtau also has developed positively. It is a Reform-Realgymnasium with Realschule classes without Latin to be attached. The school area is no longer sufficient for the growing number of students, so that in 1907 the school had to move into a new facility. This year the first Secunda students will gain the right to voluntarily serve for one year in the army. This fact will contribute to attract more German children from near and far in East Asia, as Tsingtau in many other respect has the character of a city of foreigners.
Because of its excellent health conditions Tsingtau attracts visitors from all over East Asia, which during the summer visit her beach, including visitors from other European nations. The Tsingtau hotels this summer counted 400 bathing guests, those who lodged in private homes not counted. The Mecklenburghaus has been frequented last year by 1039 private citizens. Navigation in the protectorate, espoecially because of increasing trade, has again increased. From Oct. 1st 1905 to Sept. 31st 1906, 425 ships arrived in our port, 388 anchored at the piers. The freight business of the Hamburg-America-Line also has increased. Here larger amounts were transported, despite the fact that the business in all of East Asia is stagnating. Similarily the seven post offices in the Kiautschou area have seen increased business. The reopening of the Siberian line will result in a shortening of delivery.
In 1906 no census has been undertaken; the number of white inhabitants of Tsingtau again has risen.
We may optimistically expect our young colony to further thrive. This expectation is all the more justified, as the experienced governor Truppel has resumed to administrate the protectorate early in September.

Literature pertaining to Kiautschou, published in 1906

Denkschrift, betr. die Entwicklung des Kiautschou-Gebiets in der Zeit vom 
Oktober 1904 bis Oktober 1905. (memorandum concerning the development of the 
Kiautschou area between October 1904 and October 1905) with 5 panoramas, 4 
plates photos and 1 map. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), Berlin 1906. Price 
3,- Mk.


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1907, p.27f

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
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Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache