Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Retrospect on the Development of the Deutsch-Ostafrika Protectorate in 1908
on the Development of the Deutsch-Ostafrika Protectorate in 1908|
Deutsch-Ostafrika, with its partially far advanced economy, has not remained
unaffected by the world crisis in 1908. As always its white population has
increased, from 2629 heads to 2845, and it is especially satisfactory that the
European population in the Mischi District rose from 386 to 505. The plantation
districts Tanga, Wilhelmstal, Mrogoro, Rufiji, Lindi and Muanza also experienced
an increase of the white population.
Still, the total trade volume increased only very little, from 36.01 million
Mark in 1906 to 36.03 million Mark in 1907; the export even decreased by almost
one and a half million Mark. The caoutchouk export declined both by value and
weight, also in consequence of the fall in prices. If the export of copal saw an
increase, this has not to be registered as progress; according to experience the
negro collects this fossile product if his harvest was not satisfactory. Perhaps
the not even considerable increase in exports of wax have to be explained the
same way. Similar causes will explain the rise in the export of ivory, while it
remains under 300,000 Mark in total and the increase amounts to just over 70,000
The situation of the products of European plantations is more favourable, which
shall not say that negro labour was not involved. For instance, cotton
production, to a not insignificant part, has to be attributed to cotton farmers
in the Rufiji valley (p.25). In cautchouc export, plantation production produces
a not insignificant part; f.ex. nine tenth of the caoutchouc export of Tanga, of
52 tons, was harvested on plantations. In the case of sisal hemp a not
inconsiderable increase both in value and amount is registered.
The trading conditions in furs and hides were in a crisis, when the prices on
the American market dropped sharply and, for some time, furs and hides could not
be sold in Tabora. A consequence was that the negro consumed his slaughtered or
fallen animals himself and as a consequence baught less European textiles.
The labour and settlement questions are in the center of public interest.
Everywhere it is stated that the labour situation has improved considerably,
while in summer 1906 the plantation owners of the northern districts still
described their situation as extremely threatened due to the lack of labour.
Today, in many cases, supply is greater than demand. In addition the official
memorandum states, that maltreatment of workers is a rarity and transgressions
and maltreatment usually are caused by younger employees who have spent only a
short while in Africa, not by the plantation managers. Even for the high
demands of the railway construction works there have always been sufficient
numbers of workers. By the way the construction of roads, especially of
railroads contributes significantly to solving the problem of lacking labour, as
the transportation of cargo used to be conducted, in these directions, on the
heads of negroes, while they are now transported by waggons or locomotives.
of railroad construction material in the port of Daressalam
comes to the settlement question, the procedure in adjacent British East Africa
is often referred to. There attempts to settle have officially been descibed by
Nairobi as failed, while, according to recent reports of German travellers, the
Englishmen residing there feel comfortable and make progress. The East African
government tends to agree with the view of the British administration, but facts
seem to be stronger than the resistance from Daressalam, as expressed in the
aforementioned rise of the German population in the Moschi District, the main
settlement region in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Recently more and more people with
assets, German farmers etc. move toward settlement in the largest German colony,
the highlands of which seem to be not less suited for European settlers than
similarly located stretches elsewhere between the tropics.
An officially published index of independent settlers counts 224 of these, of
them 121 Germans. The majority resides, except in Moschi District, where many
Englishmen, Italians and Greeks are among them, in the districts of Tanga and
Wilhelmstal. Official sources describe their situation as not bad, but their
income from road construction and other public works shall have contributed
significantly to their income. The Wilhelmstal settlers have had a good income
from the sales of maize, potatoes and vegetables.
In the fall of 1908 the under secretary of state in the Reichs-Kolonialamt, Herr
von Lindequist, undertook an inspection tour through the highlands of
Deutsch-Ostafrika, the main purpose of which was to examine them regarding their
feasibility for settlement. According to what is known so far, Herr von
Lindequist is convinced that settlement there is possible and that the extension
of the Usasmbara Railway is necessary, into the regions (p.26) around the
Kilimandjaro and Meru, which mainly qualify for such settlement.
Literatura and Maps 1908/09: Deutsch-Ostafrika.
Bongard, Dr. O. Die Studienreise des Staatssekretars Dernburg nach
Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Secretary of State Dernburg's Field Trip to
Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1 M.
Busse. W. Deutsch-Ostafrika. plates 40-45. vegetation illustrations. edited by
Prof. Dr. G. Karsten and Prof. Dr. H. Schenck. 5th row, issue 7. 4 M.
Fuchs, P. Wirtschaftliche Eisenbahnerkundungen im mittleren und nördl.
Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Economic railway reconnaissance in the central and northern
region of Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1908. 5 M.
Kalkhof, M. d. D., Oberamtsrichter. Parlamentarische Studienreise nach
Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Parlamentarian Field Trip to Deutsch-Ostafrika) 148 pp. with
10 plates, containing 19 illustrations. cardbord 2 Mark.
Koch, Wirkl. Geh.-Rat Prof. Dr. R. Ueber meine Schlafkrankheits-Expedition.
Vortrag in der Abteilung Berlin-Charlottenburg der
Deutschen-Kolonialgesellschaft. (On My Sleeping Sickness Expedition, Lecture
held in the Department Berlin-Charlottenburg of the Deutsche
kolonialgesellschaft) 2 M.
Merker, M. Rechtsverhältnisse und Sitten der Wadschagga. (Legal Conditions and
Traditions of the Wadschagga) with plates and 26 figures in the text. 4 Mark.
Nigmann, Hauptm. E. Die Wahehe. Ihre Geschichte, Kult-, Rechts-, Kriegs- und
Jagdbräuche (The Wahehe, their History, Cult, Legal, War and Hunting
Traditions). with map, 1908. 3.75 M.
Weule, K. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse meiner ethnographischen Forschungsreise
in den Sudosten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. (Scientific Results of my Ethnographic
Research Expedition in the Southeast of Deutsch-Ostafrika)
with 63 plates and 1 map. 1908. 3 Mark.
Lageplan der Stadt Daressalam. 1 : 5000. (Situation map of the city of
Daressalam 1 : 5000) Survey Department of the Imperial Government. 3 Mark.
Die grossen Panganifalle. Vom Landmesser Selke. 1 : 30300. (The Great Pangani
Falls, by surveyor Selke, 1 : 30,300) Mitt. a. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. 1908. Karte 6
Map of Deutsch-Ostafrika. Edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel. 1 : 300.000.
Published by the Reichskolonialamt. Leaf 37, Mikindani. Newly edited D. Reimer,
Berlin. 2 Mark.
Maps of Deutsch-Ostafrika. 1 : 2.000.000. Edited by Max Moisel. With district
borders and marking of profitable mineral resources. With survey map : The
southern half of Africa to survey the relations of Deutsch-Ostafrika with the
other German Afrikan Colonies. 1 : 16.000.000, 1 Leaf 100x78 cm. 1908. 6 Mark.
on linen in pocket size or with sticks. 9 Mark.
The Ukinga Mountains. Based on the triangulation and the survey sketches by Dr.
Kohlschuetter 1 : 100.000. Mitt. a. Deutsch. Schutzgebieten. 1908. 3 Mark, on
linen in pocket size 5 Mark.
Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's
"Mitteilungen für Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte,
Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30
Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all
bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by
Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1909, p.24ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher