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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1908, Retrospect on the Development of the Deutsch-Ostafrika Protectorate in 1908
Retrospect on the Development of the Deutsch-Ostafrika Protectorate in 1908

Deutsch-Ostafrika, with its partially far advanced economy, has not remained unaffected by the world crisis in 1908. As always its white population has increased, from 2629 heads to 2845, and it is especially satisfactory that the European population in the Mischi District rose from 386 to 505. The plantation districts Tanga, Wilhelmstal, Mrogoro, Rufiji, Lindi and Muanza also experienced an increase of the white population.
Still, the total trade volume increased only very little, from 36.01 million Mark in 1906 to 36.03 million Mark in 1907; the export even decreased by almost one and a half million Mark. The caoutchouk export declined both by value and weight, also in consequence of the fall in prices. If the export of copal saw an increase, this has not to be registered as progress; according to experience the negro collects this fossile product if his harvest was not satisfactory. Perhaps the not even considerable increase in exports of wax have to be explained the same way. Similar causes will explain the rise in the export of ivory, while it remains under 300,000 Mark in total and the increase amounts to just over 70,000 Mark.
The situation of the products of European plantations is more favourable, which shall not say that negro labour was not involved. For instance, cotton production, to a not insignificant part, has to be attributed to cotton farmers in the Rufiji valley (p.25). In cautchouc export, plantation production produces a not insignificant part; f.ex. nine tenth of the caoutchouc export of Tanga, of 52 tons, was harvested on plantations. In the case of sisal hemp a not inconsiderable increase both in value and amount is registered.
The trading conditions in furs and hides were in a crisis, when the prices on the American market dropped sharply and, for some time, furs and hides could not be sold in Tabora. A consequence was that the negro consumed his slaughtered or fallen animals himself and as a consequence baught less European textiles.
The labour and settlement questions are in the center of public interest. Everywhere it is stated that the labour situation has improved considerably, while in summer 1906 the plantation owners of the northern districts still described their situation as extremely threatened due to the lack of labour. Today, in many cases, supply is greater than demand. In addition the official memorandum states, that maltreatment of workers is a rarity and transgressions and maltreatment usually are caused by younger employees who have spent only a short while in Africa, not by the plantation managers. Even for the high demands of the railway construction works there have always been sufficient numbers of workers. By the way the construction of roads, especially of railroads contributes significantly to solving the problem of lacking labour, as the transportation of cargo used to be conducted, in these directions, on the heads of negroes, while they are now transported by waggons or locomotives.

offloading of railroad construction material in the port of Daressalam

When it comes to the settlement question, the procedure in adjacent British East Africa is often referred to. There attempts to settle have officially been descibed by Nairobi as failed, while, according to recent reports of German travellers, the Englishmen residing there feel comfortable and make progress. The East African government tends to agree with the view of the British administration, but facts seem to be stronger than the resistance from Daressalam, as expressed in the aforementioned rise of the German population in the Moschi District, the main settlement region in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Recently more and more people with assets, German farmers etc. move toward settlement in the largest German colony, the highlands of which seem to be not less suited for European settlers than similarly located stretches elsewhere between the tropics.
An officially published index of independent settlers counts 224 of these, of them 121 Germans. The majority resides, except in Moschi District, where many Englishmen, Italians and Greeks are among them, in the districts of Tanga and Wilhelmstal. Official sources describe their situation as not bad, but their income from road construction and other public works shall have contributed significantly to their income. The Wilhelmstal settlers have had a good income from the sales of maize, potatoes and vegetables.
In the fall of 1908 the under secretary of state in the Reichs-Kolonialamt, Herr von Lindequist, undertook an inspection tour through the highlands of Deutsch-Ostafrika, the main purpose of which was to examine them regarding their feasibility for settlement. According to what is known so far, Herr von Lindequist is convinced that settlement there is possible and that the extension of the Usasmbara Railway is necessary, into the regions (p.26) around the Kilimandjaro and Meru, which mainly qualify for such settlement.


Colonial Literatura and Maps 1908/09: Deutsch-Ostafrika.

Bongard, Dr. O. Die Studienreise des Staatssekretars Dernburg nach Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Secretary of State Dernburg's Field Trip to Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1 M.

Busse. W. Deutsch-Ostafrika. plates 40-45. vegetation illustrations. edited by Prof. Dr. G. Karsten and Prof. Dr. H. Schenck. 5th row, issue 7. 4 M.

Fuchs, P. Wirtschaftliche Eisenbahnerkundungen im mittleren und nördl. Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Economic railway reconnaissance in the central and northern region of Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1908. 5 M.

Kalkhof, M. d. D., Oberamtsrichter. Parlamentarische Studienreise nach Deutsch-Ostafrika. (Parlamentarian Field Trip to Deutsch-Ostafrika) 148 pp. with 10 plates, containing 19 illustrations. cardbord 2 Mark.

Koch, Wirkl. Geh.-Rat Prof. Dr. R. Ueber meine Schlafkrankheits-Expedition. Vortrag in der Abteilung Berlin-Charlottenburg der Deutschen-Kolonialgesellschaft. (On My Sleeping Sickness Expedition, Lecture held in the Department Berlin-Charlottenburg of the Deutsche kolonialgesellschaft) 2 M.

Merker, M. Rechtsverhältnisse und Sitten der Wadschagga. (Legal Conditions and Traditions of the Wadschagga) with plates and 26 figures in the text. 4 Mark.

Nigmann, Hauptm. E. Die Wahehe. Ihre Geschichte, Kult-, Rechts-, Kriegs- und Jagdbräuche (The Wahehe, their History, Cult, Legal, War and Hunting Traditions). with map, 1908. 3.75 M.

Weule, K. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse meiner ethnographischen Forschungsreise in den Sudosten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. (Scientific Results of my Ethnographic Research Expedition in the Southeast of Deutsch-Ostafrika) 
with 63 plates and 1 map. 1908. 3 Mark.


Lageplan der Stadt Daressalam. 1 : 5000. (Situation map of the city of Daressalam 1 : 5000) Survey Department of the Imperial Government. 3 Mark.

Die grossen Panganifalle. Vom Landmesser Selke. 1 : 30300. (The Great Pangani Falls, by surveyor Selke, 1 : 30,300) Mitt. a. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. 1908. Karte 6 Mark.

Map of Deutsch-Ostafrika. Edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel. 1 : 300.000. Published by the Reichskolonialamt. Leaf 37, Mikindani. Newly edited D. Reimer, Berlin. 2 Mark.

Maps of Deutsch-Ostafrika. 1 : 2.000.000. Edited by Max Moisel. With district borders and marking of profitable mineral resources. With survey map : The southern half of Africa to survey the relations of Deutsch-Ostafrika with the other German Afrikan Colonies. 1 : 16.000.000, 1 Leaf 100x78 cm. 1908. 6 Mark. on linen in pocket size or with sticks. 9 Mark.

The Ukinga Mountains. Based on the triangulation and the survey sketches by Dr. Kohlschuetter 1 : 100.000. Mitt. a. Deutsch. Schutzgebieten. 1908. 3 Mark, on linen in pocket size 5 Mark.

Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen für Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1909, p.24ff.

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache