Primary Source
Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1910, Deutsch-Ostafrika
Size : including lake surface 995,000 square km (= twice the Reich).

Population : Europeans 1904 : 1437, of them Germans 1102. 1905 : 1873, of them 1324 Germans and 316 adult women. 1906: 2465, of them 1499 Germans and 401 adult women. 1907: 2629 whites, of them 1656 Germans and 437 adult women. 1908: 2845 whites, of them 2014 Germans and 507 adult women. 1909: 3387 whites, among them 2384 Germans and 582 women. Since 1904 the immigration of Boers and European settlers (Swabians from Russia, Reich Germans, Greeks, Italians etc.) into the Kilimanjaro region (Moschi). The black population at least 7 million, perhaps up to 10 million. The most important element are Bantu negroes. The Bantu in the southern part of the colony are related to the Zulu. In the steppes of the north, until into the central region, the Massai which penetrated into the area from the north, live in statelets (Hamites, speaking languages of the Nilotic peoples). In the Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, as the ruling class among the Bantu, the Hamitic Wahima or Watussi, in the Ruanda region. To the Zulus of the south belong the Wahehe, living under tribal princes (in the Rufiji valley) and the Mafiti (or Wangoni); both tribes migrated into the area coming from the south.
The Wasuaheli are an ethnic mix of Arabs and indigenous; their idiom, a negro language including Arab words (Kisuaheli), has become the East African lingua franca, until far into the Congo Free State. Besides the (p.22) indigenous, along the coast reside Arabs (from Muscat and Shihiri), Baluchis, Indians, Parsees, Goanese, Syrians, Egyptians, Turks. The result of the hut tax collected from the coloureds amounted, in 1908, to 2.854.000 M.

Morphology : Deutsch-Ostafrika is part of the plateau stretching from Abyssinia to Tafelberg, rising from the Indian Ocean westward toward the interior. It is structured by several rifts extending in south-northerly direction and reaches hights in the protectorate of 1,000 - 1,500 m and more.
At the northern border the double-peaked Kilimanjaro (western peak : Kibo, 6,010 m, eastern peak : Mawensi, 5,355 m), covers an area of 3,770 square km or 67 German square miles. To the left of the Kilimanjaro the Pangani, the Pare Mountains, steeply declining toward the west; to the east the Usambara Mountains. A continuation of the Pare Mountasins, on the right bank of the Pangani, the Useguha Terrasse. The Nguru Mountains form the beginning of the rim mountain range which continues, in the shape of a bow, through Usagara and Uhehe and extends to the Nyassa. On the border between Ussagara and Uhehe the Ruhebo Mountains. In the Nyassa Mountains peaks of 3,000 m, on the northeastern corner of Lake Nyassa the Livingstone Mountains. In the protectorate's north west the mountains of Urundi and Ruanda. In the rift to the north of Lake Kiwu the still active Kirunga Volcanoes.

Hydrology : the plateau in general, for the most part has a deficiency in water. Rivers feeding into the Indian Ocean are, from north to south : the Umba, the Pangani (source at the Kilimanjaro), the Wami and Ruwu (estuary opposite Zanzibar), the Rufiji (with the Kilombero or Ulanga and Ruaha; near the Rufiji estuary the island of Mafia); the Mbemkuru, the Lukuledi and the Rowuma (border river in the south). All rivers are only partially navigable. Recently attempts on the Ulanga and Rufiji.
Into Lake Tanganyika feed the Mlagarassi, into Lake Victoria-Njansa the Kagera, feeding into the lake on British territory, the southernmost source of the Nile, out of the Nyassa flows in southern direction toward the Zambezi the Shire; it is located outside of Deitsch-Ostafrika.. The three sweetwater lakes Lake Victoria, containing numerous islands, (1,132 m above sea level, 66,000 square km = size of the Kingdom of Bavaria), Lake Tanganyika (782 m above sea level, 35,000 square km, size of East Prussia) and Lake Nyasa (477 m above sea level, 27,000 square km = province West Prussia) and Lake Kiwu, to the north of Lake Tanganyika, partially belong to the German protectorate. To the west of the Kilimanjaro are located Lake Natron, Lake Njarasa and Lake Manjara. Lake Rukwa, located norteast of Lake Nyasa, has an altitude of 800 m and empties into a basin without outflow.

Climate : Deutsch-Ostafrika entirely belongs to the hot climactic zone from the 1st to the 12th degree of southern latitude. From May to September the Southwest Passate wind is blowing, from December to March the Northeast Passate. The winds carry moisture onto the land and determine the rainy and dry seasons. Main meteorological station Daressalam, in addition 330 pluviometric stations.
Along the coast the short rainy season is expected in November, the long one in March and April. The coolest month is July, with nightly temperatures of 16 degrees Celsius, over day up to 35 degrees and more. Europeans can dwell in the highlands listed above without damaging their health.

Flora : Along the coast, especially in estuaries, swamp vegetation; mangrove zone. Following Pori, bush steppe with frequent tree growth (Acacias, Baobab, euphorbias etc.). In the mountains extensive forests with useful timber, f.i. the Schume forest in Wilhelmstal District. Cultivated plants : cotton, sisal, coffee, caoutchouc, cocoa palm, rice, bananas, pineapple, tanner's acacia, peanuts, sesame, sorghum, maize.

Fauna : tropical fauna with apes, large predator cats (in 1908 in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 437 lions, 1412 leopards were killed, in 1907 381 lions and 1109 leopards), pachyderms, crocodiles. The protectorate's fauna is more closely related to that of southern Africa than to that of western Africa. Both faunas meet in the northwestern corner of the protectorate. A distinct, peculiar character has the fauna of the large lakes in the interior. Hunting products play a role in exports; animal breeding produces mainly hides and fur. In addition, the negro collects wax from hives of wild bees; the breeding of domestic animals mainly produces furs and hides.

Minerals : In Ussongo and Ikome profitable gold deposits, at the Mlagarassi salt deposits, along the Njassa perhaps profitable coal deposits. At several places garnet and mica. Mica export in 1908 : 78,000 kg at a value of 211,000 M.

Trade : exported are caoutchouc, ivory, sesame, copal, coconuts, mats, cotton, hemp, lumber, skins and furs, beeswax, horns, copra, coffee. Imported are cotton products, rice, flour, iron and ironwares, wine, beer, butter, sugar, meat and various food, petrol, cement, vegetables and fruit, tobacco, spirituals etc. For values of exports and imports see table on page 5 and 6.

Transportation : Railways : The Usambara Line is regularly served since 1910 on the stretch Tanga-Tanga 200 km and enjoys rising popularity, also with the negroes. Continuation until Same has been approved in 1910 (another 50 km). - Construction of the Line Daressalam-Mrogoro (225 km), approved by the Reichstag in 1904, has reached Mrogoro in October 1907. Extension for further 700 km until Tabora is approved and has been begun in 1908; until 1910, Kidete was passed.
Navigation : The eleven ports of the colony have been visited in 1909 by 483 steamers with about 1,400,000 tons, the coastal traffic conducted by government vessels disregarded. In addition many sailing boats (dhows) participate in the trade. On Lake Victoria the German pinasse "Ukerewe" is sailing, along with many British steamers and many dhows, both British and German. On Lake Tanganyika the "Hedwig von Wissmann", on Lake Nyassa the "Hermann von Wissmann". In Daressalam, a floating dock was installed. Transit fee : Deutsche Ostafrikalinie, Line Genoa-Daressalam 1st class 675 Mark, 2nd class 350 Mark, main line Naples-Daressalam 1st class 750 Mark, 2nd class 525 Mark, 3rd class 300 Mark.
Postal and Telegraph Service : by the end of 1908 39 offices, among them 26 with telegram service and 9 with local telephone service; 2,418 km overland telegraph cables and (p.24) 136 km sea cables. 1908 : 3,800,700 letters, 95,239 postal money orders, total amount 30,423,149 Mark; 28,852 parcels, 294,810 newspaper issues, 215,613 telegrams, 116,768 telephone calls. Postal connection : 4-5 times a month, time of delivery Berlin-Daressalam 20 to 23 days, telegram fee per word to Bismarckburg and Udjidji 3.15 Mark, to the other offices 2.75 Mark.

Administration : Seat of the governor at Daressalam (presently Freiherr von Rechenberg). The protectorate is structured in now 22 districts. Wilhelmstal, Tanga, Pangani, Bagamojo, Mrogoro, Daressalam, Rufiji, Kilwa, Lindi, Ssonega, Langenburg, Udjiji, Mpapua, Kilimatinde, Moschi, Muansa, Tabora, Iringa, Mahenge and the residentures Bukoba, Ruanda, Urundi.

Schutztruppe : 1908: 2528 men, distributed over the following locations : Aruscha, Iraku, Iringa, Ubena, Lindi, Sassawara, Kilimatinde, Mkalama, Daressalam, Udjidji, Bismarckburg, Rutschugi, Bukoba, Kifumbiro, Ussuvi, Mbejera (Kihawa), Usambura, Tschiwitoke, Ischangi, Kissenji, Tabora, Mahenge, Mponda, Kiberege, Kondoa-Irangi, Liwale, Muansa, Ikoma; 14 companies and one machine gun detachment.

Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel, Yearbook and Remarks by Hubert Henoch. Berlin 1910, pp.22

GM (digitalisation) and AG (translation) 
posted on the web for psm-data; many thanks to

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz 

Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Dokument in deutscher Sprache