Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Retrospect on Kamerun's Development in 1912
Retrospect on Kamerun's Development in 1912 (p.20)
Governor Gleim, who retired, was replaced by Senior Executive Officer Ebermaier who had previously been active in the protectorate as the governor's consultant, on Janyary 30th. He met a considerably enlarged colony, as, by the Franco-German agreement of 1911,
(p.21) Kamerun's area had been enlarged by about 250,000 square km and it's population increased by perhaps 2 million. However, it will take some time until the gained territory fully is transferred into our hands. Until July 1st 1913 the transition shall be completed, which began on October 1st 1912, and which proceeds step by step. Late in 1912 various border expeditions departed, 4 in total, which, starting from
Monda Bay, from Wesso, and two on the eastern border, cooperate with the French to establish the final border line between the two colonies.
According to the official annual report unruly natives are found on many places in such an extended colony; luckily the protectorate had not to deal with any serious rebellion during the last year. All in all the natives acted well-behaved; they complied with the demand to work on the roads and have paid their taxes, with the exception of not inconsiderable exceptions. It is to be noted that the coloureds strongly dislike to be asked to work outside of their respective districts, namely to work on the railway lines. In such cases the able-bodied men leave their homes and look for work at missions or factories, or they withdraw for the time of their proscription into the jungle. The governor plans to introduce a bonus system for more difficult work and to better supervise housing, provision and treatment of the workers.
Important for the progress of this project is the support from the mission. The Basel Mission operates 15 main stations with about 12,000 parishioners and 13,600 students. In some of their village schools, classes are held in German language. Noteworthy are the joiner's workshop and the fitting shop the mission operates in Duala. The Baptist Mission takes care of about 3,000 parishioners and of 2,300 students; the Catholic Mission of 10,000 students and also operates training establishments for carpenters, masons, sawers, brickmakers, tailors, cobblers and saddlers.
In Kamerun the native agriculture is not as important as in Togo. The government is spending a lot of effort to educate the native population to use more efficient agricultural techniques. They are inclined to methodically cultivate victualia, if the market is secure, for instance in the vicinity of mission stations or of trading posts. Their agricultural technique, of course, is rather primitive; the plough is unknown, almost everywhere the iron hoe dominates. The coloureds prefer to cultivate the oil palm; accordingly the government has established a separate department for this product; one official works in the area of the Nordbahn, the other in the area of the Suedbahn. The most valuable export product is still rubber. The entire amount of 2,700 expported tons originate from the forest regions of the south and southeast. Plantation rubber still contributes only a small percentage to Kamerun's exports.
In European-run plantations, cocoa is the product receiving the most attention. 10,700 ha, of them 7,000 ha productive, with over 6 1/2 million trees; the annual report can state, with justification, that Kamerun's cocoa cultivation will have a great future.
The same can be said about the oil palm plantations and perhaps about the tobacco plantations. In case of the former, the introduction of processing machines can result in a more profitable exploitation of it's harvest and ensure higher profits. Regarding tobacco, it may be seen as a promising indication that a Kamerun planter was awarded the price for the minimum quantum of 100 hundredweights of tobacco grown in a German colony, endowed by E.A. Oldemeyer (Bremen) with the contribution of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft. During the reported year, a second large plantation was established, more are in preparation.
The administration point out that the importance of Kamerun's trade can not any more be judged by it's import and export figures alone, because the interior trade has developed to a factor of considerable importance for the protectorate. Partly we already hinted at that when we reported that the coloureds produce victualia for the mission stations, trading posts and railway construction sites. To this the barter trade undertaken by the Haussa has to be added.
Foreign trade is organized by two chambers of commerce, one located in Duala for central Kamerun, one located in Kribi for southern Kamerun. The administration is communicating closely with both chambers.
As an indication for the volume of trade of the colony may be taken the fact that the total turnover of the Deutsch-Westafrikanische Bank in 1911 amounted to 50 million Mark, as compared to 38 million Mark the year before. The government's turnover at this bank amounted to more than 12 million Mark in 1912.
Unfortunately, regarding it's railways, Kamerun is still rather backward. The 160 km long Nordbahn can not be continued from it's final station. The construction of the Mittelbahn, which hardly reached Edea, meets so many obstacles in the terrain that progress is very slow. Between Duala and Edea it had to span the Sannaga valley with a huge bridge, the span of which is larger than that of the bridge crossing the Zambezi above the Victoria Falls. We can expect that the government soon makes decisions regarding a concept as to open up the colony's north, by railway and by roads, as well as into the newly gained territory. These days Governor Ebermaier is an an inspection in the colony's north; which certainly will clarify the future of Kamerun's railway network. Therefore for the time being the railway network has to be regarded the most important transportation system of the protectorate. If individual merchants use automobiles, this can only be regarded a provisional solution, not as an alternative concept to solve the transporation problem.
(p.22) In the Schutztruppe, which on outposts also engages in cultural activities, no considerable changes regarding the size, strength and organization have taken place in the year reported here. As before the 5 miloitary administration districts (Bamenda, Banjo, Dschang, Dume and Ebolowa) as well as the two military residentures Kusseri and Garua have one company each at their disposal, the 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th, 5th respective the 3rd and 7th, while the post Bafia is only garrisoned by a 41 men strong platoon. Besides the 6th company stationed in Soppo, there is the expedition company stationed in Jaunde. Stationed in Duala is the artillery detachment and the main company. To this is attached a militarily trained corps of carriers, which had become necessary to facilitate quickened march and to improve the combat effectiveness.
Regarding the composition of the Schutztruppe, in which the natives play an ever-increasing role, and realizing that in case of a revolt the danger lies less with soldiers in uniform than with retired soldiers, the policy continues to be to try to keep the soldiers as long as possible. The premium system introduced two years ago as well as pensions in case of invalidity have not met expectations. Therefore it is considered to replace the premia by a system of salaries increasing with the years spent in service, a system which shall point out to the native the advantage of staying with the
Colonial Literature and Maps : Kamerun
Eine Reise durch die deutschen Kolonien (A journey through Germany's Colonies) ed. by the illustrated magazine "Kolonie und Heimat", Vol.II : Kamerun. With 2 maps and 209 illustrations on coated paper, with 14 full-page illustrations, in multicoloured cover, 1910, price 5 Mark
Der Handel in Südkamerun in den Jahren 1908 bis 1911. Bericht der Handelskammer für Südkamerun. (Trade in Southern Kamerun in the Years 1908-1911. Report by the Chamber of Commerce for Southern Kamerun). 282 pp., 1912, price 3 Mark.
H. Harms, Einige Nutzhölzer Kameruns (Leguminose) (some useful tree species of Kamerun, Leguminose). with illustrations, 1911, price 3.60 Mark.
Dr. Jentsch, Der Urwald Kameruns. Folgerungen aus den auf der Expedition 1908-1909 gewonnenen Erfahrungen in bezug auf den Zustand und die Nutzbarmachung des Waldes. (Kamerun's Jungle. Concluxions from the experience made on the expedition 1908/09 regarding the condition and the exploitation of the forest), 199 pp. with many illustrations, 1911, price 3.50 Mark.
Die Landesgesetzgebung für das Schutzgebiet Kamerun. (Legislation for the Protectorate of Kamerun). based on official sources edited by Ruppel, 1912, 1263 pp., price 31 Mark.
A. Mansfeld, Urwald-Dokumente. Vier Jahre unter den Crossfluss-Negern Kameruns. (Jungle documents. 4 years under the Cross River Negroes of Kamerun). A thick volume with 32 heliotypes, 160 illustrations and 2 maps. Elegant binding, price 12 Mark.
H. Nekes, Lehrbuch der Jaunde-Sprache (Manual of the Jaunde Language), 303 pp., 1911, price 10 Mark.
Neukamerun. Das von Frankreich an Deutschland im Abkommen vom 4. XI. 1911 abgetretene Gebiet. (New Kamerun. The territory ceded by France to Germany in the agreement of Nov. 4th 1911), described on the basis of hitherto available reports by Dr. K. Ritter, official publication of the Reichskolonialamt, 2 maps, price 9 Mark, hardcover 11 Mark.
Jesko von Puttkamer, Gouverneursjahre in Kamerun. (A Governor's Years Spent in Kamerun), many illustrations and 1 map, price 6.50 Mark, hardcover 7.50 Mark.
Ltnt K. Struempell, Die Geschichte Adamauas nach muendlichen Ueberlieferungen. (Adamawa's history according to oral tradition), 15 illustrations, 107 pp., 1912, price : 3 Mark.
Ernst Vollbehr, Mit Pinsel und Palette durch Kamerun (With paint-brush and palette through Kamerun), 1912, 188 pp., price 4 Mark.
Dr. Zadow, Der Marokko-Kongovertrag vom 4. XI. 1911 und das Reichsstaatsrecht (The Morocco-Congo Treaty of Nov. 4th 1911 and German Imperial State Law), K.R. VI 12, price 1 Mark.
E. Zimmermann, Neu-Kamerun. Reiseerlebnisse und wirtschaftspolitische Untersuchungen. (New Kamerun. Travelogue and economic-political examinations), 1912. price 3 Mark, hardcover 4 Mark.
Grosser Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas (Great German Colonial Atlas), edited by Paul Sprigade and Max Moisel for the Reichs-Kolonialamt. Kamerun : 1:1,000,000, edited by Max Moisel, maps 8a (Mbaiki) - 8d (Bonga), 1 Mark each, in pocket size 1.80 Mark
Map of Kamerun in 31 leaves and 3 annex pieces, scale 1:300,000, edited by Max Moisel for the Reichs-Kolonialamt, leaves B4 (Kusseri), C4 (Mama), D2 (Schubschi Mts.), D3 (Garua), D4 (Rei-Ruba), D5 (Kagopal), E3 (Ngaumdere), E4 (Mbere), e5 (Kurungaru), F1 (Ossidinge), F3 (Joko), F4 (Betare), F5 (Bosum), G1 (Buea), G5 (Makandschia), H5 (Lopi), I1 (Muni), I2 (Ojem), I3 (Mwim), I4 (Ssembe), I5 (Ikelembe), K5 (Bonga), price per leaf 2 Mark, in pocket size 3.60. Survey page free of charge.
Das Hinterland der Kameruner Nordbahn. (Kamerun's Nordbahn's hinterland), based on measurements by Lt.Col. Adametz edited by M. Moisel, 1:200,000
Der Nordrand des Kamerun-Plateaus. (The Northern Rim of the Kamerun Plateau), after elder corrected and newer measurements taken by Lt. Struempell edited by M. Moisel, 1:1,000,000.
Die Regenmess-Stationen in Kamerun. (The pluviometric stations in Kamerun), 1:5,000,000, ed. by M. Moisel, inserted map : The pluviometric stations on Mt. Kamerun, 1:500,000.
Barombi ba Kotto (Rickards See). Elefanten-See, Soden-See bei Lisoni. Grosser und Kleiner Epocha-See, Bambulue-See. Mauwe-See. Der grosse Ndue-See. (Barombi ba Kotte (Rickards' Lake). Elephants' Lake. Lake Soden near Lisoni. Large and Small Lake Epocha, Lake Bambulue, Lake Mauwe, Great Lake Ndue), 1:15,000, by Prof.Dr. Kurt Hassert.
Vegetations-Karte der von dem Botaniker Ledermann durchreisten Gebiete Kameruns (Vegetation map of the regions of Kamerun travelled by Botanist Ledermann), after the map from the Grosser Kolonialatlas, 1:1,000,000, ed. by M. Moisel.
Further notes on literature and maps can be found in Dietrich Reimer's "Mitteilungen fuer Ansiedler, Farmer, Tropenpflanzer, Beamte, Forschungsreisende und Kaufleute". Issued quarterly, single issues at 30 Pfennig; yearly issue, postage included, at 1.60 Mark. Available at all bookstores or directly from Dietrich Reimer (Erich Vohsen), Berlin SW 48.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.20ff.|
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Dokument in deutscher