Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1913, Kamerun
History : The flag was hoisted in July 1884 under the guidance of Nachtigall. Unrest among the natives provoked by British intrigues had to be suppressed by the "Olga" and "Bismarck". We penetrated relatively late into the hinterland; Lt. Col. Pavel reached Lake Chad in 1902, where
the British and French were already present. In central and southern Kamerun, repeatedly expeditions
(p.19) were necessary to subdue unruly tribes. Since the end of 1912 4 Franco-German border expeditions are active in Neu-Kamerun (source : reports of the Deutsche Kolonialzeitung).
Size : Altkamerun 495,000 square km (equal to the Reich without the province od Silesia). The border to British Nigeria is not yet final; the border to French Equatorial Africa has been slightly altered in 1906 and 1908 and considerably altered by the agreement of 1911. The territorial gain amounts to an estimated 250,000 square km. The controversy with Spain (Muni territory, Spanish Guinea) is yet unsolved. Because of the gains, Kamerun has roughly equalled
Deutsch-Südwestafrika in size.
Population : In Altkamerun 2,537,400 inhabitants (in Neukamerun much less), further in 1903 710, in 1904 826, in 1905 896, in 1906 1010, in 1907 1128, in 1908 1127, in 1909 1284, in 1910 1455, in 1911 1537 Europeans, among them 1359 Germans and 178 women. A census of the coloured population has taken place only in a few districts, mainly for taxation purpose. - Main native tribes of the hitherto explored regions : in the north and northeast the grassland tribes of Adamaua, which developed under Fullah rule, most notably the Bata, Tikar, Beia and Wute. Closer to the coast in the northwest and west down to the southern border the Bafut and Bali, Banjang, Bakundu and Ngolo, Bamboko, Bakwiri, Duala, Batanga and Mabea and finally the Bule (Fang). These also live in the newly gained territories. The area between the coastal and grassland tribes, roughly the middle valley of the Sanaga and Njong, is settled by Bakoko tribes; further in the east follow the Jaunde, Bane and Jengone, all of which are related to the Bule which settle almost the entire south. Along the banks of the rivers Dscha, Bumba and Ssanga live the Janguma, Njam, Ndsimu, Bomome and Maka. Counted or carefully estimated were the following tribes or districts : Duala 77,000, Victoria 12,000, Buea 11,300, Ossidinge 34,000, Kribi 33,000, Jaunde 209,000, Rio-del-Rey 19,000,
Johann-Albrechtshöhe 60,000, Banjo 38,000, Bamenda 270,000, Ebolowa 100,000, Lomie 31,000, Jabassi 180,000, Bare 20,000, Dume 11,300, Dschang 187,000, Edea 97,000, Jukaduma 15,000, Garua 530,000, Kusseri 280,000 heads.
Morphology : The highest mountain range on the Atlantic rim is the range of Mt. Kamerun (4070 m.) which in northern direction blends into the Bakossi Mountains. In general, the protectorate's surface rises in terrasses in earterly/northeasterly direction (Adamawa Mountains up to 3,000 m, Nguakeli). In Deutsch-Bornu the Mandara Mountains. An imaginary line drawn from Bali along the mouth of the Mbam to the tributaries of the Ssanga roughly indicates the border of the continuous coastal jungle.
Rivers : (from north to south) : The Rio-del-Rey area with several tributaries, also the Kamerun river in which the Mungo, Dibambu and Wori feed, both are vast estuaries covered by mangrove. The very important, but not navigable Sanaga with the Mbam; the Njong the upper stretch of which, according to recent examination, is navigable (between Widimenge and Abong-Mbang) with the Nkele; finally the smaller not navigable tributaries : Lokundje, Kribi and Kampo. Into the Kongo feed the Ssanga with Ngoko (or Dscha) and Kadei, as well as the even more water bringing Ubangi. Adamawa is crossed by the navigable Benue, the largest tributary of the Niger, an important traffic route to the sea (Niger Navigation Act of 1885). Less important are the Cross River, the mouth of which is in Nigeria. The Schari feeding into Lake Chad with it's tributary, the Logone, are navigable over a long distance and are used by the French to supply their posts located there.
Climate : The average annual temperature is about 25 degrees Celsius along the coast; February with 27 degrees on average is the warmest, July with an average 23 degrees the coolest month. The rainy and dry seasons are different from region to regionand show not insignificant changes from year to year. The main rainy season is mostly from May to October. The coastal region near Mt. Kamerun has one of the world's highest amounts of annual precipitation. 1906-1907 in Duala 3,800 mm rain within a period of 12 months. The climate is unhealthy, particularly in the forested areas, in the higher altitudes on northern Kamerun considerably better.
Flora : Coast and Mt. Kamerun densely overgrown by the jungle. Mostly valuable timber. Further : mangrove, palm trees, pandanas, capoc trees, breadfruit, mango. Natural rubber trees frequent, also in Neukamerun. Grassland up to the swamp vegetation at Lake Chad. Cultivated are cocoa, caoutchouk and oil palms.
Fauna : Rich entomology. The rivers, especially the Sanaga, are full of alligators. Rich avifauna (from the hummingbird to the hornbill). Among the mammals many species of apes (chimpansee and gorilla), predators (leopards), pachyderms (elephants, also near the coast) and artiads. Kamerun does not have a wildlife as rich as that of Deutsch-Ostafrika and
Minerals : deposits of tin are known for years. Near Victoria not insignificant oil wells. In the district Ossidinge salt water sources, which indicate salt- and potassium deposits and possibly coal fields. The exploration of Kamerun's mineral deposits is yet far behind.
Trade and Traffic : Export of rubber, palm kernels, palm oil, cocoa, ivory, timber; less important of cola nuts, njabi nuts, kopal, cattle; under development tobacco and cotton.
Imported are manufactured goods, victualia, alcoholic beverages, money, salt, timber, wooden tools, iron, iron tools, glassware, tobacco,
Traffic : Navigation : The Kamerun ports and roadsteads have been frequented in 1907 by 474 steamers with a total tonnage of 1,270,000 tons, 1908 : 421 steamers / 1,316,000 tons, 1909 : 383 steamers / 1,035,000 tons, 1910 : 385 steamers / 1,291,000 tons, 1911 : 397 steamers / 1,497,000 tons. Transfer ticket : Woermann Line Hamburg-Duala 1st class 600 Mark, 2nd class 450 Mark.
Railway Lines : short narrow gauge line (private property) Victoria-Soppo, 43 km; line connecting Duala with the Manenguba Mountains (160 km) since 1906 under construction, opened in 1910. Approved and since 1908 under construction the Line Duala-Edea-Widimenge, on the Njong river (298 km); the construction has to deal with difficult terrain.
Post and Telegraph Services : by the end of 1912 : 39 post offices, 22 of which offer telegraph services, 19 offer local telephone services. 1,106 km telegraph lines overland; 1911 : 1,097,800 letters, 66,839 postal money orders amounting to a total sum of 12,317,516 Mark; 36,942 parcels, 253,000 newspaper issues, 68,900 telegrams, 379,139 telephone calls. Postal delivery (Germany-Kamerun) : three to four times a month. Time for delivery Berlin-Duala 20 to 30 days. Telegram fee 3,65 Mark per word.
Education : government school for coloured students in Duala, Victoria, Jaunde and Garua, in 1910 in total 868 students. Further the missions of various confessions operate many schools. All follow a curriculum set up by the government.
Administration : seat of the governor (at this time Dr. Ebermaier) is Buea. The protectorate is divided in 24 districts : Rio-del-Rey, Ossidinge,
Johann-Albrechtshöhe, Victoria, Buea, Duala, Bare, Jabassi, Joko, Akonolinga, Kampo, Ambam, Jukaduma, Edea, Jaunde, Kribi, Ebolowa, Lomie, Dume, Dschang, Bamenda, Banjo, Garua, Kusseri (the last two are the German residences in Adamawa and in the Lake Chad area).
Schutztruppe : 161 white officers; split in 10 companies. 1,300 coloureds (numbers of 1912). Police troops standing under the command of German military officers are allocated to various police stations.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1913, p.18ff.|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher