Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1914, Kiautschou
The territory of Kiautschou, located in the Chinese province of Schantung,
was occupied by German forces under the command of Vice Admiral von
Diederichs on November 14th 1897. After a treaty with the Chinese
government, signed March 6th 1898, ceded all claims the Chinese government
had within the area for a lease over 99 years, it had been proclaimed, by
Imperial edict, a German protectorate. Administratively the Protectorate
of Kiautschou is placed under the Reichs-Marine-Amt, while all other
colonies are placed under the Reichskolonialamt. (p.42)
The protectorate includes the entire water body of Kiautschou Bay up to the high
water mark, furthermore the northern and southern promontory at it's inlet up to
suitable ridges (46,6 respectively 461,5 square km), as well as the islands
located within the bay and in the sea off the bay (43,6 square km). The total
land area amounts to 551,7 square km (roughyly the size of Hamburg). In addition
a zone has been established within which the Chinese government cannot implement
any reform without German approval; the border of this line is 50 km distant
from the protectorate; this zone covers roughly 1/2 the Kingdom of Saxony.
Population : According to the last census undertaken in 1910 34,180
Chinese live within the city limits of Tsingtau (in the years 1911 until 1913,
because of the revolution, numerous Chinese have immigrated, so that the July
1913 census counted 55,312, an increase of 56 %, and, except military personnel,
2069 Europeans in 1913 (1,621 in 1910, 1,531 in 1907). To these, a number of
Japanese have to be added. The population of countryside Kiautschou had been
estimated at 100,000, but the real figure is at least 161,000; the population of
the 50-km-zone is unknown. Including the military and the water population,
Tsingtau has a population of more than 60,000.
Morphology And Hydrology : On the northern promontory the Lan-Schan, up
to 1,130 m high. Almost the entire peninsula of Schantung is covered by a 600 km
long mountain range; it is separated from China's other mountain chains by a
large plain, and by another plain connecting Kiautschou Bay with the Gulf of
Tschili it is separated in two. The protectorate lacks navigable rivers. The
hinterland borders on the Hwangho.
Climate : Highest temperatures 33 degrees Celsius, lowest 11 degrees
Celsius. Average annual rainfall over 500 mm.
Flora : Cultivated plants : grain, beans, potatos, tobacco, fruit trees,
cotton too. Forests, because of Chinese mal administration, destroyed. The
Germans reforest the area near Tsingtau; the Chinese learn reforestation.
Fauna : The Kiautschou area has few animals. In spring and autumn many
migratory waterfowl pass by. Attempts to introduce European domesticated animals
failed so far. Cattle raised here are also exported.
Minerals : The Schantung-Bergbau-Gesellschaft (Shandong Mining Company)
began to work the Wei-hsien coal deposit on October 1st 1902. The first coal
train arrived in Tsingtau on October 30th 1902. The exploitation of the coal
field progresses at the pit Fang-Tsze. For the processing of the coal, a
mechanical separation apparatus has been established. A second pit, Minna
Schacht, located ca. 70 m distant from Fang-tsze, has been opened. Work on the
establishment of a second main hauling pit, Annie Schacht close to the station
of Fang-tse has begun in June 1904. In the coal field of Po-schan the
establishment of a pit (Tse-tschwan Schacht) was begun this summer. The coal is
partially suited for being fired in ship engines. However, the enterprise was
unprofitable and has been taken over by the Schantung Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft
(Shandong Railway Company). Iron deposits also have been found, the exploitation
of which will soon be begun.
Trade And Infrastructure : a large port with piers, swimming dock (capacity
16,000 tons) and shipyard facilities is, for the larger part, completed. The
railway reaching from Tsingtau inland connects to the coal fields of the
Schantung-Bergbau-Gesellschaft near Wei-hsien and Po-schan and further until
Tsinan-fu (435 km). The first train arrived at Tsinan-fu on February 23rd 1904.
The entire line, including the branch lline to Po-schan valley, operates since
July 1st 1904. Tsinan-fu is located along the line Tientsin-Pu-kou.
The hinterland produces many important products for the export to Europe,
especially baskets etc., peanut oil, brushes, silk pongees. More than 80 % of
the imports are delivered by railway into the interior. The free port, which
hitherto covered the entire protectorate, has been limited by agreement with the
Chinese government of January 1st 1906 to the port and an adjacent stretch of
land. The remaining territory, for the purpose of simpler trade, has been
attached to Chinese customs territory. Total export from Oct. 1st 1903 to Oct.
1st 1904 about 14,7 million Mark. 1904/05 about 20 million M., 1905/06 about
23,5 million M., 1906/1907 over 34 million M., 1907/08 : 32,5 million M.,
1908/09 : 47,5 million M., 1910/11 : about 64,6 million M., 1911/12 : ca. 74
million M. Total import of goods on non-Chinese origin (without railway and
mining equipment) 1903/04 : about 24 million M., 1904/05 about 37 million,
1905/06 : over 50 million, 1906/07 : over 61,5 million, 1907/08 : 38 million,
1908/09 : 45,8 million, 1910/11 : about 56 million, 1911/12 : about 62 million.
Import of Chinese goods 1904/05 : over 12 million, 1905/06 : over 15 million,
1906/07 : almost 21 million, 1907/08 : 17,5 million, 1908/09 : 23,7 million,
1909/10 : 25,9 Millionen, 1910/11 : 28,7 million, 1911/12 : about 44 million
Mark. According to the Chinese Maritime Customs Statistics, the imports of goods
of non-Chinese origin, except railway and mining equipment, had a combined value
of 41,893,683 Dollars, as compared to 30,902,219 Dollars in the preceding year.
The import of goods of Chinese origin was valued at 15,301,081 Dollars, as
compared to 22,064,745 Dollars in the previous year. Political conditions
disregarded, this is to be explained by a fall in prices of a number of items.
Exports were 37,566,540 Dollars (as compared to 37,002,456 Dollars in the
previous year). The total trade thus has increased to 94,761,304 Dollars as over
89,969,420 Dollars in the previous year. The most prominent import articles are
cotton products, petrol, anilin dyes, paper, sugar, matches, metals, railway
construction material. Exported are mainly straw products, peanut oil, peanuts,
silk and silk pongees, cotton, soy bean oil, hides, slaughtered animals, fruit
Navigation : In 1906/07 498 steamers with a total storage of 547,000 tons
entered the port of Tsingtau. 1907/08 432 (of which 211 German) with 520,000
tons, 1908/09 511/268/670,000, 1909/10 : 568/807,000; 1910/11 : 590 / 1,026,000;
1911/12 : 727 / 1,136,000 tons (p.43). Transit passage : Norddeutscher Lloyd
Genoa or Naples-Tsingtau 1st class 1,300 M., 2nd class 910 M., 3rd class 520 M.
Post & Telegraph Service : by the end of 1913 : 10 postal offices, 8
of which with telegraph service and 2 with local telephone service. 37 km
overland telegraph lines; 1160 km underwater cables. 1912 2,326,000 letters were
delivered, 23,472 postal money orders over a total sum of 966,996 M., 40,186
parcels, 240,769 newspaper issues, 97,430 telegrams, 1,149,469 telephone calls.
Postal connection three times weekly, delivery via the Suez Canal 30-36 days,
via Siberia 14-15 days. Telegram fee per word 3,65 M. In addition a radio
telegraphic station in Tsingtau.
Administration : Seat of the governor (presently Admiral Meyer-Waldeck)
is Tsingtau. District office Litsun.
Garrison : 63 officers and medical personnel, 1,816 N.C.O.s and troops,
62 Chinese police soldiers.
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1914, p.41ff.|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher