Colonial Policy|| |
Atlas of Germany's Colonies and Illustrated Yearbook, edited by P. Sprigade and M. Moisel, 1914, Togo
Before the German acquisition, German merchants, mostly from Bremen, had taken up residence at the Slave Coast. In 1884 the German flag was hoisted on board
the "Mowe". Armed conflicts with the indigenous have rarely occurred
in this colony.
Borders : The German-French treaty dated July 23rd 1897 determines the
colony's borders to the north and east (only minor points of ambiguity); the
border to the west, except a short stretch, was determined via the exchange of
notifications between Berlin and London in 1904 (p.18). It was finally fixed in
1912. The total area of the protectorate has been calculated at about 87,200
square km (larger than Bavaria, more than double the size of
the province of Silesia).
Population : January 1st 1910 : 372, 1909 : 330 Europeans, of whom 337
Germans and 62 adult women. 1911 : 363 whites, among them 327 Germans and 58
adult women. 1912 : 345 whites, 316 Germans, 61 women, 1913 : 368 Europeans, 320
Germans, 66 adult women. According to both census and estimates, the black
population is given as 1,032,000. In the various districts live : Lome Town
11,500; Lome Area 119,000; Anecho 112,000; Misahohe 140,000; Atakpame 80,000;
Kete-Kratschi 20,000; Sokode 300,000; Mangu 225,000.
The south is inhabited by Ewe-Negroes, among them splinters of other tribes,
partially related to tribes of the Gold Coast, particularly those living in the
mountains. Central Togo is inhabited by tribes different from the Ewe, of
unclear origin. The northeast is inhabited by the Tim, Kabure and related
tribes, the west by the Dagomba, Gurma and Konkomba tribes. Trade is mostly
dominated by the Haussah.
Irrigation and Morphology : Strong surf along the 52 km long coast;
disembarkation and loading/offloading of cargo difficult. The peer completed in
1905 at Lome and restored in 1912 after it collapsed in 1911 has greatly
improved the situation; now persons can disembark,goods be offloaded without
loss or damage. The pier had been destroyed in 1911 by heavy tide; the
construction of a new one is planned. The estuary of the Volta river, navigable
in it's lower stretch, is located on British territory. To the south of the 7th
degree of latitude, the the Mona forms the border to French Dahomey. The estuary
is located on French territory. The Haho River, entirely located on German
territory and emptying into the Togo Lagoon, is navigable only for light
shipping (canoes) and only in the vicinity of it's mouth. Not navigable, but
stronger than the Haho are the Todschie and the Schio, both of which have water
year round in normal years. The lower stretch of the first is on British
territory, the latter, just as the Haho, completely German and empties into the
Togo Lagoon. Also the Oti, which empties into the Volta not far from
Kete-Kratschi, should be mentioned.
In the central area of the protectorate, a clearly structured mountain range
stretches in S-N direction, the average altitude is 600 to 700 m, in the Dau
region 800 m, a number of peaks reach 900 to 1,000 m. The highest point of the
colony is the Agu Massive, reaching 1,025 m.
Climate : In the coastal area the average annual temperature is 26
degrees Celsius, in the interior 28 degrees Celsius. Along the coast two rainy
seasons (April-July, September-November) clearly separated by dry seasons, the
latter rainy season sometimes fails to materialize (drought years). The further
into the interior, the shorter the dry season. In northern Togo the main dry
season is very marked, less so in southern and central Togo. In the north, the
fall rainy season brings more rain than the spring rainy season, in the south
the other way round. Average annual precipitation along the coast 600-700 mm, in
the interior 1,200-1,300 mm. In the Togo Mountains between Amedschovhe and Kuma
annual rainfall reaches 1,500-1,600 mm, the protectorate's maximum. During
December and January, the Harmattan (dry, dust-carrying continental wind) is
Flora : along the coast palms, along the lagoon Mangrove forests. In the
coastal stretch the characteristic tree is the cocos palm tree. In the
hinterland tree and grass savannahs, in southern and middle Togo with rich, in
southern North Togo with little, in the northern part of the colony without tree
growth. Forests only in middle and southern Togo, along the rivers and in the
central Togo mountains. Economic plants (in cultivation or semi-cultivation) :
oil palms, cocos palms, cautchouk trees, maize, peanuts, yams, cassada, cotton,
cocoa, timber, schibutter tree, rice, beans, bananas, pineapple, mango,
strophanthus, capoc tree etc. Hitherto all the exported cautchouk (nat'l rubber)
was tapped from lianas growing wild; only recently some plantations cultivate
Manihot culture. These plantations cover a total area of 11,000 ha, one tenth of
which is under cultivation.
Fauna : in the coastal area there are few large animals. In the interior
there are many species of monkey, antilope, larger predators (lions, cheetahs,
(p.16) hyenas), hippopotami, a few elephants, wild boars. A rich avifauna, many
species of snakes, among them the giant boa and puff adder. Alligators.
Domesticated animals : sheep, goats, pigs (except in the north), dogs, cats;
chicken, guinea fowl, pigeons, ducks, rarely horses (more in the north then in
the coastal area); cattle more frequent in the north than at the coast (in Mangu
about 50,000, in Sokode 4,000 to 6,000).
Minerals : Near Banjeli and in Buem deposits of iron ore, hitherto only
exploited by the indigenous. In the Ssola Mountains graphite deposits. Alluvial
gold in the Monu river. An important calcium deposit in the Anecho district near
Trade : Export : main products : palm oil, palm kernels, maize, rubber,
cotton; of minor importance : ivory, cocoa, peanuts, copra (p.19), live animals
and hides. - Import : cotton products, spiritualia, iron, iron tools, wood,
wooden tools, tobacco, cigars, gunpowder, materials. Values of ex- and imports
see tables on pp.12, 13.
Traffic and Infrastructure : navigation : 1905 : 247 ships with a total
tonnage of 491,000 tons, 1906 : 194 ships / 269,000 tons, 1907 : 251 ships /
348,000 tons, 1908 : 260 ships / 471,000 tons, 1909 : 369 ships / 690,000 tons,
1910 : 327 ships, 577,000 tons, 1911 : 273 steamers / 677,000 tons, 1912 : 259
ships with 572,000 register tons. Price for a transit : Woermann-Line
Hamburg-Lome, 1st class : 540 Mark, 2nd class : 390 Marks.
Railways : coastal line Lome-Anecho (44 km) opened on July 18th 1905,
Lome-Agome-Palime (119 km) opened Jan. 27th 1907, the costs of 7,8 million M.
are paid for in rate by the protectorate. Lome-Atakpame (167 km) opened April
1st 1911. Projects to be noted are the extension of the railway line into the
oil palm districts north of Anecho and another one into the Kpandu district. The
income of the transportation facilities (coastal line, pier and line
Lome-Palime) amounted to 305,000 M during the period April 1907-March 1908 and
305,000 M April 1908-March 1909, 317,000 M during the respective period
1909/1910, 401,000 M in 1910, in the calendar year of 1910 834,000 M., 1911
886,000 M, 1912 : 918,000 M.
Post and Telegraph Service : By the end of 1912 there were 23 post offices, all
with telegraph service, 5 with local telephone service; 1140 km of overland
telegraph lines. 1912 : 489,000 letters, 25,047 postal money orders over a total
amount of 3,395,854 M, 15,106 parcels, 113,296 newspaper issues, 39,695
telegrams, 54,285 telephone calls. Postal delivery (Germany-Togo) : 5 times per
month. Time for delivery Berlin-Lome 17 to 31 days. Telegram fee per word 3,65
M. In addition two radio telegraph stations at Kamina and Togblekofe.
Schooling : In Togo now there are 147 schools run by the lutheran and 181
run by the catholic mission, as well as a secondary school and a teacher's
seminary. Government schools in Lome, Sebe and Sokode. Schools for white
children are not existent.
Administrative Districts : seat of the governor is Lome. Governor Duke
Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg. District offices : Lome Town, Lome Countryside,
Anecho, Misahohe, Atakpame, Kate-Kratschi, Sokode and Sansane Mangu.
Police troops uder the command of German officers are stationed with the
district offices of Lome and Anecho (150 coloured, the police departments of the
single districts and stations not counted).
Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch, (Atlas German Colonies, with
Yearbook), edited by P. Sprigade und M. Moisel. Berlin 1914, p.17ff.|
(digitalisation) and AG
posted on the web for psm-data;
many thanks to
zu Berlin / Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Dokument in deutscher