Windisch-Grätz - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Meyer 1902-1909,

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Windisch-Grätz (1921)
Windisch-Grätz, Alfred Candidus Ferdinand, Prince zu, Austrian field marshall, born in 1787 in Brussels, died in 1862, participated after 1805 in Austria's war with France and was promoted to major general in 1826, to lieutenant field marshall in 1833. Since 1840 commanding general in Bohemia, in June 1848 he suppressed the Revolution in Prague, during which his wife was shot in his room and his son severely wounded. Shortly after Windisch-Grätz was given command over all Austrian forces outside of Italy, in October that year he moved against Vienna (which was in revolution), in the Battle of Schwechat (October 30th) prevented the Hungarians from aiding the city, forced the city the following day, after one day's bombardment, to surrender and thereafter (in December) moved against Hungary. The lame way in which the war was conducted (defeat at Gödöllö on April 6th 1849, retreat) resulted in Windisch-Grätz being relieved of his command (April 1849). During the Italian war of 1859 Windisch-Grätz was sent on a mission to Berlin, and that year appointed governor of the federal fortress of Mainz.
On behalf of Windisch-Grätz was published in 1851 : Der Winterfeldzug 1848-49 in Ungarn, an important contribution to the history of this war.

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Windisch-Grätz
Windisch-Grätz, Alfred zu, born on May 11th 1787 in Brussels, died on March 21st 1862 in Vienna, in 1804 joined the ulan regiment Schwarzenberg, after the Battle at Leipzig, in which he distinguished himself, was promoted to major of a regiment of curassiers, which fought with distinction, namely at Troyes and at La Fere-Champenoise. In 1826 promoted major general and brigadeer general in Prague. In 1830 knight of the Golden Fleece, in 1833 lieutenant field marshall and divisionary. After having resided in Prague from 1840 to 1848 as commander of Bohemia, during the March catastrophe in Vienna, where he was present by coincidence, he took command of the city and implemented the most severe measures, in order to prevent the outbreak of unrest. Soon public opinion turned against him with such determination, that the Emperor sent him to Bohemia. After the outbreak of the revolution in Prague on June 11th he treated the revolutionaries with much leniency, and did not give up the policy of leniency even when his wife, a born princess Schwarzenberg, was killed by a shot from the crowd, and his eldest son was mortally wounded. On the occasion of the outbreak of the Vienna October Revolution, Windisch-Grätz immediately moved on the capital with all forces at his disposal; the Emperor appointed him supreme commander of all armies except for the Italian army, entered Vienna on October 31st and suppressed the rebellion. By the new Emperor, Franz Joseph, the accession to the throne of whom Windisch-Grätz, together with his brother-in-law Schwarzenberg had promoted, confirmed in his position, in mid December with a force of 150,000 men he began the operations against Hungary. He occupied Pressburg [Bratislava], Raab and on January 5th 1849 Budapest, but then, underestimating the enemy, had three months pass, which the hungarians used to rally and strengthen their forces. One after the other the Austrian generals were ambushed and defeated in April; the most important positions were lost, so that Windisch-Grätz on April 12th was deprived of the supreme command; he was replaced by Welden. Windisch-Grätz withdrew to his estates in Bohemia. In 1859 he was charged with a mission to Berlin, later appointed governor of Mainz. In 1861 he became a hereditary member of the House of Lords.
On his behalf was published : Der Winterfeldzug 1848/49 in Ungarn (Wien 1851 See : Der k. k. ?sterreichische Feldmarschall Fürst Windisch-Grätz. Eine Lebensskizze aus den Papieren eines Zeitgenossen (Berlin 1886; 2nd edition Leipzig 1898).

source in German, posted by Zeno


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First posted on August 3rd 2009

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