Garibaldi - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Meyer 1885-1892,

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Garibaldi (1858)
Garibaldi, born in Nizza on July 4th 1807, in 1821 belonged to a group which starting from Turin wanted to spread the republic over all of Italy. After the occupation of Piemonte by Austrian troops he lived for some time in Switzerland and France, and in 1822 he went to South America, where he entered the services of the Republic of Uruguay. When news arrived of the outbreak of the February movement 1848 he embarked in Montevideo in April, in Genoa, where he arrived on June 29th, he established a volunteer corps, with which he advanced toward Milan in July. After the victory of the Austrians near Custozza on July 26th above Como with his corps, which had swelled to about 3,000 men, he established a fortified camp, and, although Milan on August 6th again was occupied by the Austrians, and shortly afterward a truce was concluded between Sardinia and Austria, he proclaimed the intention to continue the war against Austria on his own. But facing the advancing Austrian troops, his corps dissolved; he with a few faithful remained in hiding in Italy, until he reappeared in Tuscany in November, and here and in the Papal State anew recruited volunteers. Moving to Rome, on January 1st 1849 he was appointed lieutenant major by the Giunta, and, with his legion, taken into their service. Elected deputee, in the session of February 6th he proposed the declaration of the republic; on March 20th he was appointed supreme commander of the Roman-Republican forces, and during this month undertook raids into Neapolitan territory. When the French threatened Rome at the end of October, he participated in the skirmish on April 30th which forced Oudinot to retreat, defeated the Neapolitans on May 9th near Palestrina, on the 19th near Velletri, raided until Terracina and Arci, and at the beginning of July returned to Rome, to partake in the struggle against the French, which was beginning. When Rome was occupied by Oudinot on June 30th, he and his legion escaped, and pillaging he undertook raids into Tuscany, was surprised by the Austrians on July 31st at Monte Maggio, and now raided in the Apennines. His attempt on August 3rd, on individual vessels, to pass the Austrian blockade squadron and get to Venice, failed; from Ancona he went to Genoa and embarked for Tunis. As he was not given the position he had hoped for, he went to North America via Gibraltar, and then entered the services of Peru, where he spent special attention of the navy, and in 1852 as the commander of a vessel went to Hong Kong. Later he went to Central America, in 1854 he returned to London and later reappeared in Turin and Nizza.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Garibaldi (1882)
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, Italian national hero, born of poor parents in Nizza [Nice] on July 4th 1807, early joined the Sardinian merchant fleet, soon became a devout supporter of Mazzini's plan to liberate and unify Italy, and, at Mazzini's advice, joined the service on a naval vessel, in order to win over its crew for the revolution. When the plan of the conspirators failed, Garibaldi, sentenced to death, fled to France (1834). For a while he tried himself as a teacher of mathematics in Marseille, after was given a posaition as a naval officer under the Bey of Tunis, and since 1846 fought in the service of the Republic of Rio Grande do Sul and of Uruguay against Brazil, and as a privateer gained a reputation for daringness. When informed of the freedom movement in Italy in 1847 Garibaldi in March 1848, with his wife Anita "equally glowing for the sacred cause of the people", and with 100 volunteers, left Montevideo. At the time of his arrival in Italy, the fortune of war already had turned against the Italian army. As his offer of service was rejected by King Carlo Alberto, at the request of the defense committee of Milan he formed a volunteer corps of 2000 men, but soon, after courageous defense against the Austrians, had to retreat onto Swiss territory. The courage he and his men developed at a time when Italy was in the grip of despair, gained the sympathy of almost all Italians. Garibaldi moved into the territory of the Papal State, but was forced to lay down his arms. Without thereby losing spirit, on December 21st 1848 he joined the provisional government in Rome and became member of the Roman parliament, where on February 5th 1849 he proposed the declaration of the republic. He maintained an iron discipline in his army (where his couragious wife served as a captain). All successes the revolutionaries later gained during the siege of Rome by the French were exploits of Garibaldi's daringness and skill. On April 30th 1849 he drove the Frenchman Oudinot back to Civitavecchia, on May 9th 1849 he won a glorious victory over the Neapolitans at Palestrina. When the French finally (in June 1849) conquered Rome, Garibaldi, with 1500 men, entered Neapolitan territory in order to raise this country in rebellion (his wife now served as his adjutant), but was forced by the superior Austrian forces to move north, to San Marino, where the larger part of his force surrendered to the latter. When he tried to sail to Venice, an Austrian fleet took most of his boats, after which Garibaldi, disguised as a fisherman, succeeded in escaping onto Piemontese territory, but during the adventurous escape he lost his wife (1849). In Chiavari he was arrested at the order of the Sardinian government and brought to Genoa, where he left his children in the care of his friends, and emigrated to North America. There at first he worked in a soap and candle factory, but later commanded a vessel which sailed the Pacific Ocean. With the small fortune he was able to save, he returned to Italy in 1854 and purchased a part of the island Caprera, where he since resided. When war broke out between Austria and Sardinia in 1859, Garibaldi was given permission by the Sardinian government to assemble a force of volunteers, called the Alpine Mountain Infantry.With this force, on May 23rd 1859, as Sardinian general he crossed the Ticino, and thus opened the campaign. With extraordinary courage he fought at Varese, Como, Magenta, Solferino, and attracted the attention of all of Europe. After the Treaty of Villafranca, discontent with the unexpected end to the war, at the helm of his troops he moved into Tuscany, to spread rebellion in the Papal State and Naples and to proclaim Vittorio Emmanuele King of Italy. As the Sardinian government, fearing a breach with France, foiled vthis plan, Garibaldi for several months withdrew to Caprera, but in April 1860 he again appeared on the political scene, this time as a deputee in the common parliament for Sardinia, Emilia and Tuscany in Turin. Perhaps more upset about the cession of Savoy and Nizza [Nice] to France than any other Italian, Garibaldi wanted to hold the cabinet responsible, and only Vittorio Emmanuele's explicit request prevented him to take off to Nizza to give the planned plebiscite a different outcome as the one expected by France. In the meantime a rebellion had begun on Sicily, and naturally Garibaldi was ready to offer his aid to the insurgents. With 1,067 volunteers on May 11th 1860 he landed near Marsala on Sicily. Now volunteers from all corners came to rally under the flags of the admired people's hero. On May 14th he had Vittorio Emmanuele proclaimed King of Sicily, and personally assumed the dictatorship of the island. The following day he defeated General Landi at Galatafini, on May 25th joined forces with Major la Masa and on the 27th, under the jubilation of the people, entered Palermo. On May 30th Garibaldi and General Lanza concluded the cessation of hostilities, on which followed on June 6th a formal capitulation, and the evacuation of Palermo by Neapolitan troops. On July 20th Garibaldi stormed Milazzo, on July 25th General Clary evacuated Messina, which thus fell to Garibaldi. As Clary finally on August 1st obliged himself to evacuate Siracusa and Agosta, all of Sicily with the exception of the citadel of Messina was in Garibaldi's hands. Now Garibaldi regarded the time come to attack the enemy on the mainland, and without regard to Vittorio Emmanuele's expressed prohibition he landed at Reggio with 5,000 men on August 19th, and the city shortly after surrendered. On August 23rd, over 10,000 Neapolitans surrendered at Piale, and several smaller units followed their example shortly afterward. Everywhere the population rose en masse, and on September 7th Garibaldi entered Naples. On September 20th he began tha attack on the so-called Volturno Line, held by King Francesco II., on October 8th he began the siege of Capua. In the meantime Sardinia's government had taken over the guidance of the Italian revolution, so that it was not the Republican Party, by the views of which Garibaldi was infected, which should make progress in their effort to establish an Italian Republic. After he had expelled Francesco II. from his last stronghold, Gaeta, Vittorio Emmanuele entered Naples on November 7th 1860, after which Garibaldi laid into the king's hands the power he had exercised, and withdrew to Caprera.
But here he did not remain inactive. He took the lead of the movement, the goal of which was the union of Rome and Venice with the new Kingdom of Italy. A plan to conquer Venice was uncovered and foiled in time by the Italian government (May 1862). Against Garibaldi's attempt to move on Rome (summer 1862) the government had to use its armed forces. On Sicily, where the population was arisen against Napoleon III. and the papacy, despite being prohibited to do so by the goverment, Garibaldi assembled 3,000 volunteers and crossed over to the mainland, but at a skirmish in Aspromonte in Calabria he was severely injured in his right foot, and taken prisoner with his men (August 29th). The government, however, neither wanted to punish Garibaldi for his action, nor dared to do so, granted him and his comrades amnesty. At the begin of the war of 1866 the king appointed Garibaldi commander over 20 battalions of volunteers. After he was defeated by the Austrian army at Lake Garda (July 3rd), on August 15th he embittered, by a proclamation of August 15th, he said farewell to his volunteers and retreated to Caprera. His period of glory now was over; what he has done since shows only, that he lacked political prudence and independence. In 1867 Garibaldi began to agitate for the annexion of the Papal State into the kingdom, and prepared an attack on the Papal State. The government had him arrested at Asinalungo (on September 24th) and sent him back to Caprera, but he soon after escaped, assembled his followers, and invaded Papal State territory. There he defeated the Papal troops at Monte Rotondo (October 26th), but himself suffered a decisive defeat at the hands of the combined Papal and French troops at Mentana (November 3rd), and ad Figline had to surrender to the Italian government. By the end of the month he was released again. After the proclamation of the French Republic (September 4th 1870) with a unit of volunteers went to support the French, and began a guerilla war near Dijon, which was of no importance to the progress of the war.
In 1875 Garibaldi took his seat in the Italian Chamber of Deputees, and as a deputee he mainly has occupied himself with the regulation of the Tiber river, and with the drainage of Roman Campania. Since 1876 Garibaldi receives an annual pension from the state.
Early in 1860 Garibaldi married the beautiful Countess Raimondi, but he broke the connection with her on the day of the marriage, when he found out that he had given his hand to a person not worthy of it. The marriage was legally divorced only long after. With Anita Garibaldi had two sons, Menotti (born 1840) and Riciotti, of whom especially the former participated outstandingly in his father's activities, and a daughter, Teresita. The hatred of Rome and the Catholic Church has not only put the sword in Garibaldi's hand, but also the pen. He has written the novels directed against the pope and clericalism, "Clelia, ovvero il goberno di Monaco" (1870), "Munkens spira" (1871), "Cantoni il volontario" (1870) and "Il Mille" (1874). They lack literary value.
Few persons have exercised a greater influence on Italy's fate than Garibaldi. "Glowing of patriotism, enthusiastic for the liberty and the right of the people, flawless and selfless, without fear and falsehood, he, himself a child of the people, seems to have been created to become a people's hero, and wherever he showed himself with his black felt hat and his red shirt, he irresistably attracted the masses". Garibaldi was richly equipped with the characteristics of the heart, but lacked the clear, penetrating reasoning of the statesman, which coldly calculates advantages and disadvantages before taking on a risky and important undertaking. Following the inspiration of the moment and the emotions of his noble heart, Garibaldi often interfered in the course of politics in a way which crossed the calculations of statesmen. The lack of deeper insight explains both the passionate intensity with which Garibaldi worked for Italy's unity, and the fanatic hatred he harbored against the Roman Catholic Church, by which he erased the misfortune of his fatherland.

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Garibaldi
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, famous Italian national hero, born on July 4th 1807 in Nizza [Nice] as the son of a sailor, joined the Sardinian navy at an early date, inspired by the idea of Italian unity and glory, participated in the conspiracy of 1834 which resulted in an inglorious end of Mazzini's Savoy campaign, and therefore had to flee the country. He escaped to France from Genoa on February 5th 1834. In his home country sentenced to death, for a number of years he lived an unsteady life, for a while was in the service of the Bey of Tunis, then 1846 in that of the south American republics Rio Grande do Sul and Montevideo [!], where, with vessels (usually contributed by himself) he gained a reputation as a privateer taking Brasilian ships, and thus gained an excellent education in the art of waging war. Here also he entered into a lasting relationship with a Spaniard, Antita, whom he could not legally marry because she was married. When he learned of the break-out of the national movement in Italy, in April 1848 with 54 comrades in arms he embarked for Europe, and after 14 years of banishment, set foot on his fatherland in Nizza, just when the first, fortunate period of the Upper Italian War had been concluded. He wanted to serve under King Carlo Alberto, but his offer was rejected. Charged too late with the formation of a corps of volunteers by Milan's defense committee, after the expulsion of the truce concluded by Carlo Alberto and Radetzky, with his 1500 men strong volunteer corps at various locations he courageously resisted the superior Austrian forces, but finally had to withdraw onto Swiss territory. The daring endurance amidst a general spirit of despair won him immense popularity among the Italians. The Sicilians called him to take charge of the defense of the island against Fernando II. of Naples. Instead, on December 21st 1848 Garibaldi entered the service of Rome's provisional government, and established his headquarters first in Macerata, then in Rieti. Elected into the Roman parliament, in the first session of February 5th 1849 Garibaldi proposed the proclamation of the republic, but then immediately returned to his legion. All successes achieved by the Romans during the siege of Rome by the French are to be credited to Garibaldi. Although he did not approve of the strategy of the triumvirs, in the most dangerous of times he provided a model of strictest obedience and proved daringness and skill in the usage of circumstances. In their initial approach he defeated the French, and by his defense of the position af the Porta San Pancrazio (May 2nd) he forced Marshal Oudinot to formally laying siege to the city. Similarly he gained glory in the successful attacks on the Neapolitans at Palestrina and Velletri (May 19th). When the superior French force took the city on July 3rd, which the 1550 men left to him Garibaldi crossed into Neapolitan territory, in order to raise an insurgency there, but was pursued by the Austrians, and under many risks escaped to Piemonte, but without his Anita, who had accompanied him on all of his campaigns, but on the adventurous flight, near Ravenna, died of the consequences of giving birth. The Sardinian government forced him to emigrate to North America. At first he worked in a soap and candle factory in New York, then he was hired as a ship's captain and sailed the Pacific Ocean up to Canton.
In 1854 he returned to Sardinia, and after a quiet one-year stay in Nizza with his family he took up residence on the small rocky island of Caprera, near the northern coast of Sardinia, part of which he had purchased, where he engaged in agriculture. As the Piemontese policy lead by Cavour more and more determinedly worked toward the unification of a free Italy under Sardinia's guidance, in Jult 1856 Garibaldi joined the Italian National Association, the aim of which was the unification of all of Italy under the scepter of the House of Savoy. Garibaldi recognized the alliance of Piemonte with France against Austria as necessary because of the circumstances, and Cavour overcame Napoleon III.'s strong dislike of Garibaldi and his volunteers, and took the responsibility for the organization of the volunteers, in Piemonte, from Austrian territory in Italy and from central Italy, under Garibaldi's flags. As a Sardinian general, Garibaldi with his "Alpine Mountain Infantrymen" on May 23rd 1859 crossed the Ticino; he was repeatedly successful against the Austrian General Urban, who opposed him, but he did not accomplish anything of importance. He shared in the national fury over the sudden termination of the war by the Peace of Villafranca, but then in August of that year willingly answered the call from Tuscany to organize a Tuscan division which at that time stood in the Romagna, with the intention to carry the insurrection into the Papal State and from there to Naples, to also here proclaim Vittorio Emmanuele as King of Italy, and to then, even without French support, to take on the conquest of Venice. But the political conditions did not allow the Piemontese government to approve such an undertaking, Garibaldi, disposed of as a Piemontese general, withdrew to Caprera. In 1860 elected into the Turin parliament, Garibaldi in vain protested against the cession of Savoy and Nizza to France. In response Garibaldi resigned as Sardinian general and as a deputee. Soon after he took command of the expedition, which, from Genoa, secretly supported by Cavour, sailed out in support of the insurrection in Sicily. On May 11th 1860, despite the Neapolitan squadron waiting for him, he landed with 1,020 men on the island, near Marsala, but already on May 14th he commanded a corps of 4,000 men, and by decree took on the dictatorship over Sicily in the name of Vittorio Emmanuele. After having expelled General Landi, who had stood near Calatafini with 3500 men in well-entrenchted positions, from the latter, on May 26th he turned on Palermo, on May 27th went on the attack, on June 6th he forced the far superior royal troops to surrender. Garibaldi now appointed a cabinet, issued a number of decrees regarding the military and administrative reorganization of the island. On July 21st the fortress of Milasso surrendered. On July 28th followed the conclusion of a truce between the commander of Messina and Garibaldi. On August 5th the latter made his preparations fro crossing to the mainland; on the 6th he issued a proclamation to the population of the mainland, on the 9th he sent his first group of volunteers over, 330 men, on the 19th he himself landed with 5,000 men near Reggio, in spite of the Neapolitan fleet crossing in the straits, took the city immediately, already on September 7th entered Naples, and, with 25,000 volunteers, began the attack on the Volturno Line, which was held by the royal forces, maintained his position, be it with difficulty, and on October 8th began the siege of Capua. But because of his arbitrary action he had manoeuvred himself into a position increasingly antagonistic to that of Vittorio Emmanuele's government, on the other hand he could not achieve complete victory without the participation of the latter. So he saw himself forces, when the Sardinian army entered Neapolitan territory from the north, to leave the continuation of the operations to them. After having greeted Vittorio Emmanuele on October 30th at Sessa as King of Italy, and after having entered Naples on November 7th at his side, he transferred the authority he had exercised into the hands of the king, and on the 9th embarked to Caprera. He had rejected and reward, any order of merit, even the few Piasters, which he needed to cross over to his small possession, he needed to borrow. As the head of the so-called Action Party he did not spend much time on Caprera, but immediately began to work on the realization of the next aim : the liberation of Rome and raising the latter to capital of Italy. In June 1862 he suddenly appeared in Palermo, everywhere he incited the population to hatred of Napoleon and of the Papacy, and called for a campaign against Rome. Despite the government taking determnined position against his plan, soon he had assembled about 3,000 volunteers and landed after having taken Catania on August 18th, on the 25th he landed in Calabria. At the demand of Napoleon, the government dispatched General Cialdini against him, and on August 28th a skirmish between the royal troops commanded by Major Pallavicino and Garibaldi's volunteers was fought near Aspromonte, in which Garibaldi himself was seiously wounded at his right ankle. Brought on a government steamer to La Spezia and from there to Fort Varignano on the island of Palmeria, on October 5th Garibaldi and his volunteers were amnestied. Garibaldi's wound, because the bullet had penetrated to the bone, required difficult surgery and healed only slowly. Only on December 20th did he return to Caprera. Here he lived quietly until the spring of 1864, when he visited England, where his friends greeted him with grandiose ovations.
At the outbreak of the war of 1866 Garibaldi offered his service to King Vittorio Emmanuele, and on May 6th was appointed commander of 20 battalions of volunteers. In June he went to Como, where he took over command over the volunteer corps. But he did not accomplish any great feats. He did move against the Austrian corps stationed in southern Tirol, but was defeated on July 3rd near Lago di Garda and was forced to retreat. Disappointed in his expectations, on August 15th in a proclamation he bade farewell to his volunteers and returned to Caprera. Garibaldi's period of glory was over. His earlier glorious successes are to be credited to his boldness and his idealistic, selfless enthusiasm for the cause of his fatherland. But his further actions prove, that he utterly lacked political insight, prudence and independent judgment. Because the hands of the government, in regard to an action against Rome, were tied by the September Convention, Garibaldi tried to take the city on his own. As his plan could not remain uncovered, the government on September 23rd had him arrested at Asinalunga, and deported to Caprera. But Garibaldi's associates continued the work he began, until he himself succeeded in a daring journey on a small barch to pass the Italian cruisers blocking passage from Caprera, and to land in the Papal State. Garibaldi now made progress, namely by his victory at Monterotondo at the end of October. But on October 30th two French brigades under General Failly landed near Civitavecchia, and as Garibaldi despite repeated calls by his government and despite the insufficient condition of his troops, mostly consisting of very young men, did not lay down his arms, on November 3rd near Montana he was attacked by combined Papal and French troops and he suffered complete defeat.
The Garibaldians lost 1000 dead and wounded and 1400 prisoners of war. Garibaldi at Figlini fell into the hands of the troops of Vittorio Emmanuele, was disarmed, and broght to Fort Varignano in La Spezia as prisoner, but at the end of November 1867 was granted permission to return to Caprera, where the government had him carefully guarded. In his reclusion, Garibaldi wrote novels hostile to the church ("Clelia, ovvero il governo del Monaco", "Cantoni il volontario", in German Leipzig 1870). The proclamation of the French Republic in September 1870 kindled his republican fanatism to such an extent, that he, accompanied by his sons Menotti and Ricciotti, hurried to Tours to see Gambetta, by whom at the beginning of October was given the command over the volunteers in the southeastern war theatre. In his own way in Burgundy he began a kind of guerilla war, but without achieving success. The pompous praises in the press sharply conflicted with reality. The French did not like seeing him, because, as a sworn enemy of the pope, he often inconsiderately hurt the Catholic sentiment of the population of the countryside. Further, the volunteers often appeared inconsiderate and arrogant. His entire military incompetence Garibaldi proved in January 1871, when he permitted himself to be nailed down in Dijon by the attacks of a Prussian brigade, and did nothing to uphold the advance of Manteuffel, and to come to the aid of Bourbaki. After Bourbaki's army had been annihilated, Garibaldi on February 1st withdrew from Dijon. Because of this mishap, Garibaldi was treated very badly by the French. He had been elected into the National Assembly in Bordeaux. But whenm he took his seat,already after the first expressions of his opinion, he was showered with insults, so that he laid down his mandate immediately and retreated to Caprera, from where he issued statements in favour of the Paris Commune, as, from his island, he greeted any anti-clerical and radical movement, also the chauvinist movement of Italia Irredenta, with a few phrases. A dotation the Italian parlament hat voted on in 1874, over 100,000 Lire in pensions, he initially rejected, in consideration of Italy's financial situation, but in 1876 he accepted it, because of the wasteful spending of his sons. In his later years much weakened by bodily aches, he died on June 2nd 1882 on Caprera, and was ceremoniusly buried there on June 8th.
Garibaldi was of average height, sturdy stature, with a large head and expressive facial features. His originally red beard turned grey early. He usually wore the famous shirt and a black, round felt hat. His entire life he appeared as a man who was willing to sacrifice everything for an idea he once had been convinced of. Enthusiasm for the national cause, energy in the execution of his plans,oversight and speed in the implementation of military movements, personal courage, selflessness and honesty were the virtues which made him stand out, which made him national hero. But he lacked cool consideration of the real conditions, namely of what was due because of the political situation, as well as any deeper insight. Among his most intense passions was his hatred of the Papacy and the Papal church,to which he, not without justification, credited the misery of his fatherland.
By Anita he had two sons, Menotti and Ricciotti, and one daughter, Teresita, who is married to General Canzio. Early in 1860 he married a Milanese, Contessa Raimondi, who had ignominously betrayed him; therefore he separated from her on the wedding day, did not recognize her child, and in 1879 achieved the legal declaration of the invalidity of the marriage. Then he married the former wetnurse of his granddaughter, with whom he had lived together, and who had born him two children. The state granted the widow and every one of his children an annual pension of 10,000 Lire.
Among the numerous, but mostly worthless literature on Garibaldi see : Delvau, Garibaldi, vie et aventures 1807-1859 (Paris 1862); Vecchj, Garibaldi auf Caprera (deutsch, Leipzig 1862); Elpis Melena, Garibaldis Denkwürdigkeiten (Hamburg 1861, 2 vols.); Elpis Melena, Garibaldi, Mitteilungen aus seinem Leben (2. ed., Hannov. 1885); Balbiani, Scene storiche della vita politica e militare di Giuseppe Garibaldi. Milan 1872); Bent, Life of Garibaldi (London 1881); Guerzoni, Garibaldi con documenti inediti (Turin 1882, 2 vols.); Mario, Garibaldi e i suoi tempi (Milan 1884); "Epistolario di Giuseppe Garibaldi" (ed. by Ximenes, Milan 1885, 2 vols.).

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

DOCUMENTS Article Giuseppe Garibaldi, from EB 1911

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