Sweden, 1560-1611 Russia, 16th C. Estonia, 1561-1660. Finland, 1525-1808

Russo-Swedish War 1570-1595

A.) Preconditions of the War

Russia resp. her predecessor, the Republic of Novgorod, and Sweden had a long history of conflict over territory on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and in Finland. The disintegration of the state of the Livonian Order after 1558 had provided both, as well as the Poles and Danes, with an opportunity to expand, and had destabilized the balance of powers in the area.

B.) The War

In 1581 Swedish forces took Narva, Ivangorod (in eastern Estonia), occupied parts of Ingria and eastern Karelia (with Kexholm). Up to 1582, the war, as far as it took place in Estonia and Livonia, can be regarded as part of the Livonian War (1558-1582).
Truces were signed in 1583 and 1585, leaving the conquests in the hands of the Swedes; the Truce of Narva 1590 foresaw a Swedish withdrawal from Ingria. In 1595 the TREATY OF TEUSINA (in Finnish : Täsinä) was signed; Sweden returned Kexholm; Russia formally ceded Eastern Estonia as well as territory in Finland to Sweden.

C.) The Legacy

In 1611-1617 another Russo-Swedish War ensued, Sweden this time acquiring Russia's Baltic Sea Provinces, as well as Kexholm. Only Peter the Great, in the Great Northern War, regained these territories for Russia.

"The 25 Years' War with Russia" 1570-1595, in The Many Swedish Wars, posted by Hans Högman
25-årskriget mot Ryssland 1570-1595, from Svea Riket, in Swedish
DOCUMENTS Treaty of Teusina, 1595, from A selection of events and documents on the history of Finland, in old Swedish and in Finnish translation

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 27th 2003, last revised on November 17th 2004

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