1st Anglo-Dutch War

Fist Era of Liberty, 1650-1672
W.I.C. 1621-1798

The Second Anglo-Dutch War 1665-1667

A.) The Pre-History of the Invasion

In 1663 a British fleet took Dutch trading posts on the Gold Coast; in 1664 a Fleet sailing in the name of the Duke of York took NEW AMSTERDAM and renamed it New York.

B.) The Military Course of Events

In 1665 an English fleet under the Duke of York was victorious at Lowestoft, then to suffer a defeat at the hands of Dutch Admiral Michiel Adriaansz. de Ruyter in the Four Days Battle. A fleet equipped by the Estates of Zeeland in 1665 took the English colony of Suriname, then an outpost of Barbados. Minor English victories were followed by de Ruyter's 1667 coup when he broke through the chains blocking the Thames mouth and set the English fleet, docked at Chatham, on fire (the BATTLE OF MEDWAY); the attempt of a Dutch force to take LANDGUARD FORT in 1667 was repelled by the English garrison of c. 500 men, commanded by Captain Nathaniel Darell. Peace was restored in the 1667 TREATY OF BREDA.

C.) Analysis

Overall, the Dutch Republic had the upper hand in the war. The English offered to restore New Netherlands (with New Amsterdam) in return for Suriname; the Dutch side rejected. In 1667, the sugar plantations of Suriname were regarded more profitable than the fur trade with American natives on the Hudson River. The W.I.C. trade posts on the Gold Coast were restored to her.
The considerable contribution of persons/institutions equipping fleets at their own expense and for their own profit, has to be stressed. While the W.I.C. had lost New Netherlands, it was not the W.I.C. which had conquered Suriname, but a fleet equipped by the Estates of Zeeland. And these interests clearly influenced the negotiations at Breda.

D.) Legacy

The War did not resolve the Anglo-Dutch competition; the Navigation Act remained in force.

The Contemplator's Short History of the Anglo-Dutch Wars, from Contemplator
Second Anglo-Dutch War, from Wikipedia
The Dutch in the Medway, June 1667, from Ben's Homepage, with links to online primary sources
Second Anglo-Dutch War, from Military History Encyclopedia on the Web
Timeline M.A. de Ruyter, posted by Stichting Michiel Adriaanszoen de Ruyter, in Dutch
1667, the Dutch Raid in the Medway, posted by Upnor Castle
Landguard Fort, from English Heritage; from Landguard Fort Trust, by Melvyn Lemon
The Dutch in the Medway - June 1667, by Ben Levick
From Stichting Michiel A. de Ruyter : biography, timetable (both in Dutch)
Oorlogsvaart in de Gouden Eeuw, from Kees Mooyer (in Dutch)
Anglo-Dutch Wars, from Five Major Eras in the Netherlands' History
Dutch Wars : War of 1664-1667, from infoplease
Second Anglo-Dutch War 1664-1667, from regiments.org
DOCUMENTS Inventory de Ruyter Family Archive; documents relating to M. de Ruyter, foreign affairs of Dutch Republic, posted by deruyter.org, in Dutch
Painting : Bringing in the Royal Charles (formerly the Nazeby), captured during de Ruyter's Raid on Chatham, 20th June, 1667, posted by John's History Pages Fire of London, 1666, from Mappe di Citta' ed altre mappe antiche diverse, comment in Italian
REFERENCE H.P.H. Jansen, Kalendarium. Geschiedenis van de Lage Landen in Jaartallen. (Calendarium. History of the Low Countries by Years), Utrecht 1979

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 25th 2003, last revised on May 16th 2006

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