1st Anglo-Dutch War
1652-1654



Dutch Republic, 1672-1702 W.I.C. 1621-1798 England, 1660-1688 England's Colonial Empire, 1660-1688




The Third Anglo-Dutch War 1672-1674




A.) The Pre-History of the Invasion

England, resenting the Dutch supremacy in international trade, implemented the NAVIGATION ACT in order to eliminate Dutch intermediary traders; the act was the main cause behind the First Anglo-Dutch War 1652-1654 and the Second Anglo-Dutch War 1665-1667.
In 1670, France and England concluded the secret TREATY OF DOVER, an offensive alliance directed against the Dutch Republic.


B.) The Military Course of Events

War broke out in 1672, and the Dutch faced a sudden, threatening French Invasion (see Dutch War of Louis XIV..
In Europe, the English navy, at times in combination with the French navy, faced the Dutch in the Battles of Solebay (June 6th 1672), Kijkduin (Aug. 1672), Schoneveld (Juni 1672), Kijkduin (Aug. 1673) and Texel (1673, all Dutch victories; credit to Admiral Michiel Adrianszn de Ruyter). Most important was the first battle of Kijkduin, in which a Franco-English landing attempt was foiled.
The Dutch policy was to cut England off her communication with overseas; a Dutch fleet left for the Americas, briefly retook the New Netherlands (Aug. 9th 1673, English since 1664) and caused the New Englanders to flee Boston.
Although victorious in every naval engagement, and controlling the seas where their fleet was present, the Dutch Republic, equally to England, was close to exhaustion. The Peace of Westminster February 19th 1674 was signed, on the Dutch side in order to reduce the number of enemies the country was facing, on the basis of the status quo ante.


C.) Analysis

The last sea war dominated by the Dutch navy, the reason being that England invested in the modernization of her fleet, while the Dutch Republic could not afford to.
The lenient treatment England was given in the Treaty of Westminster lead to improved Anglo-Dutch relations; in 1678, England and the Dutch Republic concluded a defensive alliance (directed against France); in 1689 Dutch stadholder William III. was called into England to replace Catholic King James II. From 1689 to 1702, England and the Dutch Republic were ruled in PERSONAL UNION.


EXTERNAL
FILES
The Contemplator's Short History of the Anglo-Dutch Wars, from Contemplator
Timeline M.A. de Ruyter, posted by Stichting Michiel Adriaanszoen de Ruyter, in Dutch
Third Anglo-Dutch War, from Wikipedia
Third Anglo-Dutch War, from Maritime Memorials
Wars of Charles II., 1658-1685, from Land Forces of Britain, the Commonwealth and Empire; as of June 1st 2003 an almost empty shell
Timeline, from New Netherlands Project
Battle of Solebay, from HMS Solebay Association, click Battle of Solebay
De Slag bij Kijkduin 1673 (the Battle of Kijkduin 1673), from Fort Kijkduin, in Dutch
Geschiedenis (History), from De Zeven Provincien; site on the history of a battleship which participated in the Anglo-Dutch Wars, in Dutch
Third Anglo-Dutch War 1672-1674, from Seapower 1652-1860, a detailed timeline
DOCUMENTS
REFERENCE H.P.H. Jansen, Kalendarium. Geschiedenis van de Lage Landen in Jaartallen. (Calendarium. History of the Low Countries by Years), Utrecht 1979



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 1st 2003, last revised on November 18th 2004

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