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Foreign Policy




The Third War of the Coalition, 1805

In Sweden referred to as the War of Pomerania or the Napoleon War of King Gustav IV. Adolf



A.) The Diplomatic Pre-History of the War

On April 11th 1805 Britain and Russia signed the TREATY OF ST. PETERSBURG, an offensive alliance directed against France. They were joined by Austria (on August 9th), Sweden, while France was allied to Spain, to a number of satellite republics. Sweden only joined after Britain granted subsidies which virtually financed the entire Swedish war costs. Sweden armed 10,000 men.


B.) The Military Course of Events

In September 1805, Austrian troops invaded and occupied Bavaria; French troops crossed the Rhine; Baden, Wuerttemberg and Bayern concluded alliances with France (October); an Austrian force under General Mack was encircled at Ulm and surrendered (Oct. 17th 1805); French forces under General MURAT occupied Vienna (Oct. 21st); on the same day, the British Navy defeated an Anglo-French fleet in the BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR; British Admiral LORD NELSON fell in the battle.
On November 3rd Prussia and Russia concluded the TREATY OF POTSDAM, in which Prussia obliged itself to join the coalition; however it did not act upon its commitment. On December 2nd Napoleon decisively defeated an Austro-Russian force in the BATTLE OF AUSTERLITZ.


C.) Legacy

In the TREATY OF SCHOENBRUNN (Dec. 15th) Prussia - a country which had not actively participated in the war - ceded Ansbach, Bayreuth to Bavaria, Wesel, Cleve and Neuchatel to France, and was compensated with Hannover (hitherto in dynastic union with Britain, ceded by France without British approval).
In the PEACE OF PRESSBURG (Dec. 26th) Austria ceded Venice to the Kingdom of Italy, Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Eichstaett, Passau, Burgau, Brixen and Trient to Bavaria.


EXTERNAL
FILES
Plans of the Third Coalition, from Napoleonic Wars
Campaigns, Battles and Events of the Napoleonic Wars : 1799 - 1815, from miniatures.de
Zeittafel Europaeische Geschichte 1801-1900, from Univ. Erlangen, in German
Battle of Austerlitz, from Napoleonic Guide
The Third Coalition, from Napoleonic Guide
DOCUMENTS Lithography : Battle of Austerlitz 1805, from Napoleonic Medals
Medals : the first Austrian campaign, from Fortiter, medals on the Capitulation of Ulm, the taking of Vienna, the Battle of Austerlitz, Austria subdued, the Peace of Pressburg, Venice returned to Italy
Treaty of Pressburg 1805, from Napoleon Series
REFERENCE



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on November 19th 2004

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