Different to the situation, in World War II the supremacy of the Royal Navy, reinforced by the navies from occupied countries such as the
Netherlands and Norway, was never in doubt. The German navy was on the defensive; Germany found itself again under a BRITISH
NAVAL BLOCKADE. The German navy escorted merchant ships in coastal waters.
Germany again retaliated by declaring U-BOAT WARFARE. German submarines sunk a considerable number of both warships and
merchant ships among them ships sailing under the flag of neutral countries, such as Sweden or the USA. The introduction of
submarine-detecting radar gave the Allies the technology to systematically hunt down German submarines. Many of them were sunk.
The Allied navies played a considerable role in the defense of MALTA (the unsinkable carrier) and in the allied invasions of North Africa
(Nov. 1942), Sicily (July 1943), Italy (Sept. 1943), France (June 1944 : Normandy, August 1944 : Provence). The landing of army units,
opening new fronts, played a significant role in the war; landing troops in the face of a strong enemy never before had been undertaken
with that much systematic planning; the US MARINES have been trained for this kind of warfare, were established as a separate branch
of the fighting forces.