Bahrain 1949-1971 since 1990

Bahrain, 1971-1990

Independence and Foreign Policy . In 1968 Britain announced to close its bases east of Suez by 1971. In 1969 the Federation of Arab Emirates, consisting of the 7 Emirates which today make up the UAE, Qatar and Bahrain, was established. In 1971, Bahrain chose to declare independence separately.
Bahrain joined the UN and Arab League in 1971. In 1981 Bahrain was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); the Iran-supported failed coup of 1981 caused the organization to be formed. During the Gulf War between Iran and Iraq (1980-1988), the GCC countries, until 1986, held a neutral position. When Iranian actions threatened GCC shipping, the GCC countries shifted toward supporting Iraq.
In 1986 Bahrain found herself in a territorial dispute with fellow GCC member Qatar over the possession of the Hawar Islands.

Administration . Emir Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman Al Khalifah ruled from 1961 to 1999, since 1971 as Emir. In 1973 a constitution was promulgated. Elections for the National Assembly were held. In 1974 the controversial State Security Law was passed. In 1975 the National Assembly was dissolved and PM Sheikh Khalifah Bin-Salman Al Khalifah ruled by decree. A 1981 coup by the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain, an organization supported by Iran, failed.

The Economy . The Bahraini Dinar was legal tender since 1966. From 1964 onward the Bahrain Currency Board was responsible for control of money supply; in 1973 the Bahrain Monetary Agency took over this function.
Bahrain developed into the banking center of the Gulf Region; in 1974 14 banks operated in Bahrain. The Lebanon Civil War 1975-1991 made the Near East's prime banking center unsafe and indirectly raised the status of Bahrain.
The Bahrain Stock Exchange (BSE) was established in 1987.
In 1973, Bahrain, not an OPEC member, produced 3.4 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1990 2.1 million metric tons (IHS pp.362, 364). In 1974, Bahrain extended its share in BAPCO from 25 % to 60 %. In 1976, rival BANOCO was set up as a state-owned national oil company.
A shipyard, ASRY, was established in 1974, apetrochemical plant, GPIC, was established in 1980.

Social History . The 1971 census counted 216,100 Bahrainis, the 1981 census 350,800, the 1991 census 508,000 (Lahmeyer); of the 1991 populace, 36.4 % were resident foreigners (StYB 1996-1997 p.177).
A social security system for Bahrain nationals was set up in 1976. The Salmaniya Medical Center, the country's largest hospital, was opened in 1978; health care is free.

Cultural History . The University of Bahrain was established in 1986. The Bahrain National Olympic Committee was formed in 1978 and recognized by the IOC in 1979. Bahrain athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Los Angeles 1984 and Seoul 1988.

Articles History of Bahrain, State Security Law of 1974, University of Bahrain, Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain, Bahrain at the 1984 Summer Olympics, Bahrain at the 1988 Summer Olympics, National Olympic Committee, from Wikipedia
Bahrain, from A Global History of Currencies (B. Taylor)
Bahrain Petroleum Industry, from BAPCO
Oil and Gas Sector, from State of Bahrain Industrial Companies Directory
DOCUMENTS Bahrain Statesmen : World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, Bahrain, from Population Statistics posted by Jan Lahmeyer
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Bahrain, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1972 p.112, 1973 pp.107-108, 1974 pp.114-115, 1975 pp.58-59, 1976 pp.158-159, 1977 pp.161-162, 1978 pp.215-216, 1979 pp.214-215, 1980 pp.210-211, 1981 pp.209-210, 1982 pp.209-210, 1983 pp.205-206, 1984 pp.202-203, 1985 pp.484, 633, 1986 pp.480, 629, 1987 pp.448, 598, 1988 pp.407-408, 550, 1989 pp.407, 550, 1990 pp.425, 566, 1991 pp.404-405, 550 [G]
Article : Bahrain, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1975-1976 pp.759-761, 1976-1977 pp.765-768, 1978-1979 pp.182-185, 1979-1980 pp.181-184, 1980-1981 pp.181-184, 1981-1982 pp.183-186, 1983-1984 pp.182-185, 1984-1985 pp.182-185, 1985-1986 pp.181-184, 1986-1987 pp.181-185, 1987-1988 pp.179-183, 1988-1989 pp.179-183, 1989-1990 pp.180-184, 1990-1991 pp.179-183 [G]
Article : Bahrain, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 p.161, 2nd ed. 1978 p.161, 4th ed. 1984 p.161 [G]
Article : Persian Gulf States - Bahrain, in : Americana Annual 1973 pp.532-533 (on events of 1972) [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 10th 2007

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