Bahrain, since 1990

Foreign Policy . Bahrain continued to be a member of UN, Arab League and GCC. In 1991, GCC supported Operation Desert Storm, the liberation of Kuwait, since 1990 occupied by forces from Iraq, by U.S.-led coalition forces. In 1991 Bahrain agreed to the usage of her port facilities by the U.S.
Following a failed coup, the Bahraini ambassador in Iran was recalled in 1996. In 2001 the International Court of Justice in Den Haag awarded the Hawar Islands, claimed by Qatar, to Bahrain. In 2003, Bahrain did not join the Coalition of the Willing.

Administration . Emir Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman Al Khalifah ruled from 1961 to 1999, since 1971 as Emir. He was succeeded by Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah (since 1999).
The constitutional government had been dissolved in 1975, from when on the PM ruled by decree. In 1992 a Consultative Council was established. Demonstrations in 1994 demanded the restoration of the National Assembly; the government tried to suppress them by arresting their leaders. This resulted in the Bahrain Intifada. In 1996, a coup allegedly backed by Iran was uncovered. Emir Sheikh Hamad ibn 'Isa Al Khalifah, from 1999 onward, implemented reforms, which resulted in a deescalation of the situation. A 2001 referendum approved the transformation of Bahrain into a constitutional monarchy. Elections were held in 2002 and 2006; women's suffrage had been introduced in 2002.
In 1995 the cabinet for the first time included Shia ministers. In 2000, for the first time, 4 women and two non-Muslims were appointed to the Consultative Council.

The Economy . In 1990, Bahrain, not an OPEC member, produced 2.1 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1998 1.7 million metric tons (IHS p.364).
Bahrain joined the WTO in 1995.
In 2003, the GCC members established a customs union (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE).

Social History . The 1991 census counted 508,000 Bahrainis, the 2001 census 650,600 (Lahmeyer); of the 2001 populace, 40 % were resident foreigners. 87 % of the population is Muslim (65 % Shia, 22 % Sunni) (StYB 2006 p.250, 253).
Bahrain politics traditionally is dominated by the Sunni interpretation of Islam. The Bahrain Freedom Movement of 1994 was led by Shia clerics; in the 2006 elections, the Shia opposition won 40 % of the seats.

Cultural History . Bahrain athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004.

Articles History of Bahrain, Bahrain Freedom Movement, Ali Salman, 1990s Uprising in Bahrain, Women/r Political Rights in Bahrain, Elections in Bahrain, Bahrain at the 1992 Summer Olympics, Bahrain at the 1996 Summer Olympics, Bahrain at the 2000 Summer Olympics, Bahrain at the 2004 Summer Olympics, from Wikipedia
Bahrain, from A Global History of Currencies (B. Taylor)
Bahrain Timeline, from BBC News
DOCUMENTS Bahrain Statesmen : World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, Bahrain, from Population Statistics posted by Jan Lahmeyer
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Bahrain, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1991 pp.404-405, 550, 1992 pp.378, 550, 1993 pp.381, 559, 1994 pp.380, 559, 1995 pp.376-377, 559, 1996 pp.375-376, 559, 1997 pp.394, 557, 2002 pp.392, 553 [G]
Article : Bahrain, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1991-1992 pp.178-182, 1992-1993 pp.177-181, 1993-1994 pp.180-184, 1994-1995 pp.176-179, 1995-1996 pp.166-169, 1996-1997 pp.177-180, 1997-1998 pp.182-186, 1998-1999 pp.207-211, 2000 pp.253-257, 2001 pp.250-254, 2002 pp.259-263, 2003 pp.258-262, 2004 pp.260-264, 2005 pp.253-257, 2006 pp.250-254 [G]
Entry : State of Bahrain, Cabinet, p.9; Background Notes, pp.267-271, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Bahrain, pp.240-245 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 10th 2007

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