1921-1932 1939-1945

Iraq 1932-1939

Administration . King Faysal I. ruled from 1921 to 1933, succeeded by his son Ghazi (1933-1939). In 1939 King Ghazi died in a car accident. A 1936 military coup ousted the PM al Hashimi; he was succeeded by PM Bakr Sadqi. Further coups followed in 1937 and 1938, the latter bringing Nuri as Said into power. As constitution functioned the organic law of 1924.

Foreign Policy . Relations with the former colonial power, the United Kingdom, were determined by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930. British troops remained stationed in Iraq.
In 1932 Iraq joined the League of Nations.
Until 1936, the Iraqi government pursued a policy of Pan-Arabism. The new administration established by the 1936 coup instead sought to lean on Turkey and Iran. In 1937 Iraq and Iran signed a boundary treaty. Iraq supported the Intifada in Palestine.

The Economy . In a 1932 currency reform, the Iraqi Dinar was introduced, at par with the Pound Sterling.
The impact of the Great Depression on Iraq was moderated by rising oil exports.
In 1933, Iraq produced 0.12 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1939 3.9 million (IHS p.362). Late in 1933 the pipeline connecting the oil fields of Kirkuk with the Mediterranean (Tripoli, Haifa) was completed.
In 1933, Iraq produced 0.34 million metric tons of wheat, in 1939 0.45 million (IHS pp.192, 199).

Social History . Jan Lahmeyer estimates the population of Iraq in in 1932 as 3.44 million, in 1939 as 3.69 million.

Ethnic, Religious Minorities . A Kurdish revolt was suppressed in 1932 (NIYB 1932 p.390). The demand of the Assyrian Christians (who had fled Turkey and settled in northern Iraq during/just after World War I) for political autonomy within Iraq was rejected in 1932 (NIYB 1932 p.391). An Assyrian Christian revolt in 1933, Shia tribal revolts in 1934 and 1935, a 1935 rebellion of Kurdish Yazidis were suppressed by the Iraqi army; generally the non-Muslim minorities were treated worse (NIYB 1935 p.335). Another revolt occurred in the Rumaitha region in 1937 (AAnn 1937 p.358).

Wars of Iraq, 1800-1999, from ACED
Global Currency History : Iraq (B. Taylor)
Articles History of Iraq, Faysal I of Iraq, Ghazi of Iraq, Nuri as Said, Bakr Sidqi, Yasin al Hashimi, Rashid Ali al Kaylani, Assyrian Independence, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, Simele Massacre, from Wikipedia
Iraq, from Library of Congress Country Studies
History of Oil in Iraq, from Global Policy Forum
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Iraqi Jews
History of Iraq 1933-1939, by Garrett Johnson
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Iraq, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Iraq, by B. Schemmel
Historical Statistical data : Iraq, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.972-996 Article Iraq. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.21
Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq, Cambridge : UP 2000 [G]
Courtney Hunt, The History of Iraq, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.7 H939h
Article : Iraq, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1932 pp.1014-1020, 1937 pp.1054-1061 [G]
Article : Iraq, in : Americana Annual 1932 pp.370-371, 1933 pp.396-397, 1934 pp.309-311, 1935 pp.368-369, 1936 pp.371-372, 1937 p.358, 1938 pp.344-345, 1939 pp.381-382 [G]
Article : Iraq, in : New International Year Book 1932 pp.389-391, 1933 pp.375-377, 1934 pp.322-323, 1935 pp.334-336, 1938 pp.349-350, 1939 pp.378-379 [G]
Article : Irak, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 pp.320-321, 1933 pp.281-282, 1934 pp.297-298, 1935 pp.293-294, 1936 pp.263-264, 1937 pp.269-270, 1938 pp.271-272 [G]
Article : Iraq, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1939 pp.300-301 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 18th 2007

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