1939-1945 1958-1963

Iraq 1945-1958

Administration . Faysal II. was king from 1939 to 1958. Until 1953, Abdul Ilah functioned as regent. Between 1945 and 1958, Iraq had 20 changes in the position of PM. The ban on political parties (since 1937) was lifted in 1946 (BBoY 1947 p.422). Elections were held in 1947. Elections scheduled for 1952 were cancelled; that year, the Iraqi branch of the Ba'ath Party was established.

Foreign Policy . Iraq pursued a pro-western foreign policy.
In 1947 in the UN General Assembly, Iraq voted against the partitioning of Palestine. Iraq and Transjordan signed an alliance in 1947. British forces were largely withdrawn in 1947. A new Anglo-Iraqi treaty replacing that of 1930 was signed in 1948. Iraqi troops participated in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948. During the conflict between Syria and Israel in 1951, Iraq sent troops to Syria in support of the latter.
In 1955, the Central Treaty Organization, comprising of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan, was established at a conference in Baghdad (Baghdad Pact); he CTO headquarters was established in Baghdad. The purpose of the organization was to contain the USSR. In 1955, Iraq severed diplomatic relations with the USSR.
When Egypt and Syria in 1958 announced to form the U.A.R., Iraq and Jordan announced to form an Arab Federation, with King Faysal as titular head.

The Economy . In 1945, Iraq produced 4.6 million metric tons of crude petroleum, in 1958 35.8 million (IHS p.362). The Haifa pipeline was shut down in 1948, Iraq instead relying on pipelines connecting her oil fields with Banyas (Syria) and Tripoli (Lebanon).
In 1945, Iraq produced 0.4 million metric tons of wheat, in 1958 0.757 million (IHS pp.192, 199).

Social History . The 1945 census established a population of 4.6 million; Jan Lahmeyer estimates the population of Iraq in 1958 as 6.48 million.

Ethnic Minorities . In 1945 Iraq faced a Kurdish rebellion.
In 1947-1949, anti-Jewish riots occurred. In 1948 a law declared Zionism a crime. In 1950 Iraq's Jews were permitted to renounce their nationality and leave; an airlift to Israel was organized.

Cultural History . The National Olympic Committee of Iraq was established in 1948, and recognized by IOC the same year. Iraqi athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of London 1948, but did not participate in the Summer Games of Helsinki 1952 and Melbourne 1956.

Wars of Iraq, 1800-1999, from ACED
Global Currency History : Iraq (B. Taylor)
Articles History of Iraq, Central Treaty Organization, Faysal II of Iraq, Arab Federation, Mustafa Barzani, Iraq at the 1948 Summer Olympics, National Olympic Committee, from Wikipedia
Iraq, from Library of Congress Country Studies
History of U.S.-Iraq Relations, by Mike and Bruce
History of Oil in Iraq, from Global Policy Forum
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Iraqi Jews
History of Iraq 1947-1963, by Garrett Johnson
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Iraq, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Iraq, by B. Schemmel
Historical Statistical data : Iraq, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.972-996 Article Iraq. KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.21
Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq, Cambridge : UP 2000 [G]
Courtney Hunt, The History of Iraq, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.7 H939h
Article Iraq, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1945 p.372, 1946 p.404, 1947 pp.422-423, 1948 p.409, 1949 pp.358-359, 1950 pp.379-380, 1951 pp.384-385, 1952 pp.378-379, 1953 pp.378-379, 1954 pp.379-380, 1955 pp.431-432, 1956 pp.368-369, 1957 pp.431-432, 1958 p.369 [G]
Article : Iraq, in : Americana Annual 1946 pp.379-380, 1947 pp.359-361, 1957 pp.402-404 [G]
Article : Iraq, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1946 pp.226-227, 1952 p.216 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 17th 2007

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