1920-1959 1970-1990

Muscat and Oman, 1959-1970

Administration . Since 1892 Oman was an informal British protectorate. From 1949 to 1971, Britain was represented by a Consul General. Oman is a monarchy; political parties are not permitted. Sultan Sa`id (III) ibn Taimur ruled from 1932 to 1970. The Ibadi insurgency (1954-1959) had been suppressed with British aid; the Imamate of Oman (seat Nizwa) was abolished in 1959, the last holder of the office having fled to Saudi Arabia, from where he continued to maintain his claims, which gained some notoriety due to the issuance of colourful postage stamps (State of Oman, in contrast to the regular Muscat & Oman issues).
In 1964 a Communist rebellion began in the southern province of Dhofar, bordering on Southern Yemen (which had gained independence that year and supported the rebels).

Foreign Policy . The Sultanate of Zanzibar, tributary to Muscat & Oman since 1861, became independent in 1964 and thus ceased to pay tribute. In 1968 Britain announced to withdraw from the Gulf by the end of 1971; the informal protectorate over Oman thus was to lapse.

The Economy . Omanis traditionally had been engaged in seafaring and trade. The Omani merchants had lost much of their market share to the British in the course of the 19th century, and the country, in the mid 20th century, was largely isolated. There was a traditional domestic economy based on the raising of livestock, agriculture, fishery.
Oil production began in 1967 with 3.1 million metric tons and by 1971 rose to 14.5 million metric tons (IHS p.363).

Social History . The population estimate for 1959 is 494,000, that of 1970 is 654,000 (Lahmeyer).

Articles History of Oman, Dhofar Rebellion, Said bin Taimur, Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman, from Wikipedia
History, from Oman Info
The Insurgency in Oman 1962-1976, from Global Security
The War in Oman 1957-1959, by Mark Curtis
Oman 1957-1976, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
DOCUMENTS Oman Statesmen : World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics, UAE, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Muscat and Oman, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1959 p.462, 1960 p.459, 1961 pp.464-465, 1962 p.462, 1963 p.579 [G]
Article : Protected States, Condominiums and Trust Territories, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp.694-695, 1965 pp.668-669, 1966 pp.635-636, 1967 pp.649-651, 1968 pp.648-650 [G]
Article Dependent States : Muscat and Oman, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 p.278 (on events of 1968) [G]
Article : Muscat and Oman, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1970 pp.555-556 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article : Muscat and Oman, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1161-1162 (data of 1969-1970) [G]
Article : Muscat and Oman, in : Americana Annual 1961 pp.500-501, 1962 pp.508-509, 1963 p.456, 1964 p.453, 1967 p.470, 1968 p.468, 1970 p.478, 1971 p.484 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2007

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