Bukovina - Economic History

Historic Encyclopedias on Bukovina's Economy : Brockhaus 1809-1811, Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908

Historic Encyclopedias on Bukovina's Economy

Brockhaus Cionversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Die Bukowina (excerpts)
120,000 inhabitants. Most important products horses, cattle, sheep, not less : honey, wax, also salt and metals.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Bukowina (excerpts)
Products : in the mountains, only potatos, oats and barley grow, in the valleys also fruit, wine and watermelons; among metals silver, copper, iron, lead, in the Bistritza also gold, also sulphur, alabaster, mineral salt; numerous salines, especialli in Doma valley. Native wild animals : bears, wolves, deer, wild hogs, hares, fowl; strong breeding of horses, cattle, sheep and bees; export products horses, skins, wool. The inhabitants are also engaged in mining and agriculture. 380,800 inhabitans.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Moldau (excerpts)
The census of 1851 counted 380,826 inhabitants; the figure given for the end of 1854 is 430,664 inhabitants. .. The soil, except for the mountainous part, is rather fertile, especially in the Suczawa Valley, along the Serreth and in the lowland between Dniestr and Pruth. The total size of land used by agriculture is given as 36 square miles, that covered by forest as 42 square miles. The most important grains produced are barley, oats and maize. The land has good races of cattle and horses and there are sheep in large quantity. The most important mineral products are salt, copper, lead, iron and a little silver. The sand of the Bistritza contains gold. Agriculture is the main source of revenue, and produces a not small surplus or grain and cattle for export. The industry is still of little importance is largely limited to the production of clothes and linen.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Bukowina (excerpts)
By the end of 1869 the population was 513,404, in 1880 571,671. The population increases fast, almost 1 % per year; in 1780 there were only 79,500 inhabitants. By nationality, in the western parts the majority are Ruthenians (42 %), in the east Romanians (33 %), further c. 12 % Jews, 8 % Germans, 3 % Poles, 1.75 % Hungarians and 0.33 % Czechs. The Romanians are at the lowest stage of civilization, is lazy and superstitious, tends to an unsteady life, more to livestock keeping than to agriculture, lives for the consumption of alcoholic spirits. The Ruthenian, while not less devoted to alcoholic spirits, is much more industrious, but also more subservient and less clean. The Germans are industrious, mostly engaged in agriculture, but some are shopowners, miners or woodcutters.
In the field of agriculture, since the annexation by Austria a lot has changed. The most fertile soil is found between Pruth and Dnestr, where most of the farmland is located, and in Suczawa Valley, where excellent fruits, sugar- and watermelons are cultivated. Vinyards, although of lesser importance, are found toward Moldavia. In the mountainous area only potatos, oats and barley grow; but there one winds rich meadows, as pasture and forest are found everywhere. The unusable part of the area makes up only 3 %. The land under cultivation consists of 28 % farmland (on a quarter of which maize is grown, the staple food of the population), over 14 % meadows and gardens, 13 % pastorage and 45 % forest, which densely covers the eastern half. The average harvest is 2.250,000 hectoliters (hl) grain (of which 42 % maize, 21 % oats, 15 % barley, 14 % rye, 6 % wheat, further buckwheat, millet etc.), further 12,000 hl legumes, 1,650,000 hl potatos, 20,000 hl beets, further cabbage, pumpkins, tobacco, cinnamon, rape, clover, flax and hemp. In the forests of the plains, foliferous trees dominate, namely beeches (hence Bukowina = land of the beeches), acorn, alder and lime; in the mountains spruces. Here primeval forests are found, which are not exploited. Almost two thirds of the forests, as state property or entrusted to the state, are under state administration (Greek-Orthodox Church Foundation); private-owned forests for the most part lack rational administration. Annual growth of timber is given as 1,720,000 cubic metres. Hunted animals are existing in number, but only in the Barony Radautz they enjoy preservation. Annually a few bears and c. 100 wolves are killed. Livestock breeding, for which the conditions are excellent, did not reach the desirable state yet. Most developed is cattle keeping (1880 268,389 head), and sheep keeping (156,945 head). The latter are bread for slaughter (wool production 3,500 metric ctr.) The stud farm at Radautz breeds horses (1882 : 52,715 head). Further, in 1880 there were 127,032 pigs, 7207 goats. Poultry keeping is considerable; fishery has laely declined due to the drainage of ponds. There are 24,889 beehives which produced 1000 metic ctr. of honey and wax, much of which is consumed by the Greek clergy. In regard to minerals, Bukowina is among the lesser blessed crown lands. The mines are located in the southwestern part of the country, the Mangan mine at Jakobeny and the salt mine at Kaczyka (near Solka); the copper mine at Pozziritta and the silver mine at Kirlibaba have recently been closed. The production in 1883 consisted of the production of the mine at Jakobeny of 26,744 metric tons of Braunstein and 13,000 metric ctrs of manganese iron ore, then salt production (8910 metrc ctr. mineral salt, 11,394 metric tons of saline salt. B. has several mineral springs, the spring producing weak sulphurous water at Jakobeny and the sour spring at Dornawatra.
Industry is in its bare beginnings. Even small businesses are not existing in sufficient numbers. The most developed industry is distilleries prioducing spirits, 37 in number, with an annual production of 2.5 million hectolitergrade alcohol made of maize and of other grains, and 7 breweries (42,000 hl) who cover regional demand. Further there are 1 cement factory, 3 glass factories, 11 steam mills, 400 water mills and 90 sawmlls. The metalworks at Jakobeny and Pozzonitza have closed because of unprofitabiliy. Rural cottage industry produces cloth, wooden tools. Trade, largely concentrated in the hands of Jews, mainly deals with the export of raw materials. Animals for the purpose of being slaughtered, skins, timber, maize are sold wholesale across the border, while retail trade distributes goods produced in the western crown lands. Vivid border trade is conducted with Bessarabia and Moldavia. Transit trade i also of importance and is greatly supported by the railway which traverses the counry and connects Lemberg via Czernowitz with Jassy and Odessa. A number of local lines (to Nowosielica, Kimpolung, Berhomet) are partially under cobnstruction, partially completed. In addition there are 3560 km of paved roads, of which 428 km are Imperial roads (Reichsstrassen).

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1908, Article : Bukowina (excerpts)
Population 1890 646,591,1900 730,195. .. The area under cultivation (96.7 % of the total area) is used to 27.6 % as acreage, 13.4 % meadows and gardens, 12.4 % pastorage and 43.2 % forest. In 1901 2,147,337 metric ctrs of grain (among it 1,095,901 metric ctrs. maize, the country's main product), 146,740 hl legumes, 19,437 hl buckwheat, 2,926,805 metr. ctrs potatos, 544,710 sugarbeets, 619,330 fodderbeets, 13,357 rape, 6350 flax, 22,324 hemp, 1,590,220 pumpkins, 941,140 clover and 2,017,780 grass and 118,030 metric ctrs fruit. Livestock is ufficient. In 1900 there were 60,328 horses (stud farm at Radautz), 241,422 head of cattle, 147,739 sheep, 183,344 hogs, 17,856 behives. More than half of all forests, as state property or entrusted to the state (Greek Orthodox Church Foundation) is under state administration.Hunt is not very productive; only predators are frequen in number. In 1899 9 bears, 25 wolves, 9 lynxes, 680 foxes, 65 eagles were caught. Mining industry only produces Braunstein (near Jakobeny, 1901 28,402 metric ctrs.) and salt (at Kaczyka, 48,505 metric ctrs. Mineral springs : cold sulphur spa at Jakobeny; several sour spas.
Industry in Bukovina is poorly developed. There are 43 distilleries producing spirits (1900 production 49,413 hl) 8 beer breweries (126,042 hl), one iron foundry, 2 machine workshops, one cement factory, 2 glass factories, one oil factory, 19 larger sawmills, 6 steam mills, 7 printers. Trade, in which especially Jews and Armenians are involved, mainly is engaged in he export of raw material (livestock for the purpose of slaughter, skins, timber, maize etc.) In the larger places, strongly frequented fairs are held. Credit institutes : 2 banks, 2 bank branch offices, 2 savings banks. Traffic in 1900 was served by 487 km railroad (state railroad Lemberg-Czernowitz-Suczawa and several local lines), 4098 km country road, 352 km navigable waterway, 159 post offices and 68 state telegraph stations.

source in German, posted by Zeno


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 9th 2009

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