Croatia 1813-1849 1867-1890

Croatia 1849-1867

Ban Josip Jelacic, in 1855 given the rank of a count, remained in charge of the administration of Croatia In 1850 the Croatian Sabor was dissolved; a period of absolute rule began. German was proclaimed the official language; classes at high schools were taught in German. In 1851, the territories of the Habsburg Dynasty were joined in a customs union; internal customs tariffs were abolished, while external customs tariffs were to protect the domestic industry.
In 1852 the Diocesis of Zagreb was elevated to an Archdiocesis, with three suffragan bishoprics (Senj-Zengg, Srem, Krizevci); indicating the papal administration recognized Croatia's wish to detach herself from Hungary, but not her claim on Dalmatia). In 1855, Austria and the Papal Administration signed a Concordat.
Within the Habsburg Monarchy, in regard to her industrial development, Croatia-Slavonia was backward. It was late to be connected to the railroad network; the line Zagreb-Sisak, the first in Croatia, was opened in 1862. Indicators for her backwardness were the high illiteracy rate and the poverty of the majority of Croatia's peasants.
The dissolution of the Sabor in 1850 had deprived the Croatian National Movement of her central organization. New political groupings emerged in the 1850es, Yugoslavism (advocating the common tradition of Serbs, Croats and other south Slav peoples) and Croatian Nationalism. A leading figure of the latter, EUGEN KVATERNIK, regarded Austria the Croatian enemy.
The Austrian defeat in 1859 at Solferino resulted in a virtual bankrupcy of the Austrian Monarchy; concessions were made to reestablish the diets, including the Croatian Sabor, in order to raise extraordinary revenue. The Sabor of Croatia-Slavonia demanded not only the annexation of Dalmatia, but also of parts of Istria, and the integration of the Croatian-Slavonian sectors of the Military Frontier into civil Croatia-Slavonia. The Sabor further claimed 'Turkish Croatia' (i.e. parts of Bosnia, then part of the Ottoman Empire). It should be noted that among Dalmatian representatives of the time, the Croatian annexation demands found little sympathy; the Dalmatian Diet proclaimed a Slavo-Dalmatian nationality and stressed their wish to hold on to their autonomy.
The concessions Vienna made in 1860/1861 included the introduction of Croatian as official language, replacing German. An important political figure in these years was bishop JOSIP JURAJ STROSSMAYER.
A major issue for the Croatian Sabor to debate was her relation to Hungary; in 1861 Croatia-Slavonia had achieved a certain degree of autonomy - the responsibility for internal affairs, the judiciary, education and religion.
After the Austrian defeat in the BATTLE OF KÖNIGGRÄTZ (1866, in Cz.: Sadowa), the Austrian Empire had to be placed on a wider power basis. To achieve this, Emperor Franz Joseph I. initiated the AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN AUSGLEICH of 1867 in which the Hungarian Kingdom was given far-ranging autonomy. This was to have serious consequences for Croatia; Croatia-Slavonia were regarded part of Hungary, Istria and Dalmatia of Austria.

Croatia, History of, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1914 edition, from Discover Croatia, from , from, illustrated
Dalmatia, History of, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1914 edition
Yugoslavia, from Library of Congress, Country Studies
Croatian Humanists, Latinists, and Encyclopaedists, by Darko Zubrinic
REFERENCE Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge University Press (1985) 1999
Ivo Goldstein, Croatia - a History, (1999) McGill-Queen's UP 2001

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 7th 2004

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