Montenegro 1851-1878

Vladika Peter II. died in 1851, and his chosen successor Danilo, returning from Russia, after a brief power struggle, transformed Montenegro into a Hereditary Principality. In 1853, mandatory military service was introduced.
An 1855 census established Montenegro's population at 80,000. Another Turkish invasion was defeated in 1858. Montenegro, which for over a century had been granted Russian aid and many of whose leaders had been educated in Russia, in 1858 accepted a large sum of aid from France. This opening of international relations by some was seen as treasonable regarding the country's Russian alliance; Prince Danilo was assassinated in 1860.
Danilo was succeeded by his nephew, Prince Nicholas, educated in France. Another Turkish attack on Cetinje in 1862 was stopped by diplomatic intervention from Russia and France. Montenegro supported the Hercegovinian rising against the Turks in the mid 1870es, and Prince Nicholas was proclaimed Prince of Hercegovina by the rebels. In 1876, Montenegrins and Serbs declared War on the Ottoman Empire; Ottoman attention however was focussed on Bulgaria and on the Russian army. When the new order was discussed at the Berlin Congress in 1878, Bosnia, Hercegovina and the Sandzak of Novi Pasar were allocated to Austria-Hungary, Montenegro receiving only minor territories on it's border to the east and south.

History of Montenegro : Danilo, Nicholas
Links to Montenegrin history, from Studyweb
Prince Danilo, King Nikola, from
DOCUMENTS Alfred Lord Tennyson, Montenegro, from Modern History Sourcebook
Map : Expansion of Montenegro, 1859-1913, from A Brief Historical Atlas of Albania-One-Nation-All
REFERENCE Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge University Press (1985) 1999
Article : Montenegro, in : Statesman's Year Book 1878, pp.324-326 (data on 1877) [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on October 2nd 2006

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