1948-1956 1968-1989

A People's Republic, 1956-1968

Administration . The National Democratic Front, established in 1945, would present a list of candidates at general elections, which the voters would approve; general elections were held in 1957, 1961 and 1965. Chivu Stoica held the office of PM from 1955 until 1961; he was succeeded by Ion Gheorghe Maurer (1961-1974) . Within the People's Republic of Romania, the position of Secretary General of the Communist Party was more important; it was held by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1955-1965, by Nicolae Ceausescu from 1965 to 1989.

Foreign Policy . In 1956, Hungarian politician Imre Nagy sought refuge in Romania; he was extradited to Hungary. Soviet forces were withdrawn from Rumanian soil in 1958; in 1964 Romania publicly declared its dissatisfaction with the Warsaw Pact. In 1968, Romania did not participate in the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops. During the Soviet-Chinese rift, Romania maintained full diplomatic relations with the PR China.
Relations with the Vatican, severed in 1948 when the Romanian Uniate Church was forced to merge with the Romanian Orthodox Church, improved in 1967, with a Romanian delegation being given an audience by Pope Paul VI. in 1968.

The Economy . Second Five Year Plan 1956-1960, Third Five Year Plan 1961-1965, Fourth Five Year Plan 1966-1970.
In 1956, Romania produced 2.43 million metric tons of wheat, in 1965 5.93 million, in 1968 4.8 million (IHS p.294). Collectivization was proclaimed accomplished in 1962.
Romania produced 10.9 million metric tons of crude petroleum in 1956, 13.3 million in 1968 (IHS p.427).

Political History . In 1956, Romania, like Hungary, experienced anti-Communist demonstrations. Unlike Hungary, events in Romania remained under control. Armed resistance against the Communist administration, in the Carpathians, only was suppressed by 1962. In 1965, Romania renamed itself Socialist Republic of Romania.

Ethnic, Religious Minorities . The Hungarian Autonomous Province, established in 1952, was abolished in 1968.

Social History . According to the 1956 census, Romania had 17.4 million inhabitants, the census of 1966 counted 19.1 million (Lahmeyer).

Cultural History . Television broadcasting in Romania began in 1957.
Romanian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Melbourne 1956, Rome 1960, Tokyo 1964 and Mexico City 1968. In Sydney, Romanian athletes took 5 gold, in Rome 3, in Tokyo 2 and in Mexico City 4.
Nicolae Ceausescu introduced the policy of systematization, i.e. the razing of entire city quarters in order to built uniform building complexes.

Articles Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Nicolae Ceausescu, Ion Gheorghe Maurer, Elections in Romania, Romania at the 1956 Summer Olympics, Romania at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Romania at the 1964 Summer Olympics, Romania at the 1968 Summer Olympics, Communist Romania, Romanian Anti-Communist Resistance Movement, Systematization, Hungarian Autonomous Province, from Wikipedia
Post World War II History of Romania, from Brief History of Romania
The Vatican and the Romanian Greek Catholics in the Light od some Documents of the Securitate 1965-1999, by Christian Vasile
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Romania, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics : Romania, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Rumanian banknotes, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money and from Currency Museum
REFERENCE IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, NY : Stockton Press 1992 [G]
Chapter 23 : Satellites and Soviet Policy, pp.327-352, in : John Gunther, Inside Europe Today, NY : Harper & Bros. 1961 [G]
Article : Rumania, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1958 pp.608-609, 1959 pp.602-603, 1960 p.604, 1961 p.611, 1962 pp.602-603, 1963 p.710, 1964 p.736, 1965 pp.719-720, 1966 pp.676-677, 1967 pp.676-677, Romania 1968 p.682 [G]
Article : Rumania, in : Americana Annual 1961 pp.649-650, 1962 pp.654-655, 1963 pp.581-582, 1964 pp.576-577, 1965 pp.616-617, 1967 pp.593-594, 1968 pp.582-583, 1969 pp.588-589 [G]
Article : Rumania, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1961 p.292 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 10th 2002, last revised on June 25th 2007

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