Eyalets / Vilayets in European Turkey, as described in Historic Encyclopedias



Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1909,Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926





Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865
Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Edreneh
Edreneh, Eyalet in European Turkey, includes the entire southeastern part from the Balkan and Despoto Mountains to the city limits of Constantinople, with the Midirat Umursakije, an enclave belonging to Silistria, located on the Black Sea, Lake Marmara and the Aegean Sea, mountains : Little Balkans, Strandscha, Despoto and Tekfur Mountains and their extensions, many promontories and ports, on the Black Sea near Burgas and Inada, on the Aegean Sea near Enos, rivers : except he Maritza and her tributies only coastal rivers, the climate is mild and healthy, the soil fertile, but insufficiently cultivated, products tobacco, grain, fruit, oil, rice, cotton, opium, safran, wine, vegetables, silk, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, donkeys, buffalo, poultry, fish, sea food etc. Among the inhabitants the Turks, Greeks and Jews are engaged mostly in trade and indusry, the Bulgarians in agriculture and livestock breeding. Divided in 6 Livas; capital Adrianople.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Janina
Janina, Eyalet in Albania (European Turkey), south of the Eyalet of Rumili, includes a part of Epirus, further Acarnania and Aetolia, is located on the Ionian Sea. Mountain ranges : Agrasa, Dschumerka, Sagori and others. Lakes : Janina (with an island), fed by the Kokytos, emptied by the Acheron. Rivers : Filoti, Arta, Aspre and others. Some agriculture, good pastures (good livestock breeding, especially horses), a lot of timber, game, 400,000 inhabitants, mostly Greeks (Paramiliots, Sagoriots, Filots, Suliots)
source in German, posted by Zeno

no article on Eyalet Nissa.

no article on Eyalet Rumili (Monastir).

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Salonichi
Salonichi (in Turkish Selanik, in Slavic Salon), Turkish Eyalet, contains part of ancient Macedonia and Thessaly, has 575 square miles and almost 1 million inhabitants, of whom half are Christians, is mountainous and forms in the south Chalkidike Peninsula; the main river is the Vardar. Overall the country is fertile, produces maize and other grain, vegetables, tobacco, wine, cotton, oil, citrus fruits, opium, gallnuts, silk, honey, wax and others. The Eyalet is subdivided in 4 Livas, Salonica, Drama, Serres and Trikala.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Silistria
Silistria, Eyalet in European Turkey, consists of the northeastern part of Bulgaria, Rumelia and the Dobrudscha, an area of c.570 square km, is surrounded by the Danube, the Black Sea and the extensions of the Balkans Mountains. The southern stretches mountainous, otherwise hilly; in the north the Babadagh. Promontories : Cape Galata near Varna, Cape Gulgrad or Kalakria to the north of the former, Cape Midia; in the vicinity of the Danube Delta swampy; otherwise everywhere excellent soil with lush vegetation, well-cultivated by Bulgarians, the breadbasket of Turkey; only between Schumla and Varna poorly cultivated, magnificent forests, but unmanaged and frequently abused. Rivers : the Danube, forming numerous islands (a group of which south of he city of Silistria, because of their shape, is called Balta), and which, in three main arms, feeds into the Black Sea, of which only the middle one, the Sulina, is navigable, but which also is dangerously close to silting up. Then many smaller ributaries of the Danube of which the Lom (near Rustschuk) and the Taban are the most imortant; further into the Black Sea feed the Kassimtschidere, Mangala, Pravadi, Kamdschk and others. Lakes : the Ramsin at the mouth of the Danube, the Dewnosce near Varna and a number of smaller ones in the vicinity of the Balta. Climate mild, in swampy areas unhealthy. Products horses, mules, donkeys, buffalo, cattle, sheep, goats, game, poultry, fish, grain (especially wheat), legumes, vegetables, melons, wine, fruit, timber, flax, hemp; divided in two Livas, Varna and the much larger Silisria. Population : number unknown, Turks, Bulgarians (majority), Greeks, Jews, Gypsies, Franks.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Widdin
Widdin, Eyalet in European Turkey, 207 geographic square miles, contains the central and northwestern part of Bulgaria, in he north separated from Wallachia by the Danube, bordering in the west on Serbia, in the south on the Eyalets Nissa and Edirne, in the east on the Eyalet Silisria. Mountains : extensions of the Balkans, rivers : Timk, Lomb and others, a lot of swampland, also a lot of fertile land, produces tobacco, rice, grain, livestock.
source in German, posted by Zeno


Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863
The article on Adrianopel does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Janina does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Nissa does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Rumili does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Saloniki does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Silistria does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.
The article on Widdin does not contain information on the Eyalet by that name.

in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg


Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899

The article on Adrianopel does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

The article on Ja'nina does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899, Article : Ko'ssova
Ko'ssova, Vilayet in the northwestern part of European Turkey, south of Serbia. The population is estimated at c.1 million; it is divided in the sanjaks Prisren, Üsküb, Novibazar and Dibre.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

The article on Monastir does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

The article on Saloniki does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1876-1899, Article : Skutari
Skutari, Vilayet in the northwesternmost part of European Turkey (northern Albania), about 103,000 inhabitants (1885)
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892

The article on Adrianopel does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

The article on Janina does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Kossovo
Kossovo, name of a Turkish Vilayet existing since early 1877 which borders in the north on Bulgaria and Serbia and which contains the sanjaks (livas) Üschküb, Novibazar and Ipek, i.e. parts of the former provinces Bosnia, Tuna (Danube) Vilayet, Skutari and Salonichi. The male population (which in 1879, when the livas Prizrend and Dibre still belonged to Kosovo) was numbered 539,827 by official sources, is predominantly Albanian; in the north Serbs are found, in the east Bulgarians, in the cities Turks.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

The article on Monastir does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Saloniki
Saloniki (Greek : Thessaloniki, Turkish : Selanik, Slavic : Solun), Turkish Vilayet, formed of parts of ancient Macedonia and Thrace, crossed by Vardar and Karasu, is fertile, produces grain, tobacco (the cultivation of which was severely damaged by a wrong taxation policy of the Turkish government), wine, fruit, cotton, gallnuts; is divided (1885) in 3 Livas, Saloniki, Serres and Drama.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

The article on Skutari does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.


Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Adrianopel
Adrianopel (Turkish Edirne, Bulgarian Odrin) , Vilayet of European Turkey, between Black, Marmara and Aegean Sea, the Vilayet Salonica and Eastern Rumelia, 38,900 square km with about 1 million inhabitants, among them c. 253,000 Turks, 485,000 Orthodox and Muslim Bulgarians, 220,000 Greeks, 30,000 Armenians, 15,000 Muslim Gypsies, 3500 Orthodox Albanians, is divided in 6 sanjaks.
source in German, posted by Zeno

The article on Janina does not contain information on the Vilayet by that name.

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Kosovo
Kosovo (Kossovo), Turkish Vilayet existing since 1878, bordering in the north on Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Montenegro, contains the sanjaks (livas) Üsküb, Prizren, Prischtina, Ipek and Plevlje, the latter presently occupied by Austria, i.e. parts of the former provinces Bosnia, Tuna (Danube) Vilayat, Scutari and Salonica. The capital is Üsküb (Skoplje). Kosovo has 32,900 square km (597.5 square miles) of which 7,350 square km are occupied area, has 1,038,100 inhabitants (31 per square km), among them 89,350 Turks, 265,000 Christian and Muslim Bulgarians, 113,000 Serbs, 428,000 mostly Muslim Albanians, 10,000 Gypsies, several hundred Circassian families and Spanish Jews.
See Ippen, Novibazar und Kossovo (Wien 1892), *Ouml;streich, eiseeindrücke aus dem Vilayet Kosovo (Wien 1899)

source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Monastir
Monastir (Bitolia), after Saloniki the largest city of Macedonia, capital of the Vilayet by the same name (with 4 sanjaks, Monastir, Dibra, Elbassan, Gewridscha or Koritza, 28,500 square km, 848,900 inhabitants, according to a diffeent source 715,000 inhabitants, half of them Christian and Muslim Bulgarians, a quarter Muslim and Christian Albanians, 92,000 Turks, the remainder Vlachs, Greeks, Jews and Gypsies); located on the Dragor.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Saloniki
Saloniki (Greek : Thessaloniki, Turkish : Selanik, Slavic : Solun), Turkish Vilayet, formed of parts of ancient Macedonia and Thrace, crossed by Vistritza, Vardar, Struma and Mesta, is fertile, produces grain, tobacco, wine, fruit, cotton, gallnuts etc.; is divided in 3 Livas, Saloniki, Serres and Drama, area 35,000 square km. Its population estimated at 1,130,800 consists of Slavs (550,000), Turks (330,000), Greeks (170,000), Jews (56,000), Vlachs (27,000) and Muslim Gypsies (22,000). .. Saloniki is the seat of a Turkish governor general (Wali), of the general commander (Mushir) of Macedonia, of a Greek metropolit, of a Jewish grand rabbi and of numerous foreign consuls, among them a German consul.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1902-1909, Article : Skutari
Skutari (Slavic Skadar, Turkish Schkodra), spaciously built city rich in gardens of a Vilayet by that name which makes up northern Albania, consists of two sanjaks (Skutari and Durazzo, of 8 kasas, 10,800 square km, with 294,100 almost exclusively Albanian inhabitants) .. is seat of a governor general (Wali), of several European consuls, of a Catholic archbishop and a Greek bishop ..
source in German, posted by Zeno


Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Adrianopel
Adrianopel, capital of the Turkish Vilayet Adrianopel, province Rumelia (containing he larger part of ancient Thrace, 38,900 square km, about 1 million inhabitants).
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Ja'nina
Ja'nina, capital of the Vilayet Ja'nina in European Turkey, southern Albania (17,900 square km, about 527,000 inhabitants)
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Ko'sovo
Ko'sovo, vilayet in the northwestern part of European Turkey, bordering on Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Montenegro, divided in the sanjaks Üsküb, Prizren, Pristina and the Austrian-occupied Novipazar and Taslidza (Plevlje). 32,900 square km, of which 7,350 fall under occupation. 1,038,100 inhabitants, of which 89,350 are Turks, 265,000 Bulgarians (Christian and Muslim), 113,000 Serbs, 428,000 for the larger part Muslim Albanians, 10,000 Gypsies, further Circassians and Jews.
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Monastir
Monastir (Bitolia, Toli), capital of a vilayet by the same name (28,500 square km, 849,000 inhabitants)
source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

The entries for Saloniki and Skutari were published at a time when the area was no longer part of the Ottoman Empire.






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This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 5th 2009

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