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United Kingdom
First posted on June 19th 2006, last revised on January 22nd 2012








Following the Roman exodus in 410 AD, Britain disintegrated into a number of statelets at war with each other. In the 5th century, pagan Germanic Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded and settled, gradually expelling respectively enslaving the Celtic and partially Christian British population from what was to become England.
In the 6th and 7th centuries the Anglo-Saxons converted to Catholic Christianity. The Heptarchy (seven Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, loosely federated under a Bretwalda (high king) emerged : East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex, Wessex.
Viking invasions resulted in the establishment of the Danelaw and the Viking Kingdom of York. In the late 9th and early 10th century, Wessex conquered the Danelaw and York, and unified England (954).
Danish invasions resulted in temporary Danish rule (1013-1042). In 1066, England fell to Norman invaders. The Normans introduced feudalism; the Norman elite continued to speak Norman French for several centuries. While the Duchy of Normandy was lost in 1204, the Kings of England (as Dukes of Normandy) held on to the Channel Islands (Guernsey, Jersey).
In 1283 Wales was conquered. It remained a separate administrative entity until annexed into England in 1535-1542.
Under Henry VIII, the Church of England was separated from Rome; subsequentially, reforms turned it into a Protestant church. A minority remained Catholic; Protestant radicals, dissatisfied with an Anglican Church which in their view was not reformed thoroughly enough, established a number of sects collectively referred to as the Dissenters.
After the death of Queen Elizabeth I. (1603), monarchy and parliament held up different political visions. The conflict over the rights of king and parliament culminated in the English Civil War (1642-1651), the Stuart Restoration 1660 and the Glorious Revolution 1688. Scotland, since 1603, was in dynastic union with England; in 1707 the Scottish parliament dissolved itself and placed Scotland under the authority of the London parliament, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

Glorious Revolution, 1689 . Restoration, 1660-1688 . The Commonwealth of England, 1649-1660 . The English Civil War, 1642-1648 . The Stuarts, 1603-1642
The Reformation : Henry VIII., Dissident Communities, Reformation in England

History by County : Cornwall

Western Europe Pages








E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles modern Article : England, from Wikipedia
historical W. Harrison, Elizabethan England (Description of Britaine 1587) IA
Links General Category : England, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of England, from Wikipedia
Organizations The Historical Association
English Catholic History Association
English Heritage
Economic History Society; British Agricultural History Society
Royal Numismatic Society, British Numismatic Society
Society of Genealogists; The Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland
British Commission for Maritime History
British Commission for Military History; Society for Army Historical Research
Reenactors : The English Civil War Society; Historical Maritime Society
British Association for Local History; Cornwall Historical Society, Essex Society for Archaeology and History, Kent History Federation, Manx National Heritage, Federation of Norfolk Archaeological and Historical Societies, Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : History of England, from Wikipedia
General, Historical R. de Thoyras, The history of England : as well ecclesiastical as civil, vol.1 1726, vol.5 1759, vol.8 1758, vol.9 1759, vol.12 1762, GB
D. Hume, The history of England : from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution of 1688, vol.1 1770, vol.2 1789, vol.1 1796, vol.2 1796, vol.3 1796, vol.4 1796, vol.7 1797, vol.8 1797, vol.1 1805, vol.1 1811, vol.3 1811, vol.4 1811, vol.5 1811, vol.7 1811, vol.8 1811, vol.9 1811, GB
Specific Periods T.G. Smollett, The History of England from the Revolution of 1688 to the Death of George II., vol.1 1836, vol.2 1805, vol.3 1805, vol.4 1811, vol.5 1811, vol.6 1805, GB
J.A. Froude, History of England: from the fall of Wolsey to the death of Elizabeth vol.4 1866, vol.12 1870, GB
Historiography Category : Historiography of England, from Wikipedia
Article : Historians of England in the Middle Ages , List of English Chronicles, from Wikipedia
Administration Bureaucracy
Administrative Division Article : Subdivisions of England, from Wikipedia
Representative Bodies Article : Parliament of England, House of Commons of England, from Wikipedia
Cabinet, Ministries Article : Cabinet of the United Kingdom : Historical, from Wikipedia
Political Trends Article : Jacobitism, from Wikipedia
Jurisdiction
Foreign Relations Anglo-Scottish Relations before 1689, from The Scottish History Society
Article : France-United Kingdom Relations : History, Holy See-United Kingdom Relations : History, Netherlands-United Kingdom Relations : Historical, Spain-United Kingdom Relations : History, from Wikipedia
Military General Article : Military History of England, from Wikipedia
Wars, Battles List of Wars involving England, from Wikipedia
Military Units J. Trenchard, An history of standing armies in England 1739, IA
Fortresses, Garrisons C. Taylor, Castles and Fortifications of England and Wales
Article : Dover Castle, from Wikipedia
Article : Tower of London, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Links
General W. Ashley, An Introduction to English Economic History and Theory pt.1 (1888), pt.2 (1893)
G. Clark, Interpreting English Economic History 1200-1800 : Malthusian Stasis or Early Dynamism ? 2006
J. McDonald, Economy of England at the Time of the Norman Conquest, EH Net Encyclopedia 2010
Currency, Finances Thomas Hall, Shareholder Activism in the Virginia Company of London, 1606-1624, 2009
History of London Stock Exchange
Trade Articles : Company of Merchant Adventurers of London (1407), Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands (1551), Muscovy Company (1555), Eastland Company (1579), Levant Company (1581), East India Company (1599), Virginia Company (1606), London and Bristol Company (1610), Royal African Company (1660), from Wikipedia
Article : Navigation Acts, from Wikipedia
Manufacture, Industry The Textile System, from Spartacus Schoolnet
E. Power, The Wool Trade in English Medieval History (1941)
F. Sharman, A note on the wool trade in Wolverhampton
I. Friel, Elizabethan Merchant Ships and Shipbuilding
Mining Medieval Mining, from England's Northeast
Agriculture A.G.L. Rogers, A history of agriculture and prices in England vol.1 : 1251-1400, 1861, vol.2 : 1259-1400, 1866, GB
W.G. Hoskins, Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1480-1609, The Agricultural History Review
Articles : Economics of English Agriculture in the Middle Ages, Enclosure, from Wikipedia
Article : Agriculture and Enclosures, from Spartacus Educational
H. Bradley, The Enclosures in England An Economic Reconstruction 1918, IA
J. Croumbie Brown, The forests of England, and the management of them in bye-gone times 1883, IA
Social History General Article : Social History of England, from Wikipedia
Nobility Article : Landed Gentry, from Wikipedia
Bourgeoisie Medieval English Towns
Clergy
Peasantry J.V. Beckett, The Peasant in England - A Case of Terminological Confusion ?, Agricultural History Review
Poverty, Vagabonds Poverty in Tudor Times, from Spartacus Educational
G. Boyer, English Poor Laws, EH Net Encyclopedia
Articles : The Workhouse, English Poor Laws, from Wikipedia
Slavery Article : Slavery in Britain and Ireland, from Wikipedia
Feudalism Article : Feudalism in England, from Wikipedia
Education Article : History of Education in England, from Wikipedia
Article : Dissenting Academies, from Wikipedia; R. Evans, List of Dissenting Academies, Technical Education Matters
D. Gillard, History of Education in England, 2011 Chapter 1 : 600-1800 : Beginnings
Crime & Punishment T. Lambert, A Brief History of the Death Penalty in Britain
Crime and Punishment Websites, linked by Spartacus Schoolweb
Crime and Punishment in Elizabethan England, from Eyewitness to History
L.O. Pike, A history of crime in England, illustrating the changes of the laws in the progress of civilisation; written from the public records and other contemporary evidence 1873, IA
National Archives, Crime and the law in England, guide to unpublished primary sources
Ethnography Article : Anglo-Norman language, Middle English, Early Modern English, from Wikipedia
Huguenot History, from Huguenot Society of Great Britain and Ireland
The Gypsies in England, from Gypsy Roma Traveller Leeds; Article : Romanichal, from Wikipedia
England, pp.1757-2052 in vol.3A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion General
Protestant Reformation Articles : Dissolution of the Monasteries, Pilgrimage of Grace, Tyndale Bible, from Spartacus Educational
Article : Marian Exiles, from Wikipedia
Protestant Anglican Church J.B.S. Carwithen, The History of the Church of England, vol.1 1829, vol.2 1829, vol.3 1833, GB
R.W. Dixon, History of the Church of England, vol.2 : 1538-1548 1895, vol.6 : 1564-1570 1902, GB
Dissenters Article : English Dissenters, from Wikipedia
C. Burrage, The Early English Dissenters in the Light of Recent Research (1550-1641) vol.1 1912, vol.2 1912, IA
D. Bogue, C. Bennett, History of Dissenters, from the Revolution in 1688, to the Year 1808 1812, IA
Catholic England and Wales 1550-1850, from Catholic History
D. Barron, Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s
Jewish S. Shoenberg, England, Virtual Jewish History Tour
Article : History of the Jews in England, from Wikipedia
Islam Article : Islam in England, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Predecessors Cornwall Article : History of Cornwall, from Wikipedia
Danelaw Article : Danelaw, from Wikipedia
East Anglia Article : Kingdom of East Anglia, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms : East Engle
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : East Anglia
Essex Article : Kingdom of Essex, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms : East Seaxe
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Essex
Kent Article : Kingdom of Kent, from Wikipedia
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Kent
Mercia Article : Mercia, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms : Mercia
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Mercia
Northumbria Article : Northumbria, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons : Northumbria
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Northumbria
Sussex Article : Kingdom of Sussex, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons : Suth Seaxe
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Sussex
Wessex Article : Wessex, from Wikipedia
P. Kessler, Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons : West Seaxe
S.J. Murray, From Dot to Domesday : Wessex
Viking Kingdom of York P. Kessler, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms : Scandinavian Kingdom of York / Jorvik
Technically independent areas in dynastic union with E. Guernsey Article : Guernsey : History, from Wikipedia
Isle of Man Article : History of the Isle of Man, from Wikipedia
Jersey Article : History of Jersey, from Wikipedia
Administrative Units
Local History
Institutions Science
Higher Education Articles : University of Oxford : History, University of Cambridge : History, from Wikipedia
Culture
Biographies J. Chambers, Biographical illustrations of Worcestershire: including lives of persons, natives or residents eminent either for piety or talent: to which is added, a list of living authors of the country single vol., 1820, GB
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen United Kingdom, from World Statesmen
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Canterbury, York, List of Bishops of Dorchester, Durham, Exeter, Gloucester, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Lindisfarne, London, Norwich, Rochester, Salisbury, Winchester, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : UK, by County, from Population Statistics, at Univ. Utrecht
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes London Gazette, since 1665
Other The British Newspaper Archive
Staatskalender
Online Yearbooks Engelland, Schott- und Irland, pp.293-442 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits National Archives UK, Documents Online
Laws
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Collections Catalogues of Sources An exact abridgement of the records in the Tower of London, 1657, GB
Ch.16 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.391-441 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Category : Historical writing from Norman and Angevin England, from Wikipedia
Modern Compilations for the Web British History Online
Britannia History : Documents
Scans of Print Editions A.E. Bland (ed.), English economic history; select documents 1915, IA
Individual Documents 410-1066 K.F. Matthews (ed.), Full-text resources for 'Dark Age' history : Gildas, Historia Brittonum, Annales Cambriae A, Annales Cambriae B, Canu Heledd, Marwnan Cynddylan, genealogical sources
Gildas, De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae [ -570], Wikipedia Article, Latin text ed. K.F. Matthews, English trsl. (W.A. Giles) posted by Project Gutenberg
Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum [55 B.C.-731 A.D.], Wikipedia Article, OMSB Entry, Latin text from The Latin Library, English trsl. Sellar 1907, CCEL
Nennius, Historia Brittonum [ -830], Wikipedia Article, OMSB Entry, Latin text from The Latin Library after ed. T. Mommsen, English trsl. W. Gunn 1819, GB; Latin text ed. by J. Stephenson 1838, IA
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [60 B.C.-1154 A.D.], Wikipedia Article, English trsl. Ingram 1823, from OMACL; also from Project Gutenberg
1066-1485 J.A. Giles (ed.), Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris 1845, IA
William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum [449-1127], Wikipedia Article, OMSB Entry, Latin text vol.1, vol.2, ed. Hardy 1840, IA
Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae [ -1136, pseudohistoric], Wikipedia Article, Latin text ed. Anton 1854, GB, English trsl. Thompson 1892, GB
William of Newburgh (Willelmi Parvi), Historia Rerum Anglicarum [1066-1198], Wikipedia Article, Latin text vol.1 1856, vol.2 ed. H.C. Hamilton 1856, IA; Excerpts in English translation, from Internet Medieval Sourcebook
National Archives UK : Domesday Book
1485-1707 The Diary of Samuel Pepys 1660-1669
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : United Kingdom : Ordnance Survey (OS), Southhampton
surveys/links British Library, Help for Researchers, Maps : Scanned Collections Online : Great Britain
Edmaps, Historical Maps of the British Isles, links
collections Atlas of England, from Wikimedia Commons
Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Great Britain
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for United Kingdom
Probert Encyclopedia, Internet Map Archive, numerous relevant maps
United Kingdom Maps, PCL, UTexas
Old Maps, "Old-Maps is the UK's most comprehensive historical map archive comprising site centred historical maps covering England, Wales and Scotland"
Old Ordnance Survey Maps
Category : Old Maps of the United Kingdom, Maps of the History of the United Kingdom, Wikimedia Commons
scanned atlases Cary's Traveller's Companion, 1790, maproom
Cary's New Itinerary, 1817, maproom
Bett's Family Atlas, 1846, maproom
Philips' Handy Atlases of the Counties of England, 1895, maproom
Gardiner's Atlas of English History 1892, Memorial Library
E. Reich, A new student's atlas of English history 1903, IA
England, hindsight Euratlas Periodis Web : England in 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700
P. Kessler, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms : Maps Britain 400-425, 450-600, 550-600, 700
England, contemporary
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Liverpool 1840
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, London
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 : England before the Reformation, since the Reformation, English Revolution of 1688
Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 : England
Economic
Political Encyclopedias
Geographical
Historical De Regno Angliae, pp.321-355 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Historic Tour Guides
Institutions Archives National Archives, UK
Category : Archives in England, from Wikipedia
Mark Howells, English Record Offices and Archives on the Web
Musea
Monuments
Libraries British Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general
on England RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
Ch.16, De scriptoribus historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.391-441 in B.G. Struve, Selecta Bibliotheca Historica, 1705, GB
Ch.15, De scriptoribus historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.557-651 in vol.1 of B.G. Struve, C.G. Buder, Selecta Bibliotheca Historica, 1740, GB
W.H. Chaloner, R.C. Richardson, Bibliography of British Economic and Social History, Manchester : UP (1976) 1983 [G]
C.L. Grose, A Select Bibliography of British History 1660-1760, Univ. of Chicago 1939 [G]
G. Davies/M.F. Keeler, Bibliography of British History, Stuart Period 1603-1714, Oxford : Clarendon 1970 [G]
E.B. Graves, A Bibliography of English History to 1485, Oxford : Clarendon 1975 [G]
C. Read, Bibliography of British History, Tudor Period 1485-1603, Oxford : Clarendon 1959 [G]
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
on England
Online Journals full text online Agricultural History Review
Contents Online
Historiography Article : English Historiography - Medieval and Early Modern (to 1700), by D.R.Woolf, pp.270-276, Article : English Historiography - Modern (since 1700), by D.R. Woolf, pp.276-284, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts on Germany Kurt Kluxen, Geschichte Englands (History of England), Stuttgart : Kröner 1976, in German [G]
Specific Topics François Bedarida, A Social History of England 1851-1990, tral. from the French (1976) London : Routledge 1991 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 942.081 B399s
J.R.H. Moorman, A History of the Church in England, Harrisburg : Moorhouse (1963) 1980 [G]
Primary Sources The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Richard le Gallienne (ed.), NY : Modern Library 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 941.06 G168d
Yearbook Entries Article : United Kingdom, England, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2000 pp.1634-1641, 2001 pp.1601-1608, 2002 pp.1661-1667, 2003 pp.1663-1669, 2004 pp.1679-1685, 2005 pp.1693-1699 [G]