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United Kingdom England
First posted on January 22nd 2006, last revised on May 30th 2010







The Kingdom of Scotland emerged in the Middle Ages, composed of a number of ethnicities - Celts (Picts, Gael), Anglosaxons (Bernicia), Britons (Strathclyde) and Vikings (Orkneys, Hebrides). As the nucleus of Scotland is to be regarded the Kingdom of Pictland, which was renamed the Kingdom of Alba, or Scotland, and which over time absorbed the other, aforelisted elements. While the Scots developed a strong sense of national identity, the country lacked a common language; in the lowlands, especially the southeast, English was spoken. Gaelic was the language of the Highlands, Old West Norse the language spoken on the Orkneys and Hebrides. Only in the last two centuries did English gain ground at the expense of Gaelic and Old West Norse in the Highlands and on the islands.
In a protracted struggle in the 13th and 14th century, Scotland was able to stand up to England's attempts to subdue it. In 1603 England and Scotland entered into a Dynastic Union. In 1707 Scotland's Parliament passed the Act of Union, dissolving itself and placing Scotland under the London Parliament. This act created the United Kingdom of Great Britain Scotland is part of ever since. With England having a population of c.49 million, Scotland c.5 million, the latter plays the role of a junior partner within the union. Devolution in 1999 recreated a Scottish parliament.

List of Wars : Scotland
Historical Atlas : Scotland, Western Europe Pages


Students' Papers : Cho, Naan, The Cinematic Portrayal of Scottish Hero William Wallace in 'Braveheart', "William Wallace' and 'A Scottish History' (2010)
Students' Papers : Park, Hye Ree, Tenacious Rebels : Scotland's Jacobites (2008)
Students' Papers : Choi, Jungyun, Dynastic Unions : Scotland's Road into the "Perfect Union" of Great Britain (until James I., 1625) (2008)






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Scotland Cultural Profile, from Cultural Profils
Historic
Links General Category : Scotland, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Scottish History, from Electric Scotland
Scottish History.com
Organizations U.K. Royal Historical Society
Scotland Historic Scotland, government agency
National Trust for Scotland
The Scottish History Society
Royal Commission of Ancient and Historic Monuments in Scotland
Scottish Churches Architectural Heritage Trust; Scottish Redundant Churches Trust
Alba Re-Enactment & Heritage Trust
The Scottish Genealogical Society
regional, local Mull Historical and Archaeological Society; Slate Islands Heritage Trust; Perth and Kinross Heritage Trust; Stirling City Heritage Trust
Glasgow & West of Scotland Family History Society
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline, from Gazetteer for Scotland
Accounts of History Current Scottish History Online
Scotland's History and Sources, from The Capital Scot
Article History of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Historical D. Dalrymple, Annals of Scotland, from the Accession of Malcolm III in the Year MLVII to the Accession of the House of Stewart in the Year MCCCLXXI, vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, 1819, GB
G. Buchanan, History of Scotland (1827), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
R. Chambers, The History of Scotland (1832), IA
P.F. Tytler, History of Scotland, vol.1, 1845, vol.2, 1845, vol.3, 1845, vol.4, 1845, vol.5, 1845, vol.6, 1845, vol.7, 1845, vol.8, 1842, vol.9, 1843, vol.10, Index, 1850
P.F. Tytler, History of Scotland 1149-1603 (1841), posted on Internet Archive
P.F. Tytler, The history of Scotland from the accession of Alexander III. to the union (1866), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, vol.5, vol.6, vol.7, vol.8, vol.9, vol.10, posted on Internet Archive
R. Anderson, History of Scotland (1874), IA
J.H. Burton, The History of Scotland (1874), IA
M. MacArthur, History of Scotland (1880), posted on IA
P.H. Brown, History of Scotland (1899-1902), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
A. Lang, A Short History of Scotland (1911), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
D. Moysie, Memoirs of the affairs of Scotland, issue 3 : 1527-1603, 1830, GB
Specific Periods W. Robertson, The history of Scotland: during the reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI., complete edition (1822) 1857, GB
G. Lockhart, Memoirs Concerning the Affairs of Scotland : from Queen Anne's Accession to the Throne to the Commencement of the Union of the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England in May 1707, 1714, GB
C.H. Firth, Scotland and the Commonwealth. Letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland, from August 1651 to December, 1653 (1895), posted on Internet Archive
C.H. Firth, Scotland and the protectorate : letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland from January 1654 to June 1659 (1899), posted on Internet Archive
E. Stair-Kerr, Scotland under James IV. (1911), IA
W.L. Mathieson, Scotland and the Union: A History of Scotland from 1695 to 1747 (1905), posted on Internet Archive
W.A. Mathieson, The awakening of Scotland, a history from 1747 to 1797 (1910), posted on Internet Archive
W.H. Meikle, Scotland and the French revolution (1912), IA
James MacKinnon, The Union of England and Scotland;: A Study of International History (1896), posted on Internet Archive
J. Struthers, The History of Scotland, from the Union to the Abolition of the Heritable .. (1827), posted on Internet Archive
J.H. Burton, History of Scotland, from the revolution to the extinction of the last Jacobite insurrection, 1689-1748 (1853), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
C.L. Balcarres, Memoirs Touching the Revolution in Scotland, 1688-1690, by Colin Earl of Balcarres (1841), posted on Internet Archive
A. MacRae, Scotland from the treaty of union with England to the present time, (1707-1907) (1908), posted on Internet Archive
G. Charles, History of the Transactions in Scotland, in the Years 1715-16, and 1745-46 (1817), posted on Internet Archive
R. Chambers, Domestic Annals of Scotland, from the Reformation to the Revolution (1858), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Scotland; Article Politics of Scotland, from Wikipedia
History of the SNP
G.B. Smith, History of the English Parliament: Together with an Account of the Parliaments of Scotland .. (1894), posted on Internet Archive
J.P. Day, Public administration in the Highlands and islands of Scotland (1918), posted on Internet Archive
G. Stuart, Observations concerning the public law, and the constitutional history of Scotland: with occasional remarks concerning English antiquity (1779), posted on Internet Archive
Military see here
Article Military of Scotland, from Wikipedia
R. Chambers, History of the Rebellion in Scotland in 1745, 1746 (1827), posted on Internet Archive
J. Home, The history of the rebellion in Scotland in 1745 (1822), posted on Internet Archive
J. Browne, The history of Scotland, its Highlands, regiments and clans (1909), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, vol.5, vol.6, vol.7, vol.8, posted on Internet Archive
R. Chambers, History of the rebellions in Scotland, under the Viscount of Dundee, and the Earl of Mar, in 1689 and 1715 (1829), posted on Internet Archive
R. Chambers, History of the rebellions in Scotland, under the Marquis of Montrose, and others, from 1638 till 1660 (1829), posted on Internet Archive
J.M. Bulloch, Territorial soldiering in the north-east of Scotland during 1759-1814 (1914), posted on Internet Archive
Economy & Finances Category : Economic History of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Category : Coins of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Scottish Economic History Database 1550-1780, from IISG
Article North Sea Oil, from Wikipedia
A.W. Kerr, History of Banking in Scotland (1908), posted on Internet Archive
J. Walker, An Economical History of the Hebrides and Highlands of Scotland (1808), posted on Internet Archive
J. MacKinnon, The social and industrial history of Scotland from the earliest times to the union (1920), posted on Internet Archive
J.T. Pratt, The history of savings banks in England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland (1842), posted on Internet Archive
W.B. Black, What are teinds? : An account of the history of tithes in Scotland (1893), posted on Internet Archive
J. Davidson, The Scottish staple at Veere, a study in the economic history of Scotland (1909), posted on Internet Archive
D. Bremner, The industries of Scotland, their rise, progress, and present condition (1869), posted on Internet Archive
L.A. Barbe, Sidelights on the history, industries & social life of Scotland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
D. Maxwell, Bygone Scotland; historical and social (1894), IA
R.W. Cochran-Patrick, Records of the coinage of Scotland, from the earliest period to the Union (1876), posted on Internet Archive
A.H. Stirling, A sketch of Scottish industrial and social history in the 18th and 19th centuries (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Social History J. MacKinnon, The social and industrial history of Scotland from the earliest times to the union (1920), posted on Internet Archive
L.A. Barbe, Sidelights on the history, industries & social life of Scotland (1919), posted on Internet Archive
John Strong, A history of secondary education in Scotland : an account of Scottish secondary education from early times to the education act of 1908 (1909), posted on Internet Archive
W.J. Gibson, Education in Scotland; a sketch of the past and the present (1912), posted on Internet Archive
A.H. Stirling, A sketch of Scottish industrial and social history in the 18th and 19th centuries (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography Article Languages of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Scotland, pp.4448-4544 in vol.6B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Article Religion in Scotland, from Wikipedia
Scotland, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
M. Russell, History of the Church of Scotland, vol.1, vol.2, 1834, GB
J.F.S. Gordon, Ecclesiastical Chronicle for Scotland (1867), vol.1, posted on Internet Archive
A. Williams, Bygone Church Life in Scotland (1899), posted on Internet Archive
D. Calderwood, The History of the Kirk of Scotland (1842), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, vol.5, vol.6, vol.7, vol.8, posted on Internet Archive
W. Sime, History of the Covenanters (1830), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
John Knox, History of the Reformation in Scotland (1586-1587, ed. 1949) vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
J. Rankin, Handbook of the Church of Scotland (1879), posted on Internet Archive
A. Bellesheim, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland from the Introduction of Christianity to the Present Day (1889), posted on Internet Archive
J.H. Pollen, The Counter-reformation in Scotland, with special reference to the Revival of 1585 to 1595 (1921), posted on internet Archive
History of Regions Article Subdivisions of Scotland, from Wikipedia
Articles History of the Outer Hebrides, History of the Orkney Islands, Shetland : History, Skye : History, Caithness : History, from Wikipedia
History of the Outer Hebrides, from Virtual Hebrides
J. Walker, An Economical History of the Hebrides and Highlands of Scotland (1808), posted on Internet Archive
The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845), vol.8, posted on Internet Archive
D. Gregory, The History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland, from A.D. 1493 .. (1881), posted on Internet Archive
J.P. Day, Public administration in the Highlands and islands of Scotland (1918), posted on Internet Archive
Local History History of Edinburgh, from Wikipedia
History of Glasgow, from Wikipedia
History of Aberdeen, from Wikipedia
History of Dundee, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Scotland
History, from Radio Scotland; Article Gaelic Broadcasting in Scotland, from Wikipedia
Great North of Scotland Railway, has history
Culture J.H. Millar, A Literary History of Scotland (1903), IA
H. Douglas-Irvine, Royal palaces of Scotland (1911), IA
R. Dickson, Introduction of the art of printing into Scotland (1885), IA
Biographies Standard Works of Reference J. Stark, Biographia scotica: or Scottish biographical dictionary; containing a short account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons and remarkable characters, natives of Scotland, from the earliest ages to the present time W. M'Gavin, Biographia Scoticana single vol., 1828 GB
R. Chambers, A biographical dictionary of eminent Scotsmen div.1, Abe-Bro, 1853, div.2, Bro-Dal, 1853, div.3, Dal-For, 1853, div.4, For-Hor, 1853, div.5, Hor-Les, 1854, div.6, Les-Ram, 1854, div.7, Ram-Wil, 1855, div.8, Wil-You, Abe-Hep, 1855, div.9, Her-Woo, 1855, GB
Web Compilations, General List of Scots, from Wikipedia
Significant and Famous Scots, from Electric Scotland
Specialized Compilations
Others J. Ritchie, The influence of man on animal life in Scotland; study in faunal evolution (1920), posted on IA

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Regnal Chronologies
Lists of Ambassadors
Lists of Bishops Mortlach / Aberdeen, List of Bishops of Argyll, Brechin, Caithness, Dunkeld, Galloway, Glasgow, Moray, Orkney, Ross, St. Andrews, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : UK, by County, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics : Scotland, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Election Results from Psephos (since 1999)
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Scotland
The Scotsman Digital Archive 1817-1950 (charges fee)
Modern Newspapers
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Nepal
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Nepal
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Treaty of Union 1707, from SPM
Document Collections Scotland : Documents and Records Illustrating the History of Scotland, and the Transactions between the Crowns of Scotland and England, preserved in the Treasury of her Majesty's Exchequer, vol.1, 1837, GB
The Principal Acts of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1721, 1731, 1741, 1751, 1761, 1771, 1781, 1791, 1801, 1811, 1821, GB
Documents, from Scots for Independence
J. Leyden, The complaynt of Scotland : Written in 1548., 1801, GB
J.M. Thomson, The Public Records of Scotland (1922), posted on Internet Archive
The Historians of Scotland 1871, vol.2, vol.3, vol.5, vol.7, vol.8, vol.9, vol.10, posted on Internet Archive
Ch.16 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.391-441 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : United Kingdom : Ordnance Survey (OS), Southhampton
surveys/links British Library, Help for Researchers, Maps : Scanned Collections Online : Great Britain
Edmaps, Historical Maps of the British Isles, links
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Scotland page
Maps of Scotland, posted by National Library of Scotland
Historical Map Overlays, from National Library of Scotland
Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Great Britain
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for United Kingdom
Probert Encyclopedia, Internet Map Archive, numerous relevant maps
United Kingdom Maps, PCL, UTexas
Old Maps, "Old-Maps is the UK's most comprehensive historical map archive comprising site centred historical maps covering England, Wales and Scotland"
Old Ordnance Survey Maps
Category : Old Maps of the United Kingdom, Maps of the History of the United Kingdom, Wikimedia Commons
scanned atlases Cary's Traveller's Companion, 1790, maproom
Cary's New Itinerary, 1817, maproom
Bett's Family Atlas, 1846, maproom
Philips' Handy Atlases of the Counties of Scotland, 1886, maproom
Scotland, hindsight
Scotland, contemporary
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Schottland, Edinburg, Glasgow from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Scotland, Church of Scotland, Episcopal Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen, Inverness, Lothian, Strathclyde, Skye, The Hebrides, Orkney Islands, Shetland, from EB 1911
Religious Article Scotland, Established Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Diocese of Galloway, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Article Scotland, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, from Jewish Encyclopeduia 1901-1906
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Edinburgh, Glasgow, posted by DTBSWS
Political Engelland, Schott- und Irland, pp.293-442 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Historical Entry : The Islands of Shetland and Orkney, pp.404-429, The Hebrides or Western Islands pp.430-444, Description of St. Kilda pp.444-464, Lewis pp.465-472, Harries pp.472-480, Erisca pp.480-482, Barray pp.482-484, Skie pp.484-496, Mull pp.496-498, Iona pp.498-502, Jurah pp.502-504, Oronsay pp.504-506, Bute pp.506-508, Arran pp.508-510, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues R. Pococke, Tours in Scotland 1747, 1750, 1760 (1887), IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Scotland
Musea National Museums of Scotland
Monuments Category : Monuments and Memorials in Scotland, from Wikipedia
Castles / Monuments, from Scotland's Colours, commercial site
Standing stones and ancient monuments in Scotland, from The Internet Guide to Scotland
Ancient Monuments, from Scottish Highlands Website
Libraries National Library of Scotland
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Scotland Scottish Forest History : a Bibliography, from EH Resources
E-Bibliography : Women in Scottish History
Ch.16, De scriptoribus historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.391-441 in B.G. Struve, Selecta Bibliotheca Historica, 1705, GB
Ch.15, De scriptoribus historiae Anglicarum, Scoticarum et Hibernicarum, pp.557-651 in vol.1 of B.G. Struve, C.G. Buder, Selecta Bibliotheca Historica, 1740, GB
W.H. Chaloner, R.C. Richardson, Bibliography of British Economic and Social History, Manchester : UP (1976) 1983 [G]; on Scotland pp.164-175
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
e-corpus
on Scotland Books from Electric Scotland
Digital Library, from National Library of Scotland
Online Journals
Historiography Article : Scottish Historiography, by C. Kidd, pp.819-822, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Peteer and Fiona Somerset Fry, The History of Scotland, NY : Barnes & Noble (1982) 1995 [G]
Fitzroy MacLean, Scotland : a Concise History, London : Thames and Hudson, 1993 [G]
Specific Topics Karen Jillings, Scotland's Black Death, The Foul Death of the English, Tempus 2003 [G]
Donald Campbell, Cities of the Imagination : Edinburgh. A Cultural and Literary History, NY : Interlink Books 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 941.34 C187e
James MacKay, William Wallace, Brave Heart, Edinburgh : Mainstream (1995) 2006 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 941.102 M153w
Bruce Lenman, An Economic History of Modern Scotland 1660-1976, London : Batsford 1977 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Gordon Donaldson, Robert S. Morpeth, A Dictionary of Scottish History, Edinburgh : John Donald 1977 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : United Kingdom, Scotland, in : Statesman's Yearbook 2000 pp.1641-1650, 2001 pp.1608-1617, 2002 pp.1667-1676, 2003 pp.1669-1678, 2004 pp.1685-1695, 2005 pp.1699-1708 [G]
Article : Scotland, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.782, 1928 p.716, 1930 p.702, 1931 p.698, 1932 pp.432-433, 1933 p.654, 1934 p.542, 1935 pp.648-649, 1936 p.663, 1937 pp.637-638, 1943 p.652, 1944 p.627, 1945 p.641, 1946 p.665, 1947 p.631, 1957 p.705, 1962 p.666, 1963 p.592, 1964 p.586 [G]