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St. Kitts Netherlands' Antilles
First posted on June 21st 2002, last revised on November 12th 2010







Claimed by England & settled in 1632; from 1671 to 1816 part of Colony of the Leeward Islands, 1816-1833 Antigua colony (with Barbuda, Montserrat), 1833-1871 Colony of the Leeward Islands, 1871-1956 Federated Colony of the Leeward Islands, 1956-1960 Territory of the Leeward Islands, 1960-1967 colony of Antigua, 1967-1981 assiciated state with UK, since 1981 independent as Antigua & Barbuda.

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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Antigua & Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Antigua et Barbuda, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Historical, on the Windies A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main, 1860, GB
Historical, on Antigua L. Flannigan, Antigua and the Antiguans: Also, an Impartial View of Slavery and the Free Labour Systems (1844), posted on Internet Archive
S. Honey, Letters from the West Indies: relating especially to the Danish island St. Croix, and to the British Islands Antigua, Barbadoes and Jamaica, 1838, GB
Antigua, Anguilla and St. Martins, pp.294-299 in Th.E.Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
Links General from LANIC; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
The History of Antigua and Barbuda : A Digital Archive
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, on Antigua Antigua, pp.354-366 in vol.2 : Possessions in the West Indies, of R.M. Martin, History of the British Colonies, 2nd ed. 1838, GB
Specific Periods F.G. Spurdle, Early West Indian government; showing the progress of government in Barbados, Jamaica, and the Leeward Islands, 1600-1783 (n.d.), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.Str.S. Higham, The development of the Leeward Islands under the Restoration, 1660-1688; a study of the foundations of the old colonial system (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Politics Links Category : Politics of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Web : Antigua & Barbuda; Governments on the WWW : Antigua and Barbuda
Foreign Policy Wikipedia : Caribbean Community (member since 1974), Wikipedia : Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (founding member 1981); Wikipedia : Organization of American States (member since 1981); United Nations (since 1981)
Association of Caribbean States (since 1994)
Article : Foreign Relations of Antigua and Barbuda
Military Category : Military of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Antigua and Barbuda, from ODM
Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
Economy & Finances Entry Antigua and Barbuda, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Article Economy of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Antigua and Barbuda, from Ministry of Rum
History of Bank of Antigua, from Antigua Commercial Bank
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Antigua and Barbuda
J. Stephen, The slavery of the British West India colonies delineated, vol.1, 1824, vol.2, 1830, GB
W.G. Sewell, The ordeal of free labor in the British West Indies, 1861, GB; on Antigua pp.141-160
Ethnography Languages of Bahamas (2), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua et Barbuda, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Antigua & Barbuda, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
Antigua, pp.350-366 in J.B. Holmes, Historical sketches of the missions of the United Brethren, 1818, GB
Local History
Institutions Antigua & Barbuda, from Airline History
Structurae : Antigua and Barbuda
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Antigua
Culture Antigua and Barbuda at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Antiguans and Barbudans, from Wikipedia
Lists of Eastern Caribbean People, scroll down for Antigua and Barbuda
Others Disaster History by Country : Antigua and Barbuda, from Relief Web; History with Tropical Systems : Antigua, from Hurricane City
general account of the calamities occasioned by the late tremendous Hurricanes and Earthquakes in the West Indian Islands, Foreign and Domestic, 1781, GB; Antigua pp.55-59

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Article : United States Ambassador to Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia; Heads of Post : Antigua, from MOFA, Canada
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Antigua and Barbuda, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos, since 2002; from IFES Election Guide, since 2002
IPU Election Archive : House of Representatives, 1984. 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; Senate 2004
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
Selected Articles History of Antigua & Barbuda, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Antigua and Barbuda, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Newsreels British Pathe
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Cartes Antigua & Barbuda, from Antanlontan Antilles
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Antigua
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Four Island Air, LIAT
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Antigua
Search Janus for Antigua
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Antigua, from ILO, 27 docs. since 1982
Antigua, pp.123-132 in Charles Clark, A summary of colonial law, the practice of the Court of Appeals from the Plantations and of the Laws and their Administration of All the Colonies, 1834, GB
Antigua, pp.393-442 in vol.1 of J.H. Howard The laws of the British colonies, in the West Indies and other parts of America concerning Real and Personal Property and the Manumission of Slaves with a View of the Constitution of each Colony, 1827, GB
Treaties United Nations Treaty Database; OAS Treaties and Agreements
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Treaties; Canada Treaty Information
European Commission Treaties Office
UK Treaties Online; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NL) Treaty Database; Switzerland Database of International Treaties; Irish Treaty Series
Australian Treaty Database
Israel MOFA Bilateral Agreements
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations Antigua, pp.762-764 in 1857, GB
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Monumental Inscriptions, from Jamaican Family Search Genealogical Research Library, scroll down for Antigua
Caribbean GenWeb Project, scroll down for Antigua
Society of Genealogists : West Indies, scroll down for Antigua
Third Report of the Commissioner of Inquiry into the Administration of Civil and Criminal Justice in the West Indies : Antigua. Montserrat. Nevis. St. Christopher and the Virgin Islands. General Conclusions. October 5th 1826, pp.1-284 in West Indies, Two Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry ... 1827, GB
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Antigua, Barbuda, Redonda, from EB 1911
Article Antigua, Barbuda, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Guadeloupe, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Antigua, pp.17-19 in W. Chapin, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Economic Antego or Antigua, p.568, Barbuda p.568, in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Tortola, the Saints, Barbuda, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica etc., p.362 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Geographical Antigua, pp.67-68, Barbuda pp.71-72 in The Present State of the West Indies, 1778, GB
British West Indies : Antigua, p.830 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
Antigua, pp.674-676 in vol.4 of J. Adolphus, The political state of the British Empire, 1818, GB
Antigua, pp.42-4, Barbuda pp.44-45 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Historical Of the Islands of St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Tobago, Barbuda and Anguilla, pp.590-591, Of the Islands of Antego, St. Christopher's, Nevis and Montserrat, pp.591- in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
St. Christopher, Nevis, Montserrat and Antigua, pp.506-511 in J.H. Wynne, A general history of the British empire in America, 1770, GB
La Barboude pp.84-85, L'Isle d'Antigoa, pp.85-90 in vol.22 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persans, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1771, in French, GB
Antigua, pp.252-255, Barbuda pp.283-285 in vol.4 of W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial, and philosophical view of the American United States and of the European Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1795, GB
St. Christopher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat and the Virgin Islands, pp.351-358 in W.F. Mavor, The history of the discovery and settlement: to the present time, of North and South America and the West Indies, 1804, GB
Antigua, pp.439-440 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Antigua, p.1190 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, 1866, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues D. MacKinnen, A tour through the British West Indies, in the years 1802 and 1803, 1804; pp.55-75 on Antigua
J. Sturge, Th. Harvey, The West Indies in 1837: Being the Journal of a Visit to Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica .. (1838), posted on Internet Archive
W. Young, A tour through the several islands of Barbadoes, St. Vincent, Antigua, Tobago, and Grenada, in the years 1791 & 1792 (1801) posted on Internet Archive
J.A. Thome, J.H. Kimball, Emancipation in the West Indies: A Six Months' Tour in Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica .. (1838), posted on Internet Archive
Antigua, pp.181-189 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
Residence Memoirs F.W.N. Bayley, Four years' residence in the West Indies, 1830, GB
H.N. Coleridge, Six Months' Residence in the West Indies in 1825, 3rd ed. 1832, GB
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Antigua and Barbuda National Archives, from ICA
Museums of Antigua and Barbuda
Museum Directory : Antigua and Barbuda, from Caribbean Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, posted by Antigua Nice
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the East Caribbean States, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Bahamas Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Antigua Stamps 1862-1908, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Antigua and Barbuda survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Article : Bibliography of Antigua and Barbuda, from Wikipedia
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Antigua entries
Annotated Bibliography for the English Speaking Caribbean (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (In order of importance.), from Florida Coastal School of Law
National Archives (UK) : Caribbean Histories Revealed : Bibliography
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On the Caribbean
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Bryan Edwards, The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies, Vol.1-5 (London 1819) NY : AMS Press 1966; Antigua Vol.1 pp.472-495
Hilary McD. Beckles, Th Hub of Empire : The Caribbean and Britain in the Seventeenth Century, pp.218-240, in : Nicholas Canny (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.I : TheOrigins of Empire, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries
Yearbooks Article West Indies, British, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1945, pp. 760-761, 1946, p. 823-824 [G]
Article Leeward Islands, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1947 p.455, 1948 p.437, 1949 pp.388-389, 1950, p.411, 1951, p.420, 1952, pp.420-421, 1953 pp.416-417, 1954 p.421, 1955 p.464, 1956 pp.401-402, 1957 pp.463-464, 1958 p.403 [G]
Article West Indies, The, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1959, pp.744-746, 1960, pp.744-746, 1961, pp.745-747, 1962, pp.734-736, pp.515-516 [G]
Article Colonies and Dependent Territories, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964, pp.265-268 ) [G]
Article Colonies and Other Dependencies : Leeward Islands, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965, p.253, 1966 p.204, 1967 p.218, 220-222 [G]
Article Colonies and Other Dependencies : Antigua, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1968 p.216 (on events in 1967) [G]
Article Dependent States : Antigua, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969, pp.273, 276-277, pp.277, 1971, pp. 266-267, 1972, pp.238-239, 243, 1973, pp.229-230, 234, 1974, pp.246-247, 251, 1975, pp.230-231, 1976, pp.247-248, 251, 1977, pp.246-248, 251, 1978, p.304, 1979, p.305, 1980, pp.300-301, 303, 305, 1981, pp.301, 303, 305-306 [G]
Article : Antigua, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 p.108, 2nd ed. 1978 p.108 [G]
Article West Indies - Leeward Islands : Antigua, in : Statesman's Year Book 1898 pp.227-234, 1901 pp.260-270, 1905 pp.290-300, 1910 p.268, 1919 pp.331-333, 1924 p.332, 1925 p.336, 1926 pp.335-336, 1928 p.334, 1929 p.339, 1932 p.341, 1937 pp.365-366, 1943 pp.284-285 [G]
Article : Leeward and Windward Islands : Antigua, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.167-168, 1975-1976 p.512 [G]
Article : West Indies : Antigua, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1978-1979 p.1592, 1980-1981 p.1597 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - Antigua, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.496-497, 1928 pp.451-452, 1930 pp.440-441, 1931 pp.441-442, 1932 pp.408-409, 1933 p.432, 1934 p.334, 1935 p.401, 1936 pp.403-404, 1937 p.408, 1943 p.426, 1944 pp.395-396, 1945 pp.427-428, 1946 pp.445-446, 1947 pp.408-409, 1957 p.453 [G]
Article : West Indies Federation - Leeward Islands - Antigua, in : Americana Annual 1962 pp.827-830, 1963 pp.736-738 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - Antigua, in : Americana Annual 1964 pp.388-389 [G]
Article : Antigua, in : The International Year Book 1899 p.39 [G]
Article Antigua & Barbuda, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1982, p.183, 1983 pp.176-177, 1984, p.175, 1985, pp.589, 627, 1986, pp.569, 623, 1988, pp.492, 543, 1989, pp.492, 543, 1990, pp.508, 559, 1993, pp.475, 551, 1994, pp.475, 551, 1995, pp.370, 551 [G]
Article : Antigua & Barbuda, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1983-1984 pp.87-88, 1984-1985 pp.87-88, 1985-1986 pp.85-87, 1987-1988 pp.85-87, 1988-1989 pp.85-87, 1989-1990 pp.87-89, 1990-1991 pp.87-89, 1991-1992 pp.88-90, 1992-1993 pp.90-92, 1993-1994 pp.94-96, 1994-1995 pp.93-95, 1995-1996 pp.85-87, 1996-1997 pp.89-91, 1997-1998 pp.93-95, 1998-1999 pp.116-118, 2000 pp.148-151, 2001 pp.149-152, 2002 pp.153-156, 2003 pp.155-158, 2004 pp.157-160, 2005 pp.153-156 [G]
Article : Antigua and Barbuda, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 pp.108-109 [G]
Entry : Antigua and Barbuda, Cabinet pp.5-6, Background Notes : Antigua and Barbuda, pp.227-230, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Antigua and Barbuda, pp.202-205 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Entry : Antigua and Barbuda, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.91-93 [G]