1945-1966 History of Mongolia since 1990

Mongolia 1966-1990

Administration . Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal continued to hold the position of PM until 1974, when he assumed the presidency (until 1984). Party purges had ended in 1964. From 1984 to 1990, the function of PM was held by Jambyn Batmönkh, a hardline Communist. He was forced out of office in 1990, and political transition toward a multiparty democracy began.

Foreign Relations . With the Cultural Revolution going on in the PR China (1966), Mongolia requested Soviet troops, which were (secretly) stationed in the country. Mongolia and the USSR signed a treaty of amity. Soviet-Chinese tension reached a climax with border shootouts in 1968; the situation along Mongolia's border with China remained peaceful.
In 1972 Mongolia and Japan established diplomatic relations. In 1979 the Dalai Lama visited Mongolia.
The PR China repeatedly demanded the withdrawal of Soviet troops, while the Mongolian government accused China of planning the annexation of Mongolia. In 1986 the Soviet-Chinese Detente began; Soviet troops were withdrawn from Mongolia. In 1990, other political parties than the MPRP were legalized.
In 1974 Mongolia established diplomatic relations with Canada, in 1987, with the USA.

The Economy . The USSR was by far Mongolia's most important trade partner (80 %), with a further 15 % held by other COMECON states. In the 1960es new industrial centers were built, with COMECON providing technology transfer. As a result of central planning, agricultural production (crops) and industrial production expanded, while animal husbandry stagnated (the better pasture often being converted into farmland). Roads were improved.
For Mongolia 1966-1990 the numbers of horses stagnated around 2 million, those of cattle rose from 2 million to 2.6 million, those of sheep stagnated at 13-14 million, of goats at around 4.5 million (IHS p.300). Wheat production rose from 227,000 metric tons in 1966 to 467,000 metric tons in 1990, peaking at 689,000 metric tons in 1985 (IHS p.200).
Mongolia's oil production ceased in 1969; from then onward the country imported oil from Siberia (USSR). The Oil Crisis of 1973 did hit Mongolia, as it had increasingly become dependent on trucks and buses for transportation. The USSR did supply oil for bargain prices, but in limited amounts.
The collapse of Communism in Eastern Central Europe in 1989 and the transition in the USSR (1985-1991) greatly affected the Mongolian economy. In 1986 a reform was passed which provided collectives and individuals with more freedom regarding economic decisionmaking.

Cultural History . TV broadcasting began in 1967. In 1981 a Mongolian cosmonaut participated in a Soviet space flight. Mongolian athletes competed in the Summer Olympics in Mexico City in 1968, in Munich in 1972, in Montreal in 1976, in Moscow in 1980 and in Seoul in 1988; Mongolia boycotted the Summer Olympics at Los Angeles in 1984.

Timetable History of Mongolia, from BBC News
Article Mongolia at the 1976 Summer Olympics, Mongolia at the 1972 Summer Olympics, Mongolia at the 1980 Summer Olympics, Mongolia at the 1988 Summer Olympics, History of Mongolia : Cold War Politics 1945-1985, Economy of Mongolia, Economy of the Mongolian People's Republic, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Jambyn Batmönkh, from Wikipedia
Mongolia's Black Gold Lacks Investment, from ADVFN, has history of Mongolia's oil industry
REFERENCE Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Mongolia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1967 p.560, 1968 pp.560-561, 1969 pp.538-539, 1970 p.550, 1971 pp.532-533, 1972 p.491, 1973 p.481, 1974 pp.485-486, 1975 p.495, 1976 p.518, 1977 pp.518-519, 1978 pp.549-550, 1979 p.538, 1980 p.538, 1981 pp.540-541, 1982 p.541, 1983 p.534, 1984 pp.534-535, 1985 pp.506, 741, 1986 pp.501, 739, 1987 pp.470, 708, 1988 pp.428, 660, 1989 pp.428, 661, 1990 pp.445, 676, 1991 pp.427-428, 661, 1992 pp.399-400, 661 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1152-1154, 1975-1976 pp.1155-1158, 1976-1977 pp.1155-1158, 1978-1979 pp.853-857, 1979-1980 pp.857-861, 1980-1981 pp.862-866, 1981-1982 pp.866-870, 1983-1984 pp.858-862, 1984-1985 pp.857-861, 1985-1986 pp.858-862, 1987-1988 pp.861-865, 1988-1989 pp.863-867, 1989-1990 pp.871-875, 1990-1991 pp.872-876, 1991-1992 pp.874-878 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.188-189, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.188-189, 4th ed. 1984 pp.188-189 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Americana Annual 1967 pp.459-460, 1968 pp.456-457, 1969 pp.466-467, 1970 pp.467-468, 1971 pp.473-474, 1972 pp.473-474, 1973 pp.475-476, 1974 p.402 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.346-350 (Robert A. Rupen), 1980 pp.282-285 (R.A.R.) [G]

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First posted on June 7th 2002, last revised on May 29th 2007

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